Human settlemnet of delhi

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Transcript of Human settlemnet of delhi

  • 1. PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN SETTLEMENT SUBMITTED BY: GAZZALA PERWEEN
  • 2. Delhi stands with the oldest cities of the world like Rome and Istanbul. Delhi was even called the Rome of the East or Rome of Asia. Delhi can claim a hoary antiquity as a settlement. The discovery of Harappan pottery at Mandaoli, a site on the eastern side of Yamuna on its old course near Nandnagri, suggests the existence of rural habitation in this area around the middle of the 2nd millennium BC. The GT Road that connected central Asia to Dhaka and a feeder road, the Qutab Road connecting GT Road and Mehrauli and passing along the New Delhi railway station have been in use for nearly 1,000 years. The National Highway 8 has existed since the late Harappan age while a village, Mandoli, now an e-waste disposal on the outskirts of Delhi and a settlement, has turned out to be a Harappan archaeological site. Traditionally, however, Delhis past is linked with the Mahabharata legend of the foundation of Indraprastha, the site of present Purana Qila. In the Rajput Period, the Tomars ruled the present Haryana region from their capital Dhillika. It is also believed that the Tomars founded Delhi in 736 AD. Then the Chauhans took over from them and they ruled till 1192 AD, when Prithviraj Chauhan, also known as Rai Pithora the last Chauhan king was defeated by Muhammad Ghori. He left his representative Qutb-ud-din Aibak to rule this city. For the next almost 600 years, Delhi was ruled by Muslim kings. In 1788, the Marathas took over this city by defeating the Mughliya Sultanat. Nine-Eleven played a very important role in the history of Delhi too; here, referring to the 9/11 of 1803. On 11th September 1803, upon the request of Mughal king Shah Alam, the British defeated Marathas in the battle of Patparganj, present Mayur Vihar, and entered the city for the first time.
  • 3. The British army camped near Red Fort and later Daryaganj became a cantonment. The cantonment was later shifted to Rajpur Chhawani. When the British turned masters of the city, a large tract of the territory west of river Yamuna, including Delhi, was seized, and the Mughal emperor was assigned a tract of land known as Delhi territory. During the 1857 uprising, the British were challenged and Bahadur Shah Zafar took over the command of the city.The British government took over the rule of Delhi. Delhi became a provincial town of Frontier Province. Later it was transferred to the newly formed Punjab under a lieutenant governor. Calcutta remained the capital of the country. When the capital shifted to Delhi, it was a city of a two and half lakhs; in ten decades it has become an urban conglomerate of more then 200 lakh. During this period, the administrative system of Delhi saw many changes but the city was not well managed, as it should have been. It used to be a city of a few miles but now it is spread over 1486 square kilometers. A municipality was established to provide civil services in an organised manner; now its municipal corporation is decentralised into smaller corporations so it is more manageable. Prior to 1931, that is before the inauguration of New Delhi, the city developed in the northern and western parts of the walled city, but urban growth south of Shahjahanabad started with the foundation of New Delhi.
  • 4. HISTORY
  • 5. DELHI Delhi is a city that bridges two different worlds. Old Delhi, once the capital of Islamic India, is a web of narrow lanes lined with crumbling havelis and mosques. In contrast, the imperial city of New Delhi created by the British Raj is composed of spacious, tree-lined avenues and imposing government buildings. Delhi has been the seat of power for several rulers and many empires for about millennium. Many a times the city was built, destroyed and then rebuilt. A number of Delhi's rulers played a dual role, first as destroyers and then as creators. Delhi has been the political hub of India. Every political activity in the country traces its roots here. The Pandavas of the Mahabharata had their capital at Indraprastha, which is believed to have been geographically located in today's Delhi.
  • 6. GEOGRAPHY Delhi is second-largest metropolis city and Capital of India. It is the third largest city. Delhi is main starting point for North India. It is surrounded on three sides by Haryana and to the east, across the riverYamuna by Uttar Pradesh. Delhi has an area of 1483 sq. kms. Its maximum length is 51.90 kms and greatest width is 48.48 kms The Yamuna river and terminal part of the Aravali hills range are the two main geographical features of the city. These area of the citys lungs and help maintain its environment. The Yamuna River is Delhis main source of drinking . Delhi experiences extreme summers and winters.
  • 7. Evolution of Delhi Seven principal cities were chiefly created by different rulers-some of them are no more than villages today with splendid ruins while others have absorbed with the hightech skyline. Seven Cities Of Delhi are : 1. Qila Rai Pithora 2. Mehrauli 3. Siri 4.Tughlakabad 5.Ferozabad 6. Shergarh 7. Shahjahanabad
  • 8. QILA RAI PITHORA The capital of Prithviraj Chauhan,Qila Rai Pithora, was the Delhi built-in the 12th century. It is said that his ancestors had won the city from the Tomar Rajputs, who are credited with forming Delhi.Anangpal, a Tomar ruler, created the first known regular fort here and called it Lal Kot. Prithviraj Chauhan extended the city beyond the fort. The ruins are still visible around Qutub Minar andMehrauli.
  • 9. MEHRAULI In 1192, Muhammad Ghori defeated Prithviraj Chauhan . In 1206, when Ghori was assassinated, Aibak declared himself the ruler of Delhi and the Slave Dynasty was started. This was also the beginning of the Delhi Sultanate.Mehrauli came into being and Qutub-uddin made Delhi into an architectural wonder. One of these was the tower of victory -the 72.5 m tall Qutab Minar The Slave Dynasty ruled until 1290.One of the prominent rulers was Razia Sultan, the first woman Emperor of India.
  • 10. SIRI The Khilji (or Khalji) rulers followed the Slave Dynasty. The most prominent among the six rulers was Alauddin Khilji, who extended his kingdom to the south of Narmada and also established the city of Siri. Among some of the remaining ruins is part of the Siri Fort in the greater Hauz Khas area. The madrasa at Hauz Khas was constructed during Alauddin'sreign and bears the stamp of West Asian architecture.
  • 11. TUGHLAKABAD In 1330, Ghias-ud-din Tughlaq established the Tughlaq dynasty and set out to rebuild a Delhi of his own. His dream was to build an invincible fort to keep away the Mongols. Thus he founded the city of Tughlakabad, the ruins of which still remain. His descendant Muhammad bin Tughlaq later formed Jahanpanah. Lying in the area between Siri and Qila Rai Pithora, this was the fourth medieval city of Delhi built in AD 1326-27.
  • 12. FEROZABAD Feroz Shah Tughlaq (1351-1388 AD)created the next city of Firozabad, or FerozShah Kotla. It was a well-planned city with palaces, mosques, pillared halls, and multi-floored water tanks. Feroz Shah also transplanted the Ashokan Pillar,, from Meerut to the top of his palace. The Sayyid and Lodi dynasties that followed the Tughlaq dynasty were far more concerned with restoring stability than patronization of arts or architecture. Tombs erected in the honour of the rulers are the tombs at the Lodi Garden
  • 13. SHERGARH The Purana Qila today, was the creation of Sher Shah when he wrested Delhi from Humayunin 1540,the second Mughal king. It was originally being built by Humayun as his capital Dinpanah. Sher Shah razed Dinpanah to the ground and started building his own capital introducing ornate elements in architecture. Delhi was won back by Humayun in1555 and he completed parts of the Purana Qila left unfinished by Sher Shah.
  • 14. Shahjahanabad/OldDelhi (Seventh planned city of Delhi) The Mughal emperors shifted their base from Delhi to Agra. Shahjahanabad was the city with the colossal Red Fort and its14 gates. The fort still stands along with the historic architecture of the Jama Masjid and Chandni Chowk
  • 15. The old city was surrounded by a wall enclosing approximately 1500acres, with several gates, comprising: Nigambodh Gate- North/East, leading to historic Nigambodh ghat onYamua River. Kashmiri Gate-North Mori Gate- North Kabuli gate-West Lahori gate-West Ajmeri Gate-South East, leading to Ghaziuddin Khan`s Madrassa and Connaught Place ; a concentring point in New Delhi. Turkman Gate-South East, nearby some pre-Shah jahan remains, which got enclosed within the walls, incorporating the tomb of Hazr