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Writing the Report. http://www.google.com/events/sciencefair/winners.html. https://sites.google.com/site/ampkandcisplatinresistance/introduction Report sample. BACKGROUND. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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BACKGROUNDThis section introduces the topic of the project, notes any information already available, explains why you are interested in the project, and states the purpose of the project. BackgroundWhy was this study performed?

What is the specific purpose of the study? The BTB LabIn multicellular organisms (humans, for example), specialized organs and systems are used to exchange the gases in respiration with the external environment. The function of the respiratory system is to take oxygen (O2) into the body and to release carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) from the body. The presence of carbon dioxide can be detected with the testing solution bromthymol blue. A change of color in this solution indicates the presence of carbon dioxide.In this investigation, you will learn how to detect the presence of carbon dioxide with bromthymol blue. You will see that people produce carbon dioxide while breathing. You will also discover the effect that exercise has on the amount of carbon dioxide produced.Transformations: Work Lab

WORKA force acting through a distanceWork = Force x Distance

FORCEDISTANCEWork = force x distanceW = F dWork = F (N) x D (m) = Newton-meter or joule (J)Workhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_N0r1ignq1w

WORKA force acting through a distanceWork = Force x Distance

Do you do more work going straight up a mountain or taking the longer scenic route around to the top?ABWork = Force (N) x D (m)or W= Fd

Kennon or Marcos Road?" Work LabTransformations: Work Lab

Research Question/AimTo investigate the effect of distance on the force, and ultimately, the amount of work done. In the case of choosing between two routes to the top of a mountain, is there more work done going straight up the mountain or taking the long scenic route around to the top?Title/Aim: Do you do more work going straight up a mountain or taking the longer scenic route around to the top?HypothesisIf..then..becauseVariables

ProcedureBlank Tables

Table 1. Effect of Distance on Force and Amount of Work DoneDistance (m)Force of Car (N)Work W= F x D(N*m or J)Trial 1Trial 2Trial 3Average0.50.60.70.80.91.0Based on the data table: 1) What do we need to change?2) What do we need to measure as our result?MethodGather and prepare materials.Calibrate Newton-Meter to 0 joules.Use a meter stick to measure 0.5 meters on the ramp and mark this with a piece of tape. Repeat in 0.1 meter increments until all lengths between 0.5 and 1.0 meters are marked (6 total marks). Adjust the ramp so that the 1.0 meter mark is level with the top of the stool. A wedge or someones foot may need to be used at the bottom of the ramp to keep it from sliding. Attach Newton-Spring to car by connecting the hook of the Newton-spring with the hole located at the back of the car.Pull the Newton-Meter carefully so that it carries the car up to the distance mark.Record the amount of Newtons.Repeat Steps 5- 7 for Trial 2 and 3.Repeat Steps 5-8 for each of the remaining distances (0.9,0.8,0.7,0.6, and 0.5 meters), making sure to line the marker for each distance with the top of the stool.

Table 1. Effect of Distance on Force and Amount of Work DoneDistance (m)Force of Car (N)Work W= F x D(N*m or J)Trial 1Trial 2Trial 3Average0.50.60.70.80.91.0Distance D/mWork (W=F x d) in joulesGroup 1Group 2Group 3Group 4 Group 5Average0.5 (A)0.60.70.80.91.0 (B)Combined Results: Cooks and Pasambas ClassesDistance D/mWork (W=F x d) in joulesBLOCK BPasambas BLOCKSBLOCK HAverage0.5 (A)2.22.20.62.32.30.72.32.30.82.32.30.92.22.41.0 (B)2.22.3Combined Results: Cooks and Pasambas ClassesConclusion/Summary:Answer the aim- was it more work to go straight up or to take the long road?-was the hypothesis right or wrong-Use data (#s) to support why hypothesis is right or wrong - your group data and 8th grade combined class data2.Explain your results. What is the relationship between work of A (straight up) and work of B (long route)?- use the formula W = F x d (use force #s from your group data)- think about relationship between work and PE (and formula for PE = m x g x h) All claims/statements in the conclusion need to be supported by actual evidence (real numbers) from the experiment.

BIG IDEA:Evaluation is very important to determine whether the experiment is a FAIR TEST-did your group get the correct answer? It doesnt matter how many errors there are:There may be several minor errors but overall result remains unchanged= FAIR There may be a single error only but may have greatly affected the final result = UNFAIR

BIG IDEA:

Going over the checklist allows you to check whether you have missed something

You have time to make necessary changes BackgroundYou see two routes to the top of a mountain. One is a road that goes straight up and another is a path that goes around the mountain. What takes more work, a shorter route with a steeper incline, or a longer route with a gradual incline?Energy is the ability to do work. When work is done, potential energy can be increased and potential energy is related to an objects position or height. From the field of physics, we also know that the formula is: work=force x distance. The units for work are Joules. Is the force same or different for the level of incline? In this investigation, you will learn if the force and work used for different distances are the same or not.

+ for excellent, perfect, thorough for okay, minor mistake- for missing many things or many mistakesVariablesIndependent Variable- Incline/DistanceDependent Variable-Amount of Work (Force)Constant/Controlled Variables...-Height of bar-Ramp Set-Newton-spring used-Mass of Car Steady speed for how the car is pulledWay tape is lined up with the bar/stool

How will variables the be changed, measured or controlled?

The independent variable will be changed by using different distances. (0.5 meters, 0.6 meters and 1.0 meter are the different distances in the ramp where the car goes up.) The amount of work will be measured by calculating the force (Newtons)* the distance (meters). We will measure the force by attaching a Newton-spring to the toy car and pulling it up towards the desired distance. The car used in the experiment should be the same because if there are different cars, they could have different mass or ability to rollThe height of the ramp should be equal too because it can give different results. Also, the Newton-meter should be calibrated at 0 Newtons.

+ for excellent, perfect, thorough for okay, minor mistake- for missing many things or many mistakesHypothesis (Qualitative)If the distance increases, then all of the amount of force exerted and work will be less because even though there is a long distance, the incline is not as steep and so gravity isnt pulling as strong on the car.

Hypothesis (Quantitative)Work of A (Short Distance)Work of B (Long Distance)Force*Distance (A)Force*Distance (B)10*0.53*1.05 J>3 JForce(A)>Force(B)Therefore, the amount of work is more for Route A (straight up) compared to Route B (long way).

+ for excellent, perfect, thorough for okay, minor mistake- for missing many things or many mistakesDiagram of Apparatus

+ for excellent, perfect, thorough for good, maybe some minor mistake- for missing many things or many mistakesMaterials1 Ramp1 stool/ stand1 Newton-spring1 Toy Car1 meter stick1 Roll of tape1 markerOptl: 1 wedge

+ for excellent, perfect, thorough for good, maybe some minor mistake- for missing many things or many mistakesMethodGather and prepare materials.Calibrate Newton-Meter to 0 joules.Use a meter stick to measure 0.5 meters on the ramp and mark this with a piece of tape. Repeat in 0.1 meter increments until all lengths between 0.5 and 1.0 meters are marked (6 total marks). Adjust the ramp so that the 1.0 meter mark is level with the top of the stool. A wedge or someones foot may need to be used at the bottom of the ramp to keep it from sliding. Attach Newton-Spring to car by connecting the hook of the Newton-spring with the hole located at the back of the car.Pull the Newton-Meter carefully so that it carries the car up to the distance mark.Record the amount of Newtons.Repeat Steps 5- 7 for Trial 2 and 3.Repeat Steps 5-8 for each of the remaining distances (0.9,0.8,0.7,0.6, and 0.5 meters), making sure to line the marker for each distance with the top of the stool.Calculate the average for force and then calculate work done for each distance.

+ for excellent, perfect, thorough for good, maybe some minor mistake- for missing many things or many mistakesData TableDistanceD/mForce of CarTrial 1Force of CarTrial 2Force of CarTrial 3Force of CarAverageWorkW=F*D

0.5 (A)4.44.34.34.32.20.63.93.83.73.82.30.73.33.53.53.432.40.83.13.13.13.12.50.92.62.62.62.62.31.0 (B)2.42.42.42.42.4N*m or J

+ for excellent, perfect, thorough for good, maybe some minor mistake- for missing many things or many mistakesSample Observation ChecklistYesNoIs a direct statement of the results (not an interpretation or an inference)Note: Imagine the data talking to you. What is it saying?Ex: The amount of force consistently decreased as the distance increased but overall the work stayed almost the same. The work did not show a consistent pattern as it increased between some distanced, decreased for the other distances, or did not change at all. Summary of ObservationsResults show that the work done for Route A and B are different with 0.2 joules of work done more with Route B than A. Work for the other distances are similar with 0.6 meters and 0.9 meters both using 2.3 joules