Human Locomotion © Lisa Michalek. Locomotion ï° The interaction of muscles with the...

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Transcript of Human Locomotion © Lisa Michalek. Locomotion ï° The interaction of muscles with the...

  • Human Locomotion Lisa Michalek

  • LocomotionThe interaction of muscles with the skeleton that results in body movement is known as locomotion.Locomotion increases the chances for survival of an organism by allowing the organism to gather food, seek shelter, and escape dangerous situations.Locomotion also increases the chances for survival of a species by enabling members of the species to find suitable mates.Human locomotion involves the interaction of joints and tissues such as bone, cartilage, muscles, tendons and ligaments.

  • BonesBone is a type of connective tissue.The hardness of the bone is due to the presence of calcium and phosphorus minerals.Bones make up the major part of the framework of the human skeleton and come in many shapes and sizes.Bones support and protect body organs.Bones also provide a place for muscle attachment.

  • BonesThe bones of your legs and arms are called long bones.The ends are covered with cartilage and are capable of growth.Living bones contain living blood, fat, and bone cells.Red and white blood cells are produced in the inner tissue, marrow, of bones.

  • Human SkeletonThe human skeleton acts as a framework for supporting other organs of the body.It also protects internal organs and allows body movement.The human skeleton has 206 bones.It is composed of a skull, vertebral column (spinal column), breastbone and ribs, and limbs (arms and legs).

  • CartilageThe fibrous, flexible, elastic connective tissue found in the human skeleton is cartilage.In the human embryo, the skeleton is made up mostly of cartilage.By adulthood, most of the cartilage has been replaced by bone.In the adult, cartilage is found in the nose, ears, and trachea, at the ends of ribs and other bones and between the vertebrae.

  • CartilageAt the ends of bones, cartilage provides flexibility.Between bones, cartilage provides cushioning.In the ears, nose, and trachea, cartilage provides flexible, rather than rigid support.

  • JointsBones are connected at places called joints.Most joints allow bone movement.Ball and socket joints are located at the hip and shoulder.They permit circular movement.

  • JointsHinge joints are located at the elbows and knees.They allow a back and forth movement.Hinge joints do not permit as much movement as ball and socket joints.

  • JointsPivot joints are found where the skull joins the vertebral column.Pivot joints permit a rotating movement.

  • JointsThe wrist and ankle have gliding joints that allow a sliding action.

    Fused joints are not movable and are located in the skull.Fluids in joints help keep joints cushioned and lubricated.

  • MusclesThe human body contains three kinds of muscle tissue:Skeletal muscleSmooth muscleAnd cardiac muscleMuscles produce body movement by pulling on bones when they contract.Muscles also produce body heat when they contract.Muscles can be voluntary or involuntary.

  • Involuntary MusclesInvoluntary muscles are responsible for involuntary body activities such as heart contractions and peristalsis.You cannot control the actions of involuntary muscles.Smooth muscle and cardiac muscle are examples of involuntary muscles.

  • Involuntary MusclesSmooth muscle is found in the walls of arteries and organs of the body.Contraction of smooth muscle is controlled by the nervous system.

    Cardiac muscle, found in the walls of the heart, causes the heart to beat.

  • Voluntary MusclesVoluntary muscles attach to the skeleton and can be controlled for locomotion.Skeletal (striated) muscle is a type of voluntary muscle.Striated muscles are attached to the bones of the skeleton.The bones and body parts are moved by the contraction of these muscles.

  • Muscle ActionNerves direct impulses to muscles causing them to contract.The energy needed for the muscle to contract comes from energy stored in chemicals such as glycogen.Muscle cells will continue to operate even if they do not receive sufficient oxygen.When the muscle does not receive enough oxygen to carry on aerobic respiration, the muscle cells change to anaerobic respiration.

  • Muscle ActionDuring anaerobic respiration the muscle cells produce lactic acid.Lactic acid causes muscles to hurt.This condition is known as muscle fatigue.Rest after exercise supplies oxygen to fatigued muscle cells.During this rest-recovery period, the lactic acid is removed and energy-storing compounds are built up again.If a person does not rest after muscle fatigue, permanent injury to the muscle can occur.

  • Tendons and LigamentsTendons and ligaments are both composed of connective tissue.

    Tendons are bands of dense tissue that connect muscles to bones.

    Ligaments are tough bands of tissue that hold bones together at joints.

  • Muscle-Bone DisordersFractures are broken bones.Fractures are caused by a sudden injury that exerts more force on the bone than it can support.The common symptom of a fracture is swelling and tenderness at the place of the fracture.Pain is often severe and is usually made worse by any movement of the area.Anyone suffering a suspected or known fracture should be taken to a hospital.

  • Muscle-Bone DisordersSprainsA tearing or stretching of the ligaments that hold together the bone end in a joint is called a sprain.Sprains are caused by a sudden pull or twist.Because a sprain and a fracture have similar symptoms, the sprain should be x-rayed to be sure that it is not a fracture.

  • Muscle-Bone DisordersHerniasIn a hernia an organ or tissue sticks out through a weak area in the muscle or other tissue that usually contains it such as the abdominal wall.The cause is usually a weakness in the wall.The first symptom is a bulge in the wall.

  • Muscle-Bone DisordersArthritisAn inflammation of the joints is called arthritis.Arthritis causes stiffness, swelling, soreness, or pain.Sometimes the joints stiffen in a deformed position.Cortisone and other medications are used in the treatment of arthritis.

  • Muscle-Bone DisordersTendonitis is an inflammation of a tendon, usually at the bone junction.Usually pain is felt in the wrist or ankle after extensive use such as running or even using a computer.

  • Other Muscle-Bone DisordersScoliosisOsteoporosis