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  • HVAC Regulations, Refrigerants

    and Solutions

    E360 Forum • Chicago, IL • October 5

    David Hules

    Director of Commercial Marketing — Air Conditioning Emerson

  • This presentation is intended to highlight changing developments in the law and industry topics. The law is frequently evolving and information and publications in this presentation may not reflect the latest changes in the law or legal interpretations. The statements and information provided in this presentation should not be construed as legal advice or legal opinion regarding any specific facts or circumstances, but is intended for general informational purposes only. The views and statements expressed during this presentation are the personal opinions of the presenter and do not represent those of Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc. or its affiliated companies. You should consult an attorney about your situation and specific facts and you should not act on any of the information in this presentation as the information may not be applicable to your situation. Although all statements and information contained herein are believed to be accurate and reliable, they are presented without warranty of any kind. Information provided herein does not relieve the user from the responsibility of carrying out its own tests and experiments. Statements or suggestions concerning the use of materials and processes are made without representation or warranty that any such use is free of patent infringement and are not recommendations to infringe on any patents. This presentation may not be copied or redistributed without the express written consent of Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc.

    Disclaimer

    2

  • Agenda

    3

    1

    2

    3

    Commercial heating and air conditioning trends

    Regulations and future refrigerants landscape

    What it means for you, and technologies to watch

  • 5.5M Commercial Buildings in the U.S. and Key

    HVAC Statistics Driving Three Megatrends

    4.4 MILLION

    BUILDINGS WITH AC

    1.6 MILLION

    NEW AC UNITS/YEAR

    10 MILLION

    RTU INSTALLED BASE

  • Megatrends and Industry Response to Drive More Efficient Buildings

    Trend Industry Response

    Building automation/

    connectivity

    Energy efficiency

    Comfort and air quality

    • Modulation technologies

    – Compression and controls

    • Low-GWP refrigerants

    – A2L compression

    – Next-gen compression

    • Air management

    – Latent vs. sensible

    – Indoor air quality (IAQ)

    • Efficiency retrofits

    – Equipment controls/monitoring

    5

  • Most efficient components

    Most efficient buildings

    Most efficient systems

    • Enable green buildings (LEED, net zero)

    • Whole-building efficiency targets

    • Ventilation and air quality

    • Commissioning and monitoring for buildings

    • Coordination of building subsystems

    Holistic Building Solutions Deliver on the Promise of Most Efficient Buildings

    6

  • Agenda

    1

    2

    3

    Commercial heating and air conditioning trends

    Regulations and future refrigerants landscape

    What it means for you, and technologies to watch

    7

  • DOE Efficiency Standards for Commercial AC Packaged/Split Systems

    On 1/1/2018, the DOE Will Adopt the 90.1-2013 IEER Levels Nationally.

    Note: ASHRAE 90.1 also has an EER component not shown here.

    Note: Electric resistance values, subtract 0.2 EER/IEER for all other equipment. https://www.energycodes.gov/status-state-energy-code-adoption

    Status of State Energy Code Adoption

    8

    https://www.energycodes.gov/status-state-energy-code-adoption

  • Emphasis on Air Quality Driving Demand for DOAS Architecture in Buildings

    • State adoption of ASHRAE 62.1 – 2004 (and newer versions) is high –Specifies minimum ventilation rates and other measures intended to

    provide IAQ that is acceptable to occupants

    –44 states have adopted through the international mechanical code (IMC)

    • Design engineers adopting DOAS building architecture over VAV –Multiple space equation (ASHRAE 62.1) in VAV systems leads to

    20 to 70% more outside air than DOAS

    • Poor damper control on air handlers

    • VAV box minimum settings must be high to meet standard

    • Provides first cost and annual savings –DOAS architectures reduce equipment size and provide up to 25%

    annual operating cost savings Source: www.doas.psu.edu

    Ventilation Standards Impacting Building Designs

    9

    http://www.doas.psu.edu/

  • Example of How DOAS Unit Application Can Benefit End Users

    Commercial Rooftop Current Architecture

    • Major retail chains are replacing a portion (~⅓) of their HVAC systems with higher-efficiency DOAS systems

    • Conventional HVAC systems focus on sensible load

    • Dedicated DOAS systems to handle fresh air requirement and latent load (moisture removal)

    • Overall energy savings to end users provide for increased value between DOAS and conventional units

    Before: 10 Rooftop Units

    10 Tons Each

    100 Tons Total

    After: 3–10 Tons New DOAS

    7– ~7 Tons Old Units

    79 Tons Total

    DOAS Units

    Smaller or Fewer RTUs

    DOAS-Based Commercial Rooftop New Architecture

    10

  • 2023 Will Introduce 0.5 to 1.0 SEER Increase Under the Current

    Metrics for 2–5T Commercial Packaged and Split Equipment

    11

    • 2023 standard, as per current metrics

    • 2023 standard with new metrics (updating to better reflect actual field conditions)

    Product Class National Southeast Southwest

    SEER HSPF SEER SEER EER

    Split AC < 45 kBTU/Hr 14 15 15 12.2/10.2*

    Split AC >= 45 kBTU/Hr 14 14.5 14.5 11.7/10.2*

    Split HP 15 8.8

    Single Packaged AC and HP 14 8.0

    Product Class National Southeast Southwest

    SEER2 HSPF2 SEER2 SEER2 EER2

    Split AC < 45 kBTU/Hr 13.4 14.3 14.3 11.7/9.8*

    Split AC >= 45 kBTU/Hr 13.4 13.8 13.8 11.2/9.8*

    Split HP 14.3 7.5

    Single Packaged AC and HP 13.4 6.7

    *10.2 EER Limit for Equipment >= 16 SEER

    * 9.8 EER Limit for Equipment >= 16 SEER

  • Kigali Amendment to Montreal Protocol Drives Continued Activity on Low

    Global Warming Potential (GWP), Mildly Flammable (A2L) Refrigerants

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    120

    2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050

    G W

    P W

    e ig

    h te

    d C

    A P

    ( %

    o f B

    a s e

    lin e

    )

    Developed

    countries

    (U.S., Canada, etc.)

    Developing countries

    (India, China, etc.) ‘17 ‘18 ‘19 ‘20 ‘21 ‘22 ‘23 ‘24

    A2L —

    IEC/UL/ASHRAE

    A2L into bldg. codes

    Bldg. codes adoption

    by states

    DOE residential SEER

    std.

    DOE commercial RTUs

    IEER std. EL1 EL3

    EPA delist in chillers

    • Global agreement reached by 197 countries in Kigali, Rwanda, in Oct. 2016

    • EPA will ban the use of R-410A in AC chillers in 2024

    • More actions expected to comply with global agreement

    • The U.S. has not ratified

    OEM A2L

    design start

    RTU launches

    2024

    freeze 2028

    freeze

    Interim phase 1

    Long-term phase 2

    12

    http://multimedia.3m.com/mws/media/1365924O/unep-fact-sheet-kigali-amendment-to-mp.pdf

    http://multimedia.3m.com/mws/media/1365924O/unep-fact-sheet-kigali-amendment-to-mp.pdf

  • R-410A

    Like

    R-407/

    R-22 Like

    R-134a

    Like

    GWP Level

    400–675

    < 1,500

    ~600

    150–300

    HFO 1234yf

    R-410A

    R-22

    R-407C

    0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000

    Pressure

    R-32/HFC/HFO

    Blends

    R-32, R-452B,

    HFO blends

    HFC/HFO

    Blends R-134a

    CO2

    R-290

    NH3

    A1 – Non Flammable

    A2L – Mildly Flammable

    A3 – Flammable

    B2L – Toxic, Mildly Flam.

    R-123 Like HFO 1234ze

    HFO

    Blends

    Large

    chillers

    (R-1234ze)

    Unitary

    systems

  • Key Activities Impacting Low-GWP Refrigerant Regulations

    and Timing for HVAC in the U.S.

    • HFC Phase-down Timing Is Uncertain – August 2017  EPA’s SNAP Rule 20 delisting of certain HFCs vacated (by U.S. Court of

    Appeals for the DC Circuit)

    – Rule remanded (sent back) to EPA for further proceedings

    – AHRI and other HVACR industry partners continue to support and advocate for ratification of the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol and the phase-down of HFCs

    • Key Safety Standards Under Revision for A2L Refrigerants

    – ASHRAE 15, UL1995 and UL60335-2-40

    • Ongoing A2L Research  Six studies ongoing; two complete

    – AHRTI-9007: Benchmarking Risk by Real Life Leaks and Ignitions Testing

    – AHRTI-9009: Leak Detection of A2L Refrigerants in HVACR Equipment

    14

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    Agenda

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    2

    3

    Commercial heating and air co