How to Teach Writing in CALL: Some Approaches Kazunori Nozawa Faculty of Economics Ritsumeikan...

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  • How to Teach Writing in CALL: Some Approaches Kazunori Nozawa Faculty of Economics Ritsumeikan University Kusatsu, Shiga
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  • Using search engines to gather appropriate information on the chosen topics on the World Wide Web resources (database), completing a series of the e-mail homework and their necessary follow-up revision work, completing group/individual-oriented projects on the WWW, and giving group/individual oral presentations using the final products promote reading, writing and speaking skills in English by providing authentic audience for students' writing. These projects also help students develop computer literacy and Internet skills as they use the computer and the network for real purposes. E-mail and Web projects can be used with students at any grade level and any English proficiency level. The presenter will provide some practical approaches that he has found successful in teaching English to university students. They are also applicable at high school level.
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  • Computers, Composition, and EFL (1) Overview on computer-assisted writing (See Pennington, 1999) Pennington contributes the discussion of the special effects of the computer medium on writing and how these effects are achieved by examining the relationship between attitudes, quality of writing, and quantity of writing.
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  • Computers, Composition, and EFL (2) The computer in English as a subsequent language writing: Roles & relationships (See McGarrell, 1998) McGarrel explores various roles (tutor, stimulator, workhorse, accessor of information, and facilitator of communication) the computer and its peripherals take in the development of non- native writing skills. She demonstrates that the computer provides a situational and methodological potential required for the successful development of such skills.
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  • Computers, Composition, and EFL (3) Computers, compositions, and second language teaching (See Phinney, 1989) Phinney discusses researches on computer assisted composition and novice writers, computers as writing aids, the computer in the writing workshop. She concludes, that the students of ESL make slow changes of their writing behavior, that the computer is not a panacea for basic writing problems, that students need to be taught revision strategies that are appropriate to word processing, and that depending on the language proficiency and writing experience of the students, certain aspects of software are crucial.
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  • Computers, Composition, and EFL (4) Basics and practical reports in Kluge et al. (eds). (1994). Re-imaging computers and composition by Hawisher & LeBlanc (eds.). (1992) Computers and EFL writing: Basic principles and student reactions (See Susser et al. 1992)
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  • Word-processing exercise approach = process writing composition approach = genre writing Model writing as a guide is useful. Thinking is very important for writing because if the thought is NOT clear, the result of the writing is NOT clear. Necessary to be alert about the differences of word-processors
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  • Word processing and related writing tools Machine Assisted Translation Foreign language word processor Thesaurus Spelling checker Grammar checker Dictionary Writing assistants
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  • Discussion Topic on Word Processing (1) Q.1. Why do we use a word processor? There are basically 5 benefits of using word-processors especially in the teaching of writing. What are they? Ease of editing Clean copy Ownership of text Collaboration Typing skills
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  • Discussion Topic on Word Processing (2) Q.2. The word processor is primarily a writing tool and can be used with foreign language classes in two basic ways which are not mutually exclusive. What are those two ways? Exercise approach Composition approach
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  • Discussion Topic on Word Processing (3) Q.3. How can you choose a word processor? There are some evaluations you should consider before actually purchasing their packages. What are they? the student (user) groups that will use the word- processor the features and limitations of the word-processor the ease with which text maybe edited on screen language documentation, manuals, language used
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  • Discussion Topic on Word Processing (4) Q.4. What are the advantages to use traditional pen-and-paper rather than a word processor? Not mechanical/express emotional or spiritual condition/quicker to compose sentences/no skills required/no restrictions on font, size, format of the writing/remember words and sentences better/cheap tools/easy to identify who has written with strokes of the writings/no electricity required/express one's personality/flexible work is possible/
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  • Using a Word Processor (1-1) Composing and editing word-processing mastery (See Huntley, 1997) Levels: High beginning + Aims: Master word-processing skills Class time: One class period Preparation time: 5-20 minutes Resources: Computer for everyone to two students, word-processing software, printer
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  • Using a Word Processor (1-2): Sample Directions _ Type in the text given (200-250 words) using 12-point New York font. Save the text. _ Give a title to the text. Center the title. Make it bold and in 14-point type. _ Change the subject (e.g. Tom to Susan) throughout the text. Change pronouns if necessary. _ Delete a sentence. _ Put Sentence 4 before sentence 3. _ Write two sentences of your own after the last sentence to continue the story. _ Add your name to the top right corner. _ Use the spelling checker to check for any spelling errors. _ Save your text. _ Print your text.
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  • Using a Word Processor (2-1) Checking the spelling checker (See Gardner, 1997) Levels: Intermediate + Aims: Learn to the limits of a computerized spelling checker Class time: 45 minutes Preparation time: 30 minutes Resources: Computer for every three students, word-processing software with spelling checker, printer
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  • Using a Word Processor (2-2): Procedure _ The original text with typing errors should be given to the students. _ The text after the spelling checker has made its suggestions should be given. _ What the writer actually wants the text to say should be given. _ Summarize the process and the result using the chart - Word the spelling checker stopped at, First solution offered, Solution you chose
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  • Using a Word Processor (Useful References) Hyland (1993) Windeatt (1987) Jones & Fortescue (1987) Plenty of its references can be found in CALL research papers and books.
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  • Computer Skills & a Process Writing Interactive writing: Integrating computer skills into a process writing syllabus (See Toff & Curran, 1998) The Keyboard Practical activities Teaching basic computer commands Saving Preparing a paper to hand in (Typing, Saving, and Printing) Communal viewing of screen revision Peer review on the computer
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  • Promoting Writing through the Internet (1) Using the Internet to promote writing in an international English composition class (See Freiermuth, 1997) Web search of articles and summary writing Critical writing and posting on a BBS or newsgroup
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  • Using computers at a distance to develop writing skills - Australskan Writing Project (1988) "Computer Pals across the world" - High school students as computer pals - cultural differences motivated them a lot. - practice of letters, reports, poetry, newspaper writings - intrinsically interesting - There were enormous educational benefits for the schools
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  • Promoting Writing through the Internet (2): Electronic Mail ( E-mail) E-mailing Basics and Netiquette - The elements of e-mail style by Angell & Heslop (1993) Using Email or Mailing List system you can persuade students write and read more communicative sentences among students themselves or between the teacher and students.
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  • Promoting Writing through the Internet (3): Mailing Lists SL-LISTS: International EFL/ESL E-mail Student Discussion Lists To make your students subscribe, you have to send a blank message to: and find out what you are supposed to do first. CHAT-SL (Student EFL/ESL General Discussion List - Low Level) DISCUSS-SL (Student EFL/ESL General Discussion List - High Level) BUSINESS-SL (Student EFL/ESL Discussion List on Business English) ENGL-SL (Student EFL/ESL Discussion List on Learning English) EVENT-SL (Student EFL/ESL Discussion List on Current Events) MOVIE-SL (Student EFL/ESL Discussion List on the Cinema) MUSIC-SL (Student EFL/ESL Discussion List on Music) SPORT-SL (Student EFL/ESL Discussion List on Sports) SCITECH-SL (Student EFL/ESL Discussion List on Science and Technology)
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  • Promoting Writing through the Internet (4): Newsgroups There are more than 15,000 newsgroups in the world. A good place to practice posting to newsgroups without annoying everyone. alt.usage.english soc.penpals
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  • Promoting Writing through the Internet (5): Bulletin Board System (BBS)/Web Discussion Boards Using BBS or Web discussion boards students can exchange their own ideas on topics which they ar