How Animals Live Grouping animals (taxonomy) ¢â‚¬¢Animals can be grouped...
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How Animals Live Chapter 2 Review
What do animals need to survive?
• Air (oxygen)
• During the larva stage, the butterfly is called a caterpillar.
• During the pupa stage, the caterpillar forms a hard covering called a chrysalis.
• Only moths, not butterflies, form cocoons.
Frog life cycle
Grouping animals (taxonomy)
• Animals can be grouped by their traits, where they live, how they act, how they look, etc.
• In the animal kingdom, there are two main groups of animals
It’s not necessary to memorize every type of invertebrate. Just know worms/insects/spiders are part of this group & they have no backbone.
Know the 5 main groups of vertebrates
• Invertebrates are animals that do not have backbones.
• Examples of invertebrates are worms, insects, spiders, and
What is a vertebrate?
• A vertebrate is an animal with a backbone.
• Humans are vertebrates.
5 Main Groups of Vertebrates
• Spend parts of their lives in water and part on land.
• Have smooth, moist skin.
• Most breathe air through lungs only as adults and get oxygen through gills only when young.
• Lay eggs.
• Includes frogs, toads, and salamanders.
• Have dry, scaly skin
• Breathe air through lungs
• Lay eggs
• Examples include turtles, lizards, snakes, crocodiles, alligators, and geckos.
• Our classroom pet, Waldo the crested gecko, is a reptile!
• Most have hair or fur at least part of their lives
• Most developed inside their mothers
• Breathe with lungs
• Feed milk to their young
• Have slippery scales
• Breathe with gills
• Spend their entire lives in water
• Most lay eggs
• Have feathers and bills
• Breath with lungs
• Most fly
• Have wings and light bones
• Lay eggs
What is an adaptation?
• An adaptation is a trait that helps an animal meet its needs
and survive in its habitat (the
place where it lives).
What are the purposes of adaptations?
• Two main purposes include:
• To help animals get food
• For protection from predators
Adaptations to help animals get food
•Cardinals have short, strong bills to help them break open seeds.
•Pelicans have a bill with a pouch to help them catch fish.
Adaptations for protection from predators
•Porcupines have barbed quills.
•Lionfish have poisonous spines.
•Horned lizards have horns on their backs.
Poison/bad taste/bad smell
• Camouflage helps protect animals by helping them blend into their
• Walking sticks looks like twigs to confuse predators into thinking they
are not really insects.
• Body parts such as shells, claws, spikes, and thorns help protect
animals from other animals.
• Some animals have colors or markings that copy (mimic) those of another animal that is poisonous, tastes bad, etc.
• This tricks predators into leaving this animal alone.
• The viceroy butterfly looks like the bad-tasting Monarch butterfly.
Poison/Bad Taste/Bad Smell
• Poisonous snake venom
• Monarch butterflies taste bad
• Skunks can spray a bad odor
What does inherited mean?
• Inherited means “passed on from parents to their offspring.”
• You inherited certain features from your parents – maybe your eye color, hair color, or facial features look like either mom or dad.
• Animals also inherit traits from their parents. These traits often help them meet their needs where they live. For example, webbed feet are adaptations
that certain birds have developed to help them swim in water better. This
adaptation is inherited by the young from their parents.
What is an instinct?
• An instinct is a behavior an is animal is born able to do.
• Animals do NOT have to learn instincts from their parents.
• Baby birds are born able to open their mouths when they sense food nearby. They do not have to learn this.
• Some animals, such as bears, have an instinct to hibernate during the winter.
• Some animals hibernate during the winter months. They have an instinct to hibernate.
• During hibernation, their body systems slow down and they don’t need much food to
• Some animals, such as certain birds and
butterflies, have an
instinct to migrate, or
move, when the seasons
Review your sheet from the bear video
• Be able to describe one adaptation you wrote
about from the video
and know how this
adaptation helps the
How do we learn about animals from the past?
How do we compare them with today’s animals?
• Fossils are imprints of animals that lived long ago.
• Sometimes the actual bones of extinct animals were preserved in various ways. Example: If an animal fell in a tar pit, the bones of that animal may have been preserved.
• Fossils molds leave a cavity or mold in the shape of animal parts.
• Fossil casts are similar to molds but get filled in with other materials such as rock.
• Some insect or small animals got trapped in tree sap, which hardened into amber and preserved them over time.
This is the only one you
need to know for the
• Some insects and other small animals got trapped in tree sap long
ago. Over time, this sap turned into
a hard, yellowish-orange or reddish-
brown substance called amber.