How to write a scientific paper for publication
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I am Dr Md Anisur Rahman Anjum passed MBBS from Dhaka Medical College in 1987. Diploma in Ophthalmology (DO) from the then IPGM&R (now it is Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University BSMMU) in 1993. Felllowship in Ophthalmology FCPS from Bangladesh College of Physician and surgeon in 1997. Now I am working as associate professor in General Ophthalmology in National Institute of Ophthalmology Dhaka Bangladesh which is the tertiary centre in eye care in Bangladesh. When I was secretary of Bangladesh Academy in 2011-2012. During my tenure I had pulblished four academic journal. The ISSN of the journal is 1818-9423. I have seen that the format of original article was not maintained. though there was "GENERAL INFORMATION FOR CONTRIBUTORS" but many of the author did not follow that guideline. From that time I am trying to build up "HOW TO WRITE THE SCIENTIFIC MANUSCRIPT" among my students, colleague and senior fellows. and do two workshop about this topic. I am hopeful if any of you write a scientific manuscript according to this format with correct statistics power and language it will be no longer rejected.
Transcript of How to write a scientific paper for publication
- How to write a scientific paper for publication? Dr Md Anisur Rahman AnjumMonday, July 14, 2014 [email protected],com 01711-832397 Associate Professor National institute of Ophthalmology Dhaka. Bangladesh
- Before 1950 no structured formed. In 1950 IMRAD structure established. in 1978 the Vancouver Group, establish guidelines for the format of manuscripts submitted to their journals.
- What is IMRAD? INTRODUCTIONI= M= R= A= D= MATERIAL & METHODS RESULT AND DISCUSSION
- IMRAD Format cant cover all the field of a paper so it was modified with two other acrynom. TAS .. IMRAD .. CAR.
- T A S C TITLE AUTHOR SUMMARY/ABSTRACT IMRAD = INTRODUCTION. METHODS. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION CONCLUSION A ACKNOWLEDGEMENT REFERENCESR
- Title The decision to read an article often rests on the appeal of its title. So it should be: correctly represent the content and breadth of the study. clear, concise, and informative contain keywords No abbreviations are used. capture attention of the reader.
- Author .Designation, degree, affiliation and address of authors are to be clearly indicated, With additional details like telephone number, email address of the corresponding author.
- Abstract & Keywords
- Abstract & Keywords Abstract should cover each and every component of the study 150 words for unstructured abstract 250 words for structured abstracts. It should state the purpose of the study basic procedures, the principal conclusion and implications.
- Abstract & Keywords contain precise information and should not contain abbreviations. Key words (or short phrases) 3 to 10, should be listed covering all the aspects of the study. Use preferably the terms listed as Medical subject headings (MESH) in Index Medicus (Medline) Key words (or short phrases)
- Introduction and Review of Literature
- Introduction and Review of Literature The goal or purpose of the study is clearly stated. The introduction should contain: detailed information about the problem being studied, and about the specific research question/ hypothesis.
- Introduction and Review of Literature Four or five pertinent publications related to the problem should be presented and critiqued. No data or conclusions are to be reported. Do not review the literature extensively. The existing gaps in the knowledge or conflicting data is to be highlighted.
- Material & Methods
- Material & Methods The selection of the subjects for the study has to be described clearly. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are to be mentioned with method of allocation to groups.
- Material & Methods The research design is to be described in detail. Research design is the plan that is chosen to answer the research question. The methods, apparatus and procedures are to be identified in sufficient detail to allow other workers to reproduce the results, if necessary.
- Material & Methods Give references of all the methods used in the study including statistical methods. Identify precisely all drugs and chemicals used, including generic names, doses and routes of administration.
- Material & Methods Methods of elimination of errors viz blinding, introduction of control group and placebo, randomization etc are to be mentioned distinctly. The measurement instrument including its psychometric qualities is described clearly. The psychometric qualities include validity, reliability, objectivity and precision.
- Material & Methods The data collection procedure is to be clearly described. The setting in which the study took place is describe. This information is useful to the reader in deciding whether results can be applied to his/her setting. The data analysis procedures are stated in precise terms.
- Results Present your results in logical sequence in the text, tables and illustrations. Do not repeat in the text all the data, in the tables or illustrations. Emphasize or summarise important observations. Results section should contain only actuals, and no Opinions.
- Results All the patients included in the study should be accounted for. There should not be any hesitation in reporting any negative or unexpected result.
- Discussion The discussion should cover all the debatable aspects of the study. It can go beyond the results obtained and can cover methodological and the critical issues. It should not be misused as a platform to state opinions. Readers should not be side tracked in to another topic
- Discussion Relate the observations to the other relevant studies. Bring out similarities and conflicts. The new and important aspects of the study and the conclusions drawn are to be emphasized. The implications of the findings and their limitations are to be discussed.
- Discussion Scope and need for future additional research is to be discussed. Link conclusions with goals of the study but avoid unqualified statements and conclusions not supported by your data. State new hypothesis when warranted . Recommendations when appropriate may be included.
- Conclusion A good paper ends with strong clear conclusion. A good paper is a thunderbolt in reverse it begins with thunder and ends with lightning Conclusion should be linked with the goals of the study It should be limited to the boundaries of the study
- Acknowledgement Who will be acknowledge: Person, whom has contribution for the article but do not justify authorship should be acknowledge. Such as General support by a department chair. Acknowledgement of technical help. Acknowledgement of financial (?) or material support.
- Acknowledgement At an appropriate place in the article the title page. footnote or an appendix to the text depending on the journal requirement you can write the acknowledgement
- Reference This is the most disturbing aspect in publications. It is a wrong notion amongst the authors that providing a long list of references increases the validity (of their article) which is wrong. References are to be written correctly with due care.
- Reference Correct abbreviated, accepted names, of the journals to be mentioned. The number of references should be reasonable (neither too many nor too few); in original article it will be not more than 30 but in review article it may be 50
- Reference The references are presented according to standard rules of publication as specified by a particular journal. for eg, whether Vancour style or Harward style is followed.
- Some General Consideration
- Abbreviations Abbreviations. Use standard abbreviations (hr, min, sec, etc) instead of writing complete words. Define all other abbreviations the first time they are used, then subsequently use the abbreviation [e.g. Ampicillin resistant (AmpR)]. As a general rule, do not use an abbreviation unless a term is used at least three times in the manuscript.
- Abbreviations With two exceptions (the degree symbol and percent symbol), a space should be left between numbers and the accompanying unit. In general, abbreviations should not be written in the plural form (e.g. 1 ml or 5 ml, not mls).
- Past, present, and future tense Past, present, and future tense. Results described in your paper should be described in past tense (youve done these experiments, but your results are not yet accepted facts). Results from published papers should be described in the present tense (based upon the assumption that published results are facts). Only experiments that you plan to do in the future should be described in the future tense.
- Third vs first person Third vs first person. It is OK to use first person in scientific writing, but it should be used sparingly reserve the use of first person for things that you want to emphasize that you uniquely did (i.e. not things that many others have done as well). Most text should be written in the third person to avoid sounding like an autobiographical account penned by a narcissistic author. However, it is better to say It is possible to .. than to say One could .... Writing that uses the impersonal pronoun one often seems noncommittal and dry. In addition, inanimate objects (like genes, proteins, etc) should be described in third person, not with anthropomorphic or possessive terms.
- Thank You