Hydro Turbines Bulb

download Hydro Turbines Bulb

of 12

  • date post

  • Category


  • view

  • download


Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Hydro Turbines Bulb

BULB UNITS The compleTe soluTion for low heads


model scale bulb runner

Alstom bulb unitsAlstom Hydro is the number one global provider of clean power solutions accounting for around 25% of the worlds installed hydro base and offers the worlds most comprehensive range of hydropower generation facilities and equipment. it is not surprising then that alstom bulb units provide the most efficient solution when faced with very low and low heads up to 30m. Bulb units have now virtually replaced Kaplan turbines for low head situations.

for BeST performANceThe name bulb comes from the shape of the upstream watertight casing which contains a generator located on a horizontal axis. units are submerged in the water passage and, as the turbines are usually double regulated, are able to handle significant discharge variations. The straight water passage in the draft tube improves the hydraulic behaviour of the unit, and also results in a low submergence. This, in turn, allows for a reduction in size, cost and civil works requirements of up to 25%. There are hundreds of alstom bulb units now in operation around the world with more than 35 large units commissioned in china alone during the last ten years. The company has been an ardent pioneer in the development of bulb units introducing many outstanding innovations in size, design and operational efficiency and will continue the research and development programme to extend the application range. Both standardised and customised solutions are offered. Specific technologies have been developed to adapt to customers needs and site surroundings such as the use of mobile or fixed guide vanes and runner blades, shaft lines on 2 or 3 bearings, and pit turbine technology with a speed increaser.

Alstom has gained outstanding knowledge and experience in design, manufacturing, installation, commissioning and management of complex bulb projects in a vast range of environmental conditions, making Alstom bulb units without doubt the worlds most reliable solution.

alstom bulb units application range


Customer value-drivenGeneral design of a bulb unit

GLoBAL opTImISATIoNcoNSTANT r&D To meeT eNvIroNmeNTAL coNcerNSAlstom is also committed to helping customers balance commercial objectives with environmental and social responsibilities. increasing environmental concerns are taken into account resulting in fish-friendly turbines. in bulb turbines fewer but longer blades decrease the fish mortality, while maintaining efficiency levels. an alstom bulb unit delivers maximum customer value and return on investment. equipment investigation and design is carried out by experienced interdisciplinary teams as part of the total system optimisation. alstoms global geographical coverage and the largest installed base allow the feedback of experience to be taken into account for each new project, whilst its local presence guarantees a perfect understanding of regional variations. Thanks to a global r&d organisation, the main design parameters are defined by hydraulic, mechanical and electrical engineers working in close collaboration. This leads to improved results for the bulb outer dimension by considering and evaluating factors such as productivity, global efficiency, civil work, investment and reliability of the powergenerating unit. The system comprises three major parts: Centralog provides the operator control interface and control room environment with high availability and high performances Controbloc automation cells execute the control and protection functions of the machines and connect to the process. The use of fieldbuses allows geographical distribution of the equipment Controcad provides a set of advanced engineering tools both for the design office and the on-site high quality documentation alspa p320 provides many features and benefits for the plant owner and operator including: Hi-tech technologies: object oriented engineering, internet, fieldbus Intuitive, user friendly operator interface Modular design concept Adaptable multifunction controllers Distributed control architecture Open system architecture based on international standards High performance, communication networks Integrated comprehensive Plant Management system (integration of alstom expert software) Hydroprocess centralised plant and dam management software are embedded in the central supervision system, providing a set of functions managing the active and reactive power production of the power plant as well as the dam and the reservoir water level.

oil-free operations that prevent the pollution of rivers have also been developed, resulting for example in runners lubricated by water in many bulb units.


in the field of power generation, alstom is the plant integrator specialist, combining skills in component design, auxiliary systems, construction and plant optimisation. alstoms answer to the markets growing need for turnkey solutions is a unique combination of in-house core components and customised plant solutions based on the integration of complementary packages.

the ability to offer the worlds broadest scope of power generation equipment and systems enables Alstom to deliver complete optimised solutions, from turbines and generators to control systems and balance of plant, including a full turnkey service.The alstom product range covers complete electromechanical and hydro-mechanical equipment for new hydropower plants, as well as for the rehabilitation of existing plants.

this original combination creates more value for customers than the simple addition of individual packages by optimising: Investmentcosts Leadtimes Performanceandavailability Retrofitsolutions Plantlifecycle

alstom has a proven worldwide experience in control systems for the power industry. over 500 thermal, hydraulic and nuclear units have been equipped in 25 years. Taking advantage of its in-depth knowledge of the hydro power plant processes, alstom has developed a comprehensive control and instrumentation system, providing modern operating control for hydro power plants.


Alstoms engineering depar tment has acquired a vast experience in control and instrumentation systems for all kinds of hydro power plants. its expertise in providing tailor made solutions guarantees optimal plant control implementation.

nina power station (china)

Alstoms automation product, commonly knownasAL SPAP320system,isthe most suitable system to control and monitor Alstom hydro power plant.


HYDrAULIc DeSIGNstate-of-the-art facilities and tools for optimised designs

Downstream velocity field

Alstom has developed advanced technology to optimise all hydraulic parameters. This ensures that turbine designs perfectly match the targeted characteristics of a given project, while taking into account any necessary constraints. during the hydraulic design phase, unit p er f or mance s ar e pr e dic t e d t hr ough theoretical investigation and experimental developments. Each component of the turbine is finely tuned, from intake, stay vanes and distributor, to runner and draft tube. alstoms objective is to optimise efficiencies, minimise dimensions and reduce downstream head losses.

THeoreTIcAL INveSTIGATIoN AND ScIeNTIfIc cALcULATIoNSAlstom has developed many software codes to perfect shape design, from classical ones tothosebasedonfull3Dsurfacegeneration using global optimisation algorithms. these permit the exploration of new design families andallowthebestshapestobeverifiedona test rig.during the design process, deep numerical investigations using the latest cfd codes (computation fluid dynamics) are carried out. These simulate the flow in the turbine over the whole of the expected operating range and help to determine the best adapted turbine shape. They allow the accurate determination of all hydraulic parameters, such as load analysis, efficiency and cavitation behaviour.

Turbine pressure field


dedicated bulb test rig


Once a design has been defined theoretically, its performance is validated by model tests in an alstom Global Technology centre. Two recent test rigs, one of which has been in operation since 2003, are used for bulb turbines, with up-to-date calibration tools and automated acquisition systems. T hese advanced facilities permit ver y accurate measurements that are also a key tool for performance improvement and act as a further complete check of turbine behaviour, including efficiency, output, cavitation, runaway and torque on blades. once all the investigations are completed, the full scale turbine is manufactured and tested on site if required. it is due to this continuous process of research, design and testing that alstom remains the world leader in innovative bulb unit technology.

GoverNING systemAlstom has more than 100 years of experience in the expert analysis and production of speed governing products. The speed governor is the brain of hydraulic turbines. It fulfils all the requirements and needs of hydraulic turbine applications. These systems fulfil various functions: Speed governing in isolated or interconnected networks Fast unit start and speed stability control under no-load operating conditions Automatic unit/network synchronisation through runner blades, guide vanes or downstream gate control Flow or load regulation Efficiency optimisation with respect to head and load Autonomous sluicing operation at variable or steady flows Blade/guide vane cam relationship neYrpic T.slG (Turbine speed load Governor) is the latest product developed by alstom. it is interfaced with an automated system to ensure flexibility of use. designed to operate in the most extreme environments, the main benefits are its high