Transcript of HRM Questions
PART TWO RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMENT
C H A P T E R T F o u r
JobAnalysis 4Lecture Outline
Strategic OverviewThe Nature of Job Analysis
Uses of Job Analysis InformationSteps in Job Analysis
Methods of Collecting Job Analysis InformationThe InterviewQuestionnairesObservationParticipant DiaryQuantitative Job Analysis TechniquesUsing Multiple Sources of Information
Writing Job DescriptionsJob IdentificationJob SummaryRelationshipsResponsibilities and DutiesStandards of Performance and Working
ConditionsUsing the Internet for Writing Job
DescriptionsWriting Job Specifications
Specifications for Trained Versus Untrained PersonnelJob Specifications Based on JudgmentJob Specifications Based on Statistical
AnalysisJob Analysis in a “Jobless” World
From Specialized to Enlarged JobsWhy Managers are De-jobbing Their
CompaniesCompetency-Based Job AnalysisBP’s Matrices
In Brief: The uses of job analysis information and the methods of conducting a job analysis are discussed in this chapter. The tasks of writing job descriptions and job specifications are also outlined. Strategies to make the organization more responsive to competition, including enlarging and de-jobbing are discussed.
Interesting Issues: Technology and the Internet can serve as a resource for companies to streamline their job analysis process. Some companies have shifted to HR systems that do not use job descriptions. Competency-based analysis can the support the flexibility needed by high performance organizations.
I. The Nature of Job Analysis
Job analysis – The procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for the job by collecting the following types of information: work activities; human behaviors; machines, tools, equipment, and work aids; performance standards; job context; and human requirements.
Job description – A list of a job’s duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, working conditions, and supervisory responsibilities – one product of a job analysis.
Job specification – A list of a job’s “human requirements”: the requisite education, skills, personality, and so on – another product of a job analysis.
A. Uses of Job Analysis Information
1. Recruitment and Selection – Job descriptions and job specifications are formed from the information gathered from a job analysis, which help management decide what sort of people to recruit and hire.
2. Compensation – The estimated value and the appropriate compensation for each job is determined from the information gathered from a job analysis.
3. Performance Appraisal – Managers use job analysis to determine a job’s specific activities and performance standards.
4. Training – Based on the job analysis, the job description should show the job’s required activities and skills.
B. Steps in Job Analysis
1. Decide how the information will be used because that will determine what data will be collected and how it should be collected.
2. Review relevant background information, such as organization charts, process charts, and job descriptions.
3. Select representative positions to analyze because there may be too many similar jobs to analyze, and it may not be necessary to analyze them all.
4. Analyze the job by collecting data on job activities, required employee behaviors, working conditions, and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job.
5. Verify the job analysis information with job incumbents and supervisors to confirm that it is factually correct and complete.
6. Develop a job description and job specification from the information.
NOTES Educational Materials to Use
II. Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information
An HR specialist (an HR specialist, job analyst, or consultant), a worker, and the worker’s supervisor usually work together in conducting the job analysis. Job analysis data is usually collected from several employees from different departments, using interviews and questionnaires. The data is then averaged, taking into account the departmental context of the employees, to determine how much time a typical employee spends on each of several specific tasks.
A. The Interview
The three types of interviews managers use to collect job analysis data are: individual (to get the employee’s perspective on the job’s duties and responsibilities, group (when large numbers of employees perform the same job), and supervisor (to get his/her perspective on the job’s duties and responsibilities).
1. The Pros & Cons – of using an interview are that it is: simple, quick, and more comprehensive because the interviewer can unearth activities that may never appear in written form. The main problem is distortion.
2. Typical questions – “What is the job being performed?” “In what activities do you participate?” “What are the health and safety conditions?” Figure 4-4 gives an example of a job analysis questionnaire.
3. Interview guidelines – a) the job analyst and supervisor should identify the workers who know the job best and would be objective; b) establish a rapport with the interviewee; c) follow a structured guide or checklist; d) ask worker to list duties in order of importance and frequency of occurrence; and e) review and verify the data.
Structured or unstructured questionnaires may be used to obtain job analysis information (see Figure 4.4). Questionnaires can be a quick, efficient way of gathering information from a large number of employees. But, developing and testing a questionnaire can be expensive and time consuming.
Direct observations are useful when jobs consist of mainly observable physical activity as opposed to mental activity. Reactivity can be a problem with direct observation, which is where the workers change what they normally do because they are being watched. Managers often use direct observation and interviewing together.
D. Participant Diary
The employees record every activity they engage in, in a diary along with the amount of time to perform each activity to produce a complete picture of the job. Employees may try to exaggerate some activities and underplay others.
NOTES Educational Materials to Use
III. Writing Job Descriptions
Figure 4-5 presents a sample form of job description.
A. Job Identification – contains the job title, status, date, and possible space to indicate who approved the description, the location of the job, the immediate supervisor’s title, salary and/or pay scale.
B. Job Summary – should describe the general nature of the job, and includes only its major functions or activities.
C. Relationships – occasionally a relationships statement is included. It shows the jobholders’ relationships with others inside and outside the organization.
D. Responsibilities and Duties – Itemize the job’s duties and responsibilities and describe it in a few sentences.
E. Authority of job holder
F. Standards of Performance and Working Conditions – states the standards the employee is expected to achieve under each of the job description’s main duties and responsibilities.
G. Working Conditions
H. Job specifications
NOTES Educational Materials to Use
IV. Writing Job Specifications
A. Specifications for Trained Versus Untrained Personnel
Writing job specifications for trained employees is relatively straightforward because they are likely to focus on traits like length of previous service, quality of relevant training, and previous job performance. Writing job specifications for untrained employees is more complex because they are more likely to specify qualities such as physical traits, personality, interests, or sensory skills that imply some potential for performing or being trained to perform on the job.
B. Job Specifications Based on Judgment
1. Job specifications may come from educated guesses or judgments from supervisors or HR managers.
C. Job Specifications Based on Statistical Analysis
1. Basing job specifications on statistical analysis is more defensible, but a more difficult approach than the judgmental approach.
2. The aim of the statistical approach is to determine statistically the relationship between 1) some predictor or human trait such as height, intelligence, or finger dexterity, and 2) some indicator or criterion of job effectiveness.
3. The five steps in statistical analysis are: a) analyze the job and decide how to measure job performance; b) select personal traits like finger dexterity that you believe should predict successful performance; c) test candidates for these traits; d) measure these candidates’ subsequent job performance; and e) statistically analyze the relationship between the human trait and job performance.
NOTES Educational Materials to Use
V. Job Analysis in a "Jobless" World
A. From Specialized to Enlarged Jobs
1. A “job” as we know it today is largely an outgrowth of the industrial revolution’s emphasis on efficiency.
2. Job enlargement involves assigning workers additional same-level activities, thus increasing the number of activities they perform.
3. Job rotation is systematically moving workers from one job to another.
4. Job enrichment involves redesigning jobs in a way that increases the opportunities for the worker to experience feelings of responsibility, achievement, growth, and recognition.
B. Why Managers are De-jobbing Their Companies – De-jobbing refers to broadening the responsibilities of the company’s jobs, and encouraging employees not to limit themselves to what’s on their job descriptions.
1. Flatter organizations with three or four levels of management are becoming more prevalent than the traditional pyramid-shaped organizations with seven or more layers of management.
2. Work teams, where tasks are organized around teams and processes rather than around specialized functions, are being used increasingly more by managers.
3. The boundary-less organizations are characterized by widespread use of teams and similar structural mechanisms to reduce and make
more permeable the boundaries that typically separate departments and hierarchical levels.
4. Reengineering refers to fundamentally rethinking and radically redesigning business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in performance measures.
C. Competency-Based Job Analysis
Employers are shifting towards newer approaches for describing jobs, such as competency-based analysis to support the flexibility needed in high performance work environments where employers need workers to seamlessly move from job to job and exercise self-control,
1. What are Competencies – Competencies are defined as demonstrable characteristics of the person that enable performance. They are observable and measurable.
2. Three reasons to Use Competency Analysis? – First, traditional job descriptions may actually backfire if a high performance work system is the goal. Second, describing the job in terms of skills, knowledge and competencies needed is more strategic. Finally, measurable skills, knowledge, and competencies are the heart of any company’s performance management system.
3. Examples of competencies – These can include general competencies (such as reading, writing, and mathematical reasoning), leadership competencies (leadership, strategic thinking, teaching others) and technical competencies (specific technical competencies required for specific types of jobs).
4. Comparing traditional versus competency-based job analysis – competency based analysis is more measurable, where some of the job’s essential duties and responsibilities are expressed as competencies.
5. How to write job competencies – the process is similar in most respects to traditional job analysis, interviewing incumbents and their supervisors, identifying job responsibilities and activities.
D. BP’s Matrices
There are a growing number of firms that are shifting to HR systems that don’t use job descriptions. So what replaces them? This discussion examines what British Petroleum’s Exploration Division has done. They use a matrix of skills and skill levels. The major purpose was to shift employees from thinking in terms of “it’s not my job” to thinking about what new skills they needed to accomplish their goals. This interesting shift should be one that could generate discussion in the class. Ask class members questions such as:
“So how do you know if you are doing your job?”“How would performance appraisals be done?”“How do you ensure fairness between employees?”“How do you keep your employee doing what he or she should?”
The HR Scorecard: Strategy and Results. A description of the Hotel International’s job analysis and job descriptions provides
insight into how these can help an organization achieve the results that their strategic goals target.
NOTES Educational Materials to Use
1. What items are typically included in the job description? What items are not shown? A job description is a written statement of what the jobholder actually does, how he or she does it, and under what conditions the job is performed. There is no standard format for writing job descriptions, but most descriptions include sections on:
job identification job summary relationships, responsibilities, and duties authority of incumbent standards of performance working conditions job specifications
2. What is job analysis? How can you make use of the information it provides? Job analysis is the procedure through which you determine the duties and nature of the jobs and the kinds of people who should be hired for them. You can utilize the information it provides to write job descriptions and job specifications, which are utilized in recruitment and selection, compensation, performance appraisal, and training.
3. We discussed several methods for collecting job analysis data—questionnaires, the
position analysis questionnaire, and so on. Compare and contrast these methods, explaining what each is useful for and listing the pros and cons of each. Interviews are probably the most widely used method of collecting information for job analysis. The interview allows the incumbent to report activities that might not otherwise come to light (mental activities and activities that occur only occasionally). Observation is useful for jobs that consist mainly of physical activity that is clearly observable. Questionnaires are a quick and efficient way of obtaining information from a large number of employees; however, development cost can be high. Participant diary logs can provide a comprehensive picture of a job, especially when supplemented with interviews, however, many employees do not respond well to the request to record all their daily activities. Quantitative job analysis techniques, such as PAQ and Functional Job Analysis are more appropriate when the aim is to assign a quantitative value to each job so that jobs can be compared for pay purposes.
4. Describe the types of information typically found in a job specification. It should include a list of the human traits and experience needed to perform the job. These might include education, skills, behaviors, personality traits, work experience, sensory skills, etc.
5. Explain how you would conduct a job analysis. There are six major steps in a well-conducted job analysis: a) Determine how the job analysis information will be used and how to collect the necessary information; b) Collect background information such as organization charts, process charts, and job descriptions; c) Select representative positions to be analyzed; d) Collect job analysis information; e) Review the information with the participants; f) Develop job descriptions and job specifications.
6. Do you think companies can really do without detailed job descriptions? Why or why not? Either side is an acceptable position to take. The key to grading this answer is the quality of the “why or why not” explanations. Look for students to clearly explain their position in terms of the effects of the lack of job descriptions on the performance, motivation, and capabilities of the people doing the job.
7. In a company with only 25 employees, is there less need for job descriptions? Why or why not? It is clearly more difficult to write job descriptions for positions that may have broad responsibilities because of the organization’s size. This does not, however, mean that it is less important. Look for sound arguments and reasoning.
INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP ACTIVITIES
1. Working individually or in groups, obtain copies of job descriptions for clerical positions at the college or university where you study, or the firm where you work. What types of information do they contain? Do they give you enough information to explain what the job involves and how to do it? How would you improve on the descriptions? Based on our experience, it is very likely that at least some of the job descriptions will not contain all the information that is supposed to be there. Use this as an opportunity to discuss the problems that may be created by the missing information.
2. Working individually or in groups, develop a job description for your professor in this class. Based on that, use your judgement to develop a job specification. Compare your conclusions with those of other students or groups. Were there any significant differences? What do you think accounted for the differences? The students should find sample job descriptions in order to create job description for you. Once they create a job description for you, they should develop a job specification.
3. The following are some examples of possible multiple choice questions:
1. The procedure through which you determine the duties of positions and the characteristics of the people to hire for them is called:
a. Competency based analysisb. Job specificationsc. Job analysisd. Job descriptions
2. Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques include the following:
a. Interviewsb. Questionnairesc. Observationd. Functional job analysis
3. Essential Job Functions are:
a. Part of a job descriptionb. The reason the position existsc. The job duties that employees must be able to perform, with or without reasonable
accommodationd. All of the above
4. Competency Based Job Analysis :
a. Is better than traditional job analysisb. Focuses more on how the worker meets the job’s objectives or actually
accomplishes the workc. is more tactical than strategicd. breeds a “that’s not my job” attitude
Experiential Exercise: The Instructor’s Job Description
Purpose: The purpose of this exercise is for you to develop a job description by developing one for your instructor.
Required Understanding: Students should understand the mechanics of job analysis and be thoroughly familiar with the job analysis questionnaires (see Figure 4-4) and the job description questionnaire (see Figure 4-6).
How to Set Up the Exercise: Set up groups of four to six students for this exercise. As in all exercises in this book, the groups should be separated and should not converse with each other. Half the groups in the class will develop the job description using the job analysis questionnaire (4.4), and the other half of the groups will develop it using the job description questionnaire (4.6). Each student should review his or her questionnaire (as appropriate) before joining his or her group.
1. Set up an even number of groups, preferably with each group consisting of 4 to 6 students. The groups should be separated and should not converse with each other. Half the groups will develop a job description for the instructor’s position using the job analysis questionnaire (4.4), and the other half of the groups will develop it using the job description questionnaire (4.6). Each student should first review the appropriate questionnaire.
2. Each group will develop its own job description and job specification for the instructor.
3. Each group should choose a partner group, one that developed the job description and job specification using the alternate method. (a group that used the job analysis questionnaire should be paired with a group that used the job description questionnaire)
4. Within each of these new combined groups, compare and critique each of the two sets of job descriptions and job specifications. Did each job analysis method provide different types of information? Which seems superior? Does one seem more advantageous for some types of jobs than others?
Application Case: Typhoon Alice
1. Should Phil Mun and May Lin ignore the old-timers' protests and write up the job descriptions as they see fit? Why? How would you go about resolving the differences? In all likelihood, the old-timers are accurate in their descriptions. There are several of them, and it appears that all of their descriptions agree. Also, since they were the ones actually doing the work, it is likely that they were the only ones who knew what was actually being done. One way to resolve the differences would be to examine the specific items that Phil and May Lin feel the old-timers are padding their jobs with. Ask for evidence from the old-timers that they did these functions, and ask for evidence from Phil and May Lin that someone else carried out those tasks.
EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISES & CASES
2. How would you have conducted the job analysis? What should Phil do now? Other options may have been to conduct personal interviews instead of the questionnaires. However, it is unlikely that the resulting disagreement would have been avoided by using another method. The method they used was a good one. Phil has several courses of action available to him. The best may be to allow the process to go on with the old-timers’ job descriptions.
Continuing Case: Kwik and Kleen (KK) Laundry Company — The Job Description
1. What should be the format and final form of the store manager’s job description? The format noted in figure 4-6 could be a reasonable format to use. Students may recommend that Jen should include a “standards of performance” section in the job description. This lists the standards the employee is expected to achieve under each of the job description’s main duties and responsibilities, and would address the problem of employees not understanding company policies, procedures, and expectations. In addition, students may recommend that Jennifer instead take a competency-based approach which describes the job in terms of the measurable, observable, behavioral competencies that an employee doing that job must exhibit. Because competency analysis focuses more on “how” the worker meets the job’s objectives or actually accomplishes the work, it is more worker focused.
2. Was it practical to specify standards and procedures in the body of the job description, or should these be kept separately? They do not need to be kept separately, and in fact both Jen and the employees would be better served by incorporating standards and procedures into the body of the description. The exception to this would be if the standards and procedures are so complex or involved that it becomes more pragmatic to maintain a separate procedures manual.
3. How should Jen go about collecting the information required for the standards, procedures, and job description? She should first go about conducting the job analysis, collecting information about the work activities, human behaviors, machines, tools, equipment, and work aids, performance standards, job context, and human requirements. The best methods for collecting this information in this case are through interview, questionnaires, observation, diaries/logs maintained by employees. In addition, she should ensure that she is identifying the essential functions of the job, and that the descriptions comply with the law.
4. What, in your opinion, should the store manager’s job description look like and contain?
In this example, students develop a job description for the front desk clerk position and identify important employee behaviors for the hotel staff based on hotel strategy.
1. Based on the hotel’s strategy, list at least four important employee behaviors for the hotel staff
- The ability to project a positive attitude and put the customer’s needs first, even if the customer is curt.
- Showing tact and discretion in responding to personal requests from a hotel guest.- Being award of the reactions of others and responding to those reactions in an appropriate
way- Being able to handle multiple priorities without getting “flustered”- Able to resolve billing issues with discretion and a positive attitude.
2. If times permits, spend some time before coming to class and observe the front desk clerk at a local hotel. In any case develop a job description for a hotel clerk at Hotel International.
For more Instructor’s Resources, visit the Dessler & Tan companion Web site for
Human Resource Management: An Asian Perspective (2nd edition) at http://www.pearsoned-asia.com/desslertan/.
job analysis The procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it.
job description A list of a job's duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, working conditions, and supervisory responsibilities--one product of a job analysis.
job specifications A list of a job's "human requirements," that is, the requisite education, skills, personality, and so on--another product of a job analysis.
organization chart A chart that shows the organization wide distribution of work, with titles of each position and interconnecting lines that show who reports to and communicates with whom.
process chart A work flow chart that shows the flow of inputs to and outputs from a particular job.
diary Daily listings made by workers of every activity in which they engage along with the time each activity takes.
position analysis A questionnaire used to collect quantifiable data concerning thequestionnaire (PAQ) duties and responsibilities of various jobs.
functional job analysis A method for classifying jobs similar to the Department of Labor job analysis but additionally taking into account the extent to which instructions, reasoning, judgment, and verbal facility are necessary for performing the job tasks.
job enlargement Assigning workers additional same-level responsibilities, thus increasing the number of activities they perform.
job rotation Systematically moving workers from one job to another.
job enrichment Redesigning jobs in a way that increases the opportunities for the worker to experience feelings of responsibility, achievement, growth, and recognition.
de-jobbing Broadening the responsibilities of the company’s jobs and encouraging employees not to limit themselves to what’s on their job descriptions.
boundaryless organization Organization marked by the widespread use of teams and similar structures that reduce and make more permeable the boundaries that typically separate departments.
reengineering The fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical contemporary measures of performance.
competencies Demonstrable characteristics of the person that enable performance, which are observable and measurable behaviors comprising part of a job.
competency-based Describing the job in terms of the measurable, observable,
job analysis behavioral competencies (knowledge, skills, and/or behaviors) that an employee doing that job must exhibit to do the job well.
performance management Basing your employee’s training, appraisals, and rewards on fostering and rewarding the skills and competencies he or she needs to achieve his or her goals.
self-management team These are small groups of workers who have been given the authority to manage their own work