HIV STIGMATIZATION IN NIGERIA

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  • HIV/AIDS AND STIGMATIZATION IN NIGERIAPRESENTED BYRN/BSN EME AGBAI C.

  • AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDYThe overall purpose of this study is to identify factors responsible for the stigmatization of people living with HIV. To this end, an attempt would be made toExamine the knowledge of the public on the concept of HIV/AIDS.Assess the attitudes of the public towards People living with HIV/AIDS.

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

    The stigma attached to infected people affects the treatment and management of HIV/AIDS because the regimen may require a holistic approach and most of the infected people are mostly neglected by their loved ones.According to the HIV/AIDS Stigma Index of Nigeria, 11 percent of HIV-positive people are regularly excluded from family activities; while 9 percent are prevented from attending social gatherings such as weddings and funerals

  • Children orphaned by AIDS

  • Nma Okam, Who Was Named Miss HIV Stigma Free in 2003.

  • METHODOLOGYRESEARCH DESIGN; The research design was descriptive qualitative non-experimental survey with a self developed questionnaire was used for the participants.

    STUDY SETTING; The study was conducted in Umuahia, the capital of Abia State in southeastern Nigeria. Most of the people in this local government area engage in petty farming and trading activities.

  • DATA ANALYSISTHE TABLE above shows the age distribution of the subjects of the 500 participants. 75(15%) were in ages 15-20, 100(20%) were between 21-25years, 95(19%) were in ages of 26-30yrs, 87(17.4%) were 31-35years, 103(20.6%) falls within ages 36-40years while the remaining 40(8%) were 41years and above.AGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS

    AGES IN YEARSFREQUENCYPERCENTAGE (%)18-207515.021-2510020.026-309519.031-358717.436-4010320.641 and above408.0TOTAL500100.0

  • THE TABLE above is on the gender of the respondents, 268 (53.6%) were male while 232 (46.4%) were femaleGENDER OF THE RESPONDENT

    GENDERFREQUENCYPERCENTAGE (%)Male26853.6Female23246.4Total(N)500100.0

  • TABLE 4.5shows the educational status of the respondents. 21(4.2%) had no formal education, 115(23%) were primary school certificate holders, 205(41%) which form the majority were secondary school leavers, 134(26.8%) had obtained HND and University certificate, while the remaining 25(5%) were either of the above.

    EDUCATIONAL STATUS OF THE RESPONDENTS

    EDUCATIONAL STATUSFREQUENCYPERCENTAGE (%)No formal education214.2Primary school11523.0Secondary School Certificate20541.0HND/University Graduates13426.8Others255.0Total500100.0

  • KNOWLEDGE OF RESPONDENTS ON HIV/AIDSThe table and figure above shows that 36% of respondents accepted that anybody can suffer from HIV/AIDS, while 64% objected. 83% agreed that HIV/AIDS is common among the less privileged people but 17% disagreed. 57,2% agreed that people can reduce their chances of getting HIV by having a monogamous sexual relationship with an HIV-negative partner while 42,8% disagreed. people can get HIV from sharing food with a person who has HIV or AIDS 60,2% agreed and 29,8% disagreed. 30% agreed that Is it possible for a healthy-looking person to transmit HIV and 70% disagreed.

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  • GENERAL ATTITUDE OF RESPONDENTS TOWARDS THE HIV/AIDS INFECTED PEOPLEThe Table and figure above reveal that 63.4% respondents accepted that If you have HIV you must have done something wrong to deserve it while 36.6% objected. 56% agreed that People living with HIV should feel ashamed while 44% disagreed. 60.2% agreed that HIV-positive physicians and nurses should not practice medicine while 39.8% disagreed. 60% agreed that HIV infected people should not be given any courtesy respect and dignity while 40% disagreed. 57.0% agreed that Infected People can become normal and productive citizens with treatment while 43.0% disagreed.

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  • FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR SOCIAL DISTANCE60.8% believed that they are victims of bad fate while 39.2% disagreed. 83% respondents agreed they remain on drugs for the rest of their life while 17% disagreed. 53.0% agreed that The attitude of health providers to the HIV infected people and their family make the public not to give any social support to them but 47.0% disagreed. 65.4% agreed that health facilities have a policy to protect HIV-positive patients from discrimination while 34.6% disagreed.

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  • Summary 1 What is HIV/AIDS? HIV/AIDS is a syndrome but not a disease where an HIV virus enters and gradually destroys the immune system of its host thereby making the carrier to be more susceptible to infections, diseases until the immune system or the CD4 counts reduces to about 250 or below then the S/S of AIDS set in.

    2 Why do people stigmatize against people living with HIV? Persons living with HIV are stigmatized because the public have poor or inadequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS. They believe that infected people are victims of bad fate; if you have HIV you must have done something wrong to deserve it, Infected People cannot become normal and productive citizens with treatment.

  • Summary 3 What are the causes of stigma associated with HIV? Majority of respondents believe that they remain on drugs for the rest of their life, People who are infected should not be employed or appointed into a public office, HIV infected people should not be given any courtesy respect and dignity, these may be due to extreme negative beliefs and myths the society and even some churches attach to HIV. 4 What is the relationship between the educational level of the respondents and their attitude to HIV? There is significant difference in the attitude of the educated and none educated towards people living with HIV.

  • Summary 5 What can we do to reduce stigmatization of people living with HIV? The society need to be educated on the causes, course and management of HIV so that they dont continue to discriminate against people living with HIV. Also the societies need to be educated that being HIV positive does not mean a death sentence.

  • RECOMMENDATIONStigma towards people living with HIV has detrimental effects on their ability to obtain services, their recovery, the type of treatment and support they receive, as well as their acceptance in the work place and society at large. It is therefore, pertinent to re-orientate the mindsets of the public so that they can give all the necessary support to people living with HIV.There is need to educate the media on the concept of HIV, course, causes, treatment and rehabilitation so that when they are dealing with the issue of HIV they will transmit the right information to the public.

  • RECOMMENDATIONIt is also recommended that stigma reduction involve programs of advocacy, public education and contact with persons living with HIV through schools, organizations, seminars, public lectures and business to discuss these issues with individuals who have been successfully treated for HIV and still living their normal life and adapted/accepted in the society. There is need to introduce into the primary and secondary school curriculum the concept of preventive measures to increase the knowledge base of the pupils with regard to HIV.

  • RECOMMENDATIONFormer South-African President Nelson Mandela said that people were born and the ability to hate or learn is a learned attribute therefore the same way people learnt to hate or discriminate against one another, people can also be taught and learn how to love one another also, this means we as public health nurses and workers can sponsor various facilities to promote love for HIV infected people rather than them being discriminated by the society because we are all either affected or infected.

  • THANK YOU AND GOD BLESS