Hop insects and diseases - Integrated Pest Management · PDF fileHop insects and diseases...

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  • Hop insects and diseases

    DianeBrown,MichiganStateUniversityExtension

  • diseasestokeepoutofyourhopyard Virusesandviroids

    useplantingmaterialcertifiedfreeofHSVd andothervirusesisthebestlineofdefense.

    Purchasevirusindexedstock. Theprimarymeansofspreadisbypropagationfrominfectedplants.

    Unintentionalpropagationfrominfectedrootpiecescananddoesoccur

    maytake3to5growingseasonsbeforeobvioussymptomsofthediseaseappear.

    ApplemosaicvirusDavidGent,USDAAgriculturalResearchService,Bugwood.org

  • VirustestingresultsforhopsinSWMRECtestplotsgrownfrom

    rhizomes

    Virustestinglabforhopsamples:ELISAlab,24106N.BunnRd.ProsserWAhttp://healthyplants.wsu.edu/contactinformation/

  • ManagementofHpSVd Manyplantsare

    symptomless Makesureplanting

    materialarefreefromHpSVdknowyoursource!

    Canbespreadplanttoplantmechanically bymowingorpruning,leafstripping

    Viroidispresentinplantsap;cansurviveinroots>1yr,3mo.inplantdebris Fociofinfectedhopplants

    http://www.fu.gov.si/en/services_and_measures/regulated_organisms/hop_stunt_viroid/graphical_material/

  • ManagementofHpSVd Testforpresenceofviroid Removeandreplantif

    possible Performfieldoperations

    inHpSVd freehopyardsfirst

    Decontaminateequipmentbetweenyards10%bleachfor10min.

    SymptomsoninfectedGlacierhop

    Photos:CompendiumofHopDiseasesandPests

  • ManagementofHpSVd

    Usingcontactherbicidestoholdbackvigorousnewannualgrowthinspringuntilthepropertrainingdateforthatvarietyandremoveweakshootsinthespringispreferabletotheuseofmechanicalmowersthatmaytransmittheviroid.

    Removingbasalvegetationlaterintheseasonbychemicalratherthanmechanicalmeansalsoreducestheriskoftransmission.

  • DelayinspringplantgrowthofHSVrd infectedbines

    Shortinternodesandpoorleafdevelopment

    CrackingofbinesinfectedwithHSVrd

    Stunted,poorgrowth,binesunwindduetodisturbanceofhookedclimbinghairs

    http://www.fu.gov.si/en/services_and_measures/regulated_organisms/hop_stunt_viroid/graphical_material/

  • HopmosaicvirusHpMV

    Transmittedbyaphids damsonhop,greenpeach Propagation,rootgrafts, Oftensymptomless mostseriousonvarietiesderivedfromGoldings

    Photos:CompendiumofHopDiseasesandPests

  • Applemosaicvirus

    Canreduceconewt.by50% CanreduceAAcontentby10% Maybesymptomless Spreadsbyplanttoplantcontact,infectedsap,androotgrafts

    Usevirusindexedplants

    SymptomsonNugget

    SymptomsonColumbus

    Photos:CompendiumofHopDiseasesandPests

  • HopsCleanPlantNetwork

    Hopsourcematerialistestedinitiallyfor: Americanhoplatentvirus* Applefruitcrinkleviroid(notknowntooccurinNorthAmerica) Applemosaicvirus*(a.k.a.Prunus necroticringspot virushop

    isolate) Arabis mosaicvirus Hoplatentviroid Hoplatentvirus* Hopmosaicvirus* Hopstuntviroid* Strawberrylatentringspot virus Phytoplasma Growninmeristemculture,tested3xmoretimesfor*viruses

  • HopsCleanPlantNetwork

    website:http://healthyplants.wsu.edu/hopprogramatcpcnw/

    http://healthyplants.wsu.edu/hopprogramatcpcnw/purchasinghopmaterial/

    Growinghopsfromhealthyunrooted cuttings:http://healthyplants.wsu.edu/hopprogramatcpcnw/growinghopsfromunrootedcuttings/

  • Hopcystnematode(Heteroderahumuli)

    ReportedinMichigan mostcommonplantparasiticnematode

    foundonhops. U.S.,Canada,Europe,NewZealand,

    Australiaandotherlocations. foundinthesoilandinandonhoproots. Thereare12generationsperyear. Thecystsarebrowntoblack,lemonshapedandsmaller

    thantheheadofapin. Malesaretransparentandlessthan1/25thofaninchlong. Femalesarecreamcoloredandlemonshapedandabout

    1/50thofaninchlong.

    Cystscontainingeggs

    Photos:CompendiumofHopDiseasesandPests

  • cystnematodelifecycle,www.plantpath.iastate.edu

    Hoproot

    overwintering

    Hopcystnematode

    spring

    EarlysummerJ2of2nd gen.

    12generations/year

  • Hopcystnematode Cancausehopyield

    decreaseof50%anddeteriorationofquality.

    Lossesdependonthenematodepopulationdensitythisinsoilinspringandonplantgrowthstage.

    Adecreaseinthesurvivabilityofhopcuttingshasbeenalsorecorded

    Mayinteractwithverticillium wiltfungus

  • Verticillium wilt

    DavidGent,USDAAgriculturalResearchService,Bugwood.org

    Causedbyafungus Soilborne Formmicrosclerotia inthesoil Multiplehosts Canliveforlongperiodsinthesoil

  • Verticillium wilt

    DavidGent,USDAAgriculturalResearchService,Bugwood.org

    Noeffectivechemicalcontrols

    Croprotation 4yearsgrasses

    Rogueinfectedplants Limitnitrogen Reducedtillage Removecropdebris

  • Crowngall Agrobacteriumtumefaciens Causedbyasoilinhabitingbacterium Broadhostrange Ofmostconcerninnewplantings

    GallsymptomsonbinesandcrownsPhotos:CompendiumofHopDiseasesandPests

  • Crowngall Agrobacteriumtumefaciens InfectionthroughwoundsFrostinjuryormechanical

    Spreadplantingstock,irrigationwater,cuttingtools

    Survivesininfestedsoil,plantdebris,

    GallsymptomsonbinesandcrownsPhotos:CompendiumofHopDiseasesandPests

  • Crowngall Agrobacteriumtumefaciens Usehealthyplantingstock Removeanddestroyinfectedplants Galltrol somereportedeffectivenessonaerialstems

    GallsymptomsonbinesandcrownsPhotos:CompendiumofHopDiseasesandPests

  • Managementofsomecommonhopinsects,mitesanddiseases

    2spottedspidermites Hopaphids Japanesebeetles Potatoleafhopper Downymildew Powderymildew

  • Thelabelisthelaw

    Itisaviolationofthelawtodisregardlabeldirections.

    Alwaysreadthelabelbeforeusinganypesticide. You,thegrower,areresponsibleforsafepesticideuse.Trade(brand)namesareprovidedforyourreferenceonly.

    Nodiscriminationisintended,andotherpesticideswiththesameactiveingredientmaybesuitable.

    Noendorsementisimplied.

  • Managingresistance

    Rotatemodesofaction FRACcodes IRACcodes Followlabeldirectionsforresistancemanagement

    Tankmixeswithmultisitepartners Recognizesignsofpestresistance Suddenorgraduallossofcontrol

  • Malespidermite,nymphwithegg

    FemalespidermitesPhotos:Compendiumofhopdiseasesandpests

  • Photos:Compendiumofhopdiseasesandpests

    Spidermites

    Femalesoverwinterincrowns,cracksinhoppoles

    layeggsinspringbothmaleandfemale Nymphshavetwomoltstobecomeadults 13weeks/generationdependingontemperatures

  • Twospottedspidermite

    Sampleregularly,beginninginlateMayorearlierifweatherisverydry.2leavesfrom20plants

    Miticides:Usehighvolumeapplicationstoensurecompletecoverage.

    ThresholdsfromPacificNorthwestProvisionalthresholdis

    2adults/leafJune 5to10mites/leafmidJuly

  • Twospottedspidermites AbamectinRUP6

    AgriMekmustusewithnonionicsurfactant EpiMek Temprano ABBA

    Brigade(bifenthrin)RUP 3A Brigadier(bifenthrin/imidacloprid)RUP3A/4A MANADicofol4E REIis29daysUN Acramite(bifenazate)UN Savey50DF(hexythiazox)10A

  • Twospottedspidermites Fujimite(fenpyroximate)XLO21A Envidor(spirodiclofen)23 Wettablesulfur checklabelforOMRIapproval Acoidal,CosavetDF,Kulumus,MicrothiolDisperssareOMRIlabeled

    PureSprayGreen,OmniSupremeSpray,Suffoilx(mineraloil)MOMRI

    Desexinsecticialsoap,MpedepotassiumsaltsoffattyacidsMOMRI

    Trilogy(azadiractin)UNOMRI Ecotec(rosemaryoilandpeppermintoil)OMRI

  • PLH PLHwillbefoundontheundersideofleavessoflipleavesandshootsover

    GrowersmayalsochosetoplacetwosidedyellowstickytrapsinthefieldtocatchPLH

    PLHmoveinalldirectionswhen AlthoughhopplantsaresusceptibletoPLH,theycantoleratesomeleveloffeedingandgrowersshouldbeconservativeintheapplicationofinsecticides

    AtthistimethereisnoseteconomicthresholdforPLHinhops.

  • PLH

  • PLHManagement Themostcommonefficaciousinsecticidesrecommendedfor

    thecontrolofpotatoleafhoppersincludethepyrethroidsandneonicitinoids

    Pyrethroidsareeffectiveatcontrollingpotatoleafhoppersandremainrelativelyinexpensive,however,pyrethroidshavebeenshowntocauseincreasesinmite

    Neonicitinoidsarelongerlastingandnarrowspectrummakingthemasolidchoiceformanagement

    PyganicandTrilogyareOMRIapprovedinsecticidesorganicgrowersmightconsiderforPLHmanagement

  • Damsonhopaphid

    Photos:compendiumofhopdiseasesandpests

  • Hopaphids overwinteraseggsonwildandcultivatedPrunus species MultiplegenerationsdeveloponPrunus host;canstay

    onPrunus spp.throughoutthesummer,particularlyonthesuckergrowthofplums.

    WingedfemalesproducedinMay;movetohopplants Givebirthtomanygenerationsofwinglessfemaleson

    hops littlemovementwithinorbetweenhops InSeptember,femalesgivebirthtowingedfemalesand

    malesthatreturnto Prunus. OnPrunus,thefemalesgivebirthtoegg layingfemales WingedmalesmatewiththemonPrunus. Fertilizedfemaleslayeggs;cyclestartsagain.

  • Hopaphids !Transmitseveralhopviruses hopmosaicvirus,Americanhoplatentvirus

    Infestationsdevelopmorerapidlyduringcoolweather.

    limitexcessivenitrogenapplicationfavorsaphidoutbreaks. Scoutingisrecommended2040leaves Provisionalthresholdnumbersare8to10aphidsperleaf

  • Aphidsshouldbecontrolledbeforeorduringfloweringtopreventthemfromenteringyoungcones.

    aphidssecretehoneydewandcausecansootymoldtogrowinhopcones

    Thresholdnumbersoftendeclinetozerowhenconesarepresent.

    Enhancinghabitattoencouragebeneficialpredatoryinsectscanreducepopulationsofaphids.

    Photo:SteveMiller,CornellHops Specialist

  • Insecticidesforhopaphids Malathion1B Baythroid (betacyfluthrin)3A Brigade(bifenthrin)3A Brigadier(bifenthrin/imidacloprid3A/4A)

    Platinum(thiamethoxam)4A Provado (imidacloprid)4A Fulfill (pymetrozine) 9B Movento (spirotetramat)23

  • Insecticidesforhopaphids OMRIlisted Azadirect,(azadiractin)UN