HUMAN ADAPTABILITY

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HUMAN ADAPTABILITY. Definitions Types of Adaptation Adaptation to Climate. DEFINITIONS. Stress -- a condition that disturbs the normal functioning of the organism. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of HUMAN ADAPTABILITY

  • HUMANADAPTABILITYDefinitionsTypes of AdaptationAdaptation to Climate

  • Stress -- a condition that disturbs the normal functioning of the organismFitness -- reproductive success; the ability to produce viable offspring who themselves reproduce, with minimal energy expenditure.Basal Metabolic Rate -- the amount of energy the body needs to maintain its function in an absolute resting condition

  • Functional Adaptation -- involves changes in the body either as independent systems or in the organism as a wholeAcclimatization - long termAcclimation - short termHabituation - gradual reduction

  • skin colorbirth weightO2 absorptionlung capacity

  • Main Difficulties --

    getting enough O2cold; increased radiationlow biodiversityBiological Adaptations --

    increased pulmonary capacityincreased RBC productionCultural Adaptations --

    use of adapted animalshigh carbohydrate dietuse of cocoa

  • Additional responses --

    slowed maturationreduced sexual dimorphism

    resting HR goes from 70 beats/min to 105 beats/min

    light sensitivity decreasesmemory & recall diminishfood preferences for sugarsanorexia and weight loss

  • Main Difficulties --

    coldlow biodiversitylong periods of darknessBiological Adaptations --

    shivering responses; increase BMRnon-shivering thermogenesislong noses; body formbrown adipose tissueCultural Adaptations --

    clothes, fire, & housinghigh protein diet

  • Bergmans Rule --

    in bodies of the same shape, the larger has less surface areaincreased amount of metabolic tissue therefore internal heat gain is greater

  • Increase BMR -

    basic level of heat production by the body based on chemical reactions of metabolism

    muscular activity can raise BMR by 5 times

    several hormones raise BMR such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, and thyroxine

    dietary intake causes an increase in metabolic rate as body works to digest food

  • Core Shell Model -

    vasoconstriction causes blood to pool and conserve organ heat

    vasodilation increases the flow

  • Main Difficulties --

    hot & drylack of waterlack of biodiversityBiological Adaptations --

    lower pulse ratedecreased salt output in sweatbody formhighly tanable skinCultural Adaptations --

    houses of adobe, clothclothing aids evaporationactivity patterns

  • Allens Rule -- keeping mass constant, increasing surface area with long, linear form

  • Skin Color --

    brunette tanable

    UV radiation, vitamin D production

    melanin; conduction

  • Main Difficulties --

    heat loss is difficultlow animal biodiversityBiological Adaptations --

    highly tanable skinready onset of sweatingshort broad noseCultural Adaptations --

    live near waterlittle clothinglow salt intakereduced activity levels

  • black body radiation

  • Acclimatization to Rainforest --

    increased peripheral heat conductance

    high vasodilation & blood flowlower sweat outputenhanced sodium resorption

  • conversion of calories for heat production rather than growth and development may explain reduced dimorphismconversion of calories for heat production rather than growth and development may explain reduced dimorphismSubcuntaneous adipose deposits insulate the core and make it more difficult to dissipate heat in hot or easier to retain heat in coldSubcuntaneous adipose deposits insulate the core and make it more difficult to dissipate heat in hot or easier to retain heat in coldSubcuntaneous adipose deposits insulate the core and make it more difficult to dissipate heat in hot or easier to retain heat in coldSubcuntaneous adipose deposits insulate the core and make it more difficult to dissipate heat in hot or easier to retain heat in coldSubcuntaneous adipose deposits insulate the core and make it more difficult to dissipate heat in hot or easier to retain heat in coldSubcuntaneous adipose deposits insulate the core and make it more difficult to dissipate heat in hot or easier to retain heat in coldSubcuntaneous adipose deposits insulate the core and make it more difficult to dissipate heat in hot or easier to retain heat in coldSubcuntaneous adipose deposits insulate the core and make it more difficult to dissipate heat in hot or easier to retain heat in coldSubcuntaneous adipose deposits insulate the core and make it more difficult to dissipate heat in hot or easier to retain heat in coldSubcuntaneous adipose deposits insulate the core and make it more difficult to dissipate heat in hot or easier to retain heat in coldSubcuntaneous adipose deposits insulate the core and make it more difficult to dissipate heat in hot or easier to retain heat in coldSubcuntaneous adipose deposits insulate the core and make it more difficult to dissipate heat in hot or easier to retain heat in coldSubcuntaneous adipose deposits insulate the core and make it more difficult to dissipate heat in hot or easier to retain heat in coldSubcuntaneous adipose deposits insulate the core and make it more difficult to dissipate heat in hot or easier to retain heat in coldSubcuntaneous adipose deposits insulate the core and make it more difficult to dissipate heat in hot or easier to retain heat in coldSubcuntaneous adipose deposits insulate the core and make it more difficult to dissipate heat in hot or easier to retain heat in cold