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    How to design and implement a drinking

    and driving programme

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  • 33.1 Gaining political and community support for a drinking and driving programme. . 513 .1 .1. How.to.establish.and.coordinate.a.working.group.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513.2 How to prepare a plan of action . . . . . . . 553 .2 .1. Identifying.the.problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573 .2 .2. Setting.the.programme’s.objectives. . . . . 573 .2 .3. Setting.clear.targets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 583 .2 .4. Setting.performance.indicators. . . . . . . . . 603 .2 .5. Deciding.on.activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 613 .2 .6. Piloting.the.programme.in.a.community.or.region. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 613 .2 .7. Setting.a.timeframe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643 .2 .8. Estimating.resource.needs . . . . . . . . . . . . 643 .2 .9. Promoting.the.programme. . . . . . . . . . . . 663 .2 .10. Setting.up.a.monitoring.mechanism. . . . . 663 .2 .11. Identify.capacity-building.and.training.requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 3 .2 .12. Ensuring.sustainability.of.the..

    programme. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

    3 .2 .13. Celebrating.success . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

    3.3 Interventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

    3 .3 .1. How.to.develop.and.implement.laws.on. drinking.and.driving. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

    3 .3 .2. How.to.enforce.drinking.and.driving.laws. 79

    3 .3 .3. Punishments.and.sanctions.for.drinking.and. driving.offences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

    3.4 Social marketing and public education .97

    3 .4 .1. How.to.raise.public.awareness.and. change.attitudes.through.a.mass. media.campaign. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

    3 .4 .2. Getting.the.campaign.message.to.the. target.audience.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

    3.5 Community-based interventions. . . . . . 107

    3.6 Engineering countermeasures . . . . . . . . 110

    3.7 Ensuring an appropriate medical response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

    3 .7 .1. Organization.and.planning.of.trauma. care.systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

    3 .7 .2. Crash-site.care.of.alcohol-impaired. casualties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

    Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

    References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

    How to design and implement a drinking and driving programme

  • The previous module described how to assess the drinking and driving situ-ation in a country or region. This module describes how to use this information to design and implement a targeted programme to reduce the incidence of drinking and driving. It includes not only technical information but also the practical infor- mation needed to ensure that implementation is smooth.

    A national or regional programme to reduce the number of road crashes involv- ing alcohol is a long-term commitment. It will have a long-term objective, such as reducing the number of road crashes involving drinking and driving by a certain percentage within a specific time period. It will also contain a number of specific components that will help “deliver” the programme objective. A number of possible components of a national or regional drinking and driving programme are included in this module, such as implementing or strengthening legislation, the enforcement of drinking and driving laws, punishments and sanctions for offenders, and targeted public information campaigns and community programmes.

    While all countries differ in terms of culture, the role of alcohol in society, indus- trialisation, motorization and existing road safety problems, there are a number of underlying “rules” and principles that apply to any road safety intervention pro- gramme. This module is not prescriptive in terms of the order in which the described elements are followed.

    The sections in this module provide guidance on the following issues:

    3.1 Gaining political and community support for a drinking and driving programme: The dedicated support of key political community leaders for a drinking and driving programme is critical for the programme’s success. This section provides guidance on a variety of steps that can be helpful in gaining the support needed, such as establishing a working group. 3.2 How to prepare a plan of action: This section describes the necessary steps to form an action plan for the development and implementation of a drinking and driving programme. These steps include: identifying the problem, setting objec- tives and targets, deciding on activities and piloting the programme, setting a time- frame, estimating resources and monitoring the programme. Figure 3.2 provides an overview of the steps in this process, and where more detail can be found on them in this manual. 3.3 Interventions: In this core section of the manual, guidance is provided on a range of interventions that can be included in a drinking and driving programme. Some of these interventions are recommended as “high priority” based on research and their proven effectiveness in reducing the incidence of drinking and driving in particular countries. Table 2.6 in module 2 provides an overview of initiatives considered as high, medium or low priority for countries in the initial stages of developing a drinking and driving programme. Interventions discussed in this manual include laws (and setting blood alcohol content (BAC) limits), enforce- ment of these laws, publicity campaigns and community programmes.

    Drinking and Driv ing: a road safety manual

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  • 3.4 Social marketing and public education: This section shows how mass media campaigns can increase public knowledge about legislation and raise awareness of increased enforcement. The objectives and target group of such a mass media cam- paign should be clearly identified, and advertising and public relations specialists should be employed to create targeted campaign messages and materials. The effects of the mass media element of the drinking and driving campaign on the opinions and behaviour of road users should be closely monitored and evaluated, and lessons learned should be used to improve the quality and impact of future campaigns. 3.5 Community-based interventions: Drinking and driving interventions undertaken by and involving the local community can be effective in educating the public about the risks involved in drinking and driving, and preventing it from taking place. This section highlights the interventions of voluntary organizations created specifically to prevent drinking and driving, to programmes undertaken by employers, schools, outlets selling alcohol, and designated-driver programmes. 3.6 Engineering interventions: This section looks at the benefits of engineer- ing interventions to prevent crashes involving drinking and driving. These include reducing roadside hazards for drivers and pedestrians, lower speed limits, better lighting, “refuge islands” to allow staged road crossing, and improved pedestrian signals at traffic lights. 3.7 Ensuring an appropriate medical response: In planning a drinking and driving programme it is also important to consider the ability to respond to crashes that involve victims who are impaired by alcohol. This means taking into consideration the capacity to provide an appropriate first aid response and address- ing existing pre-hospital care and trauma care systems.

    BOX 3.1: The Polish national road safety programme (GAMBIT 2005)

    1. Revise laws on drinking and driving:

    to modify drink-driving and drug-driving laws.

    2. Improve public education and communications to raise awareness of the role of alcohol in crashes:

    to nurture, through school education, negative attitudes to driving while under the influence of alcohol

    or similar substances;

    to make “sober driving” part of driver training;

    to introduce systematic drink-drive campaigns.

    3. Improve enforcement of drinking and driving laws:

    to provide road traffic enforcement services with devices for recording and testing drivers for alcohol

    and other substances;

    to improve random driver-sobriety checks as a standard test procedure;

    to introduce random checks on drivers for substances other than alcohol;

    to promote vehicle devices that record and test drivers after they have been drinking.

    4. Conduct systematic studies of road use while under the influence of alcohol or other substances:

    to develop a system for monitoring the problem of drivers using roads under the influence of alcohol

    or other substances;

    to study the effectiveness of schemes designed to reduce the number of road users under t