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  • Hybrid Shuttle Bus Testing and Demonstration:

    ARBOC “Spirit of Mobility”

    September 3, 2014

    Prepared by:

    Andrew Papson

    Ted Bloch-Rubin

    Jasna Tomić

    CALSTART, Inc.

    48 S. Chester Ave

    Pasadena, CA

  • Disclaimer

    This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

  • Hybrid Shuttle Bus Testing and Demonstration: ARBOC “Spirit of Mobility”

    CALSTART 1 September 3, 2014

    CONTENTS

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .......................................................................................................................4

    1. INTRODUCTION ..........................................................................................................................8

    1.1 Project Overview ........................................................................................................................... 8

    1.2 Project Team ............................................................................................................................... 10

    2. DESCRIPTION OF VEHICLES AND ROUTES ................................................................................... 11

    2.1 Vehicle Selection ......................................................................................................................... 11

    2.2 Examination of System Functionality .......................................................................................... 13

    2.3 Route Selection ........................................................................................................................... 15

    2.4 Route Scheduling ........................................................................................................................ 15

    2.5 Service and Maintenance ............................................................................................................ 16

    3. SIX-MONTH DEMONSTRATION: FUEL ECONOMY, ROUTE COMPARISON, AND DRIVER TRENDS ... 17

    3.1 Methodology ............................................................................................................................... 17

    3.2 Summary of Data Collected ........................................................................................................ 21

    3.3 Fuel Economy Findings ................................................................................................................ 22

    3.4 CO2 Analysis ................................................................................................................................ 23

    3.5 Analysis of Vehicle Speeds .......................................................................................................... 24

    3.6 Analysis of Idling Time ................................................................................................................ 24

    4. TWO-DAY TEST: FUEL ECONOMY AND EMISSIONS MEASUREMENTS ......................................... 27

    4.1 Test Program ............................................................................................................................... 27

    4.2 Measurement Equipment ........................................................................................................... 27

    4.3 Fuel Economy Results ................................................................................................................. 29

    4.4 Emission Results .......................................................................................................................... 32

    5. MAINTENANCE AND RELIABILITY FINDINGS ............................................................................... 35

    5.1 Methodology ............................................................................................................................... 35

    5.2 Total Maintenance Costs ............................................................................................................ 35

    5.3 Vehicle System Maintenance Costs ............................................................................................ 36

    5.4 Unplanned Hybrid System Service Issues ................................................................................... 38

    5.5 Vehicle Uptime ............................................................................................................................ 38

    5.6 Hybrid System Upgrades and Warranty Extension ..................................................................... 39

    6. DRIVER AND MANAGER FEEDBACK ........................................................................................... 41

  • Hybrid Shuttle Bus Testing and Demonstration: ARBOC “Spirit of Mobility”

    CALSTART 2 September 3, 2014

    6.1 Driver Survey Results .................................................................................................................. 41

    6.2 Maintenance Manager Interviews .............................................................................................. 45

    6.3 Fleet Manager Interviews ........................................................................................................... 46

    6.4 Lessons Learned .......................................................................................................................... 47

    7. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION ................................................................................................... 48

    APPENDICES .................................................................................................................................... 49

    Appendix A: Fuel Calculation Methodology ........................................................................................... 49

    Appendix B: Fuel Log ............................................................................................................................... 49

    Appendix C: Driver Shift Log ................................................................................................................... 49

    Appendix D: PEMS Report ....................................................................................................................... 49

    Appendix E: RAVEM System Detail ......................................................................................................... 49

    Appendix F: Driver Survey ....................................................................................................................... 49

    Appendix G: Maintenance Manager Questionnaire ............................................................................... 49

    Appendix H: Fleet Manager Questionnaire ............................................................................................ 49

  • Hybrid Shuttle Bus Testing and Demonstration: ARBOC “Spirit of Mobility”

    CALSTART 3 September 3, 2014

    LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES

    Table ES-1: Fuel and Carbon Dioxide Savings from the Hybrid During the 6-mo Demonstration ................ 4

    Table ES-2: Fuel Economy Results From Fuel Economy and Emissions Test ................................................ 5

    Table ES- 3: Criteria Pollutant Emissionsa (g/mi) .......................................................................................... 5

    Table ES-4: Driver Survey Scores at End of Demonstration .......................................................................... 7

    Table 3-1: Relevant Vehicle Parameters from Data Loggers ...................................................................... 18

    Table 3-2: Relevant Parameters from Manual Fuel Log ............................................................................. 19

    Table 3-3: Relevant Parameters from Driver Shift Log ............................................................................... 20

    Table 3-4: Summary of Data Collected for Each Bus and Route ................................................................. 21

    Table 3-5: Performance Characteristics of Routes A and B ........................................................................ 22

    Table 3-6: Six Month Fuel Economy of Hybrid and Baseline Vehicles ....................................................... 22

    Table 3-7: Fuel and Carbon Dioxide Savings from the Hybrid During the 6-mo Demonstration ............... 23

    Table 3-8: Vehicle Speed Breakdown, 6-Mo Demonstration..................................................................... 24

    Table 3-9: Frequency and Duration of Idle Events .................................................................