Human Physiology (SKELETON SYSTEM) They are the axial skeletal bones and appendicular skeletal...

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Transcript of Human Physiology (SKELETON SYSTEM) They are the axial skeletal bones and appendicular skeletal...

  • Human Physiology (SKELETON SYSTEM)

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    The skeleton is composed of fibrous and mineralized connective tissues that

    give it firmness and flexibility. It consists of bone, cartilage, tendons, joints, and


    Bone - a type of mineralized connective tissue that contains collagen and

    calcium phosphate, a mineral crystal. Calcium phosphate gives bone its

    firmness. Bone tissue may be compact or spongy. Bones provide support and

    protection for body organs.

    Cartilage - a form of fibrous connective tissue that is composed of closely

    packed collagenous fibers in a rubbery gelatinous substance called chondrin.

    Cartilage provides flexible support for certain structures in adult humans

    including the nose, trachea, and ears.

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  • Tendon - a fibrous band of connective tissue

    that is bonded to bone and connects bone to


    Ligament - a fibrous band of connective tissue

    that joins bones and other connective tissues

    together at joints.

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    Tendon Ligament

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    Type of joints

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    Fibrous Joints: Fibrous joints are held together by strong connective tissue with only a slight capacity to stretch. This tough connection allows very little movement between the joined bones, thus providing great stability. Fibrous joints are found in the skull, which is made up of several bone plates held tightly together to protect the fragile brain. A dense band of tissue connects the radius and ulna bones in the lower arm forming a fibrous joint that keeps these bones stable as the forearm rotates. The lower leg bones, called the tibia and fibula, are also joined by a fibrous joint that limits movement between these bones. Fibrous joints also hold the teeth firmly within their sockets in the jaw bones

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    Cartilaginous Joints Cartilaginous joints allow for slight movement and occur where bone ends are covered by a somewhat flexible, compressible connective tissue called cartilage. Some cartilaginous joints are temporary, such as those present during the growth of the long bones of the arms and legs in children. Other cartilaginous joints allow limited flexibility and provide shock absorption. These joints are found where the ribs attach to the breastbone and between some of the pelvic bones. They also occur between the bones of the spine, where they provide strength, flexibility and cushioning.

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    Synovial joints allow the greatest degree of movement due to their structure. These joints consist of a capsule of connective tissue that encloses a space or cavity between the bones. The cavity contains fluid that lubricates the joint and reduces friction. Most joints of the body are synovial joints, which are found in the elbow, shoulder, knee, wrist, hand, ankle and foot. There are several different types of synovial joints that are classified by their shape and the range of movement they allow

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    Bones are a major component of the skeletal

    system. Bones that comprise the human skeleton

    are divided into two groups. They are the axial

    skeletal bones and appendicular skeletal bones. An

    adult human skeleton contains 206 bones, 80 of

    which are from the axial skeleton and 126 from the

    appendicular skeleton.

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  • Axial Skeleton

    The axial skeleton includes bones that run along the medial

    sagittal plane of the body. Imagine a vertical plane that runs

    through your body from front to back and divides the body

    into equal right and left regions. This is the medial sagittal

    plane. The axial skeleton forms a central axis that includes

    bones of the skull, hyoid, vertebral column, and thoracic

    cage. The axial skeleton protects numerous vital organs and

    soft tissues of the body. The skull provides protection for the

    brain, the vertebral column protects the spinal cord, and the

    thoracic cage protects the heart and lungs.

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  • Axial Skeleton Components

    Skull - includes bones of the cranium, face, and

    ears (auditory ossicles).

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    Hyoid - U-shaped bone or complex of bones

    located in the neck between the chin and larynx.

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    Thoracic Cage - includes ribs and sternum (breast


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    Vertebral Column - includes spinal vertebrae

  • Appendicular Skeleton The appendicular skeleton is comprised of body limbs

    and structures that attach limbs to the axial skeleton.

    Bones of the upper and lower limbs, pectoral girdles, and

    pelvic girdle are components of this skeleton. Although

    the primary function of the appendicular skeleton is for

    bodily movement, it also provides protection for organs

    of the digestive system, excretory system, and

    reproductive system.

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    Appendicular Skeleton Components

    Pectoral Girdle - includes shoulder bones (clavicle and


    Upper Limbs - includes bones of the arms and hands.

    Pelvic Girdle - includes hip bones.

    Lower Limbs - includes bones of the legs and feet.

  • Skeletal Bones

    Bones are a type of mineralized

    connective tissue containing collagen

    and calcium phosphate. As a

    component of the skeletal system, a

    major function of bone is to assist in

    movement. Bones work in concert with

    tendons, joints, ligaments and skeletal

    muscles to produce various

    movements. Nutrients are provided to

    bone through blood vessels that are

    contained within canals in bone.


    Bones provide several important functions

    in the body. Some major functions


    Structure - Bones compose the skeleton,

    which provides structure and support for

    the body.

    Protection - Bones provide protection for

    numerous vital organs and soft tissues of

    the body. For example, the vertebral

    column protects the spinal cord, and the

    thoracic (rib) cage protects the heart and


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    मानव कॊ काऱ तॊत्र (Human skeleton system):

    मनुष्य के कॊ काऱ में कुऱ 206 अस्थियाॉ होती हैं। मनुष्य के कॊ काऱ को दो भागों में ववभास्ित ककया िा सकता है-

    (A) अऺीय कॊ काऱ (Axial skeleton): इसके अन्तगगत खोऩडी (Skull), कशरेुक दण्ड (vertebral column) तिा छाती की अस्थियाॉ आती हैं।

    (B) अनुबॊधी कॊ काऱ (Appendicular skeleton): इसके अन्तगगत मेखऱाएॉ (Girdles) तिा हाि-ऩैरों की अस्थियाॉ आती हैं।

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    हड्डी - एक प्रकार का खनिजयुक्त सॊयोजी ऊतक जजसमें कोऱेजि और कैजशियम फॉस्फेट, एक खनिज क्रिस्टऱ होता है। कैजशियम फॉस्फेट हड्डी को अपिी दृढ़ता देता है। अजस्ि ऊतक कॉम्पकै्ट या स्पॊजी हो सकता है। हड्डडयाॊ िरीर के अॊगों के लऱए सहायता और सुरऺा प्रदाि करती हैं।

    उपाजस्ि - तॊतुमय सॊयोजी ऊतक का एक रूप जो चोंड्रीि िामक रबरयुक्त जजऱेटटिस पदािथ में बारीकी से पैक कोऱेजिस फाइबर से बिा होता है। काटटथऱेज िाक, श्वासिऱी और काि सटहत वयस्क मिुष्यों में कुछ सॊरचिाओॊ के लऱए ऱचीऱा समिथि प्रदाि करता है।

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    टेंडि - सॊयोजी ऊतक का एक रेिदेार बैंड जो हड्डी से जुडा होता है और हड्डी से हड्डी को जोडता है।

    लऱगामेंट - सॊयोजी ऊतक का एक रेिदेार बैंड जो जोडों में हड्डडयों और अन्य सॊयोजी ऊतकों से जुडता है।

    जोड- एक साइट जहाॊ दो या अधिक हड्डडयों या अन्य कॊ काऱ