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  • History of Europe 1

    History of Europe

    History of Europe Timeline


    | Europe depicted by Antwerp cartographer Abraham Ortelius in 1595.

    700 BC Epic poem Iliad by Homer, earliest account on the continent.

    360 BC Plato attacks Athenian democracy in the Republic.

    323 BC Alexander the Great dies and his Macedonian Empire fragments.

    44 BC Julius Caesar is murdered. The Roman Republic drawing to a close.

    27 BC Establishment of the Roman Empire under Octavian.

    AD 330 Constantine makes Constantinople into his capital, a new Rome.

    395 Following the death of Theodosius I, the Empire is permanently split into eastern and western halves.

    527 Justinian I is crowned emperor of Byzantium.

    800 Coronation of Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor.

    1054 Start of the East-West Schism, which divides the Christian church for centuries.

    1066 Successful Norman Invasion of England by William the Conqueror.

    1095 Pope Urban II calls for the First Crusade.

    1340 Black Death kills a third of Europe's population.

    1337 - 1453 The Hundred Years War

    1453 Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks.

    1492 Christopher Columbus lands in the New World.

    1497 Vasco da Gama departs to India starting direct trade with Asia.

    1498 Leonardo da Vinci paints The Last Supper in Milan, as the Renaissance flourishes.

    1517 Martin Luther nails his demands for Reformation to the door of the church in Wittenberg.

    1648 The Peace of Westphalia ends the Thirty Years' War.

    1707 The United Kingdom of Great Britain is formed by the union of England and Scotland.

    1789 The French Revolution.

    1815 Following the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte the Treaty of Vienna is signed.

    1860s Russia emancipates its serfs and Karl Marx completes the first volume of Das Kapital.


  • History of Europe 2

    1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria is assassinated and World War I begins.

    1945 World War II ends with Europe in ruins.

    1950 The Schuman declaration begins European unity.

    1989 The Berlin Wall comes down leading to the end of Communism in Europe.

    2004 The European Union takes in most of the former communist east, reuniting the continent.

    History of Europe describes the history of humans inhabiting the European continent since it was first populated inprehistoric times to present, with the first human settlement between 45,000 and 25,000 BC.Greco-Roman civilizations dominated Classical antiquity starting in Ancient Greece, generally considered to be theseminal culture which provided the foundation of Western civilization and immensely influential on language,politics, educational systems, philosophy, science and the arts, with the writing of the epic Iliad at around 700 BC.Those values were inherited by the Roman Republic established in 509 BC, having expanded from Italy, centered inthe Mediterranean Sea, until the Roman Empire reached its greatest extent around the year 150.After a period of civil wars, emperor Constantine I shifted the capital from Rome to the Greek town Byzantium in313, then renamed Constantinople (modern Istanbul), having legalized Christianity. In 395 the empire waspermanently split in two, with the Western Roman Empire repeatedly attacked during the migration period. Romewas sacked in 410 by the Visigoths, the first of the Germanic peoples migrating into Roman territories. With the lastWest Roman emperor removed in 476, Southeastern Europe and some parts of the Mediterranean remained under theEastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire) up to the later 6th century.As Constantinople faltered, Germanic peoples established kingdoms in western territories. The new states sharedLatin written language, lingering Roman culture and Christian religion. Much territory was brought under the rule ofthe Franks by Charlemagne, whom the pope crowned western Emperor in 800, but soon divided while Europe cameunder attack from Vikings, Muslims from North Africa, and Magyars from Hungary. By the mid-10th century thethreat had increased, although Vikings remained threatening the British Isles.In 1054 AD a schism divided Christian Church into Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, but from 1095 aseries of religiously sanctioned military campaigns were waged by coalitions of Latin Christian Europeans, inresponse to a call from the Byzantine Empire, for help against the Muslim expansion. Spain, southern France,Lithuania and pagan regions were consolidated during this time, with the last large-scale crusade of the Middle Agesfought in 1396. Complex feudal loyalties developed and the aristocracy of new nations become very closely relatedby intermarriage. The feudal society began to break as Mongol invaded frontier areas and the Black Death pandemickilled from 30% to 60% of Europe's population.[1]

    Beginning roughly in the 14th century in Florence, and later spreading through Europe with the development ofprinting press, a Renaissance of knowledge challenged traditional doctrines in science and theology, with therediscovery of classical Greek and Roman knowledge. Simultaneously Protestant Reformation under German MartinLuther questioned Papal authority. Henry VIII sundered the English Church, allying in ensuing religious warsbetween German and Spanish rulers. The Reconquista of Portugal and Spain led to a series of oceanic explorationsresulting in the age of discovery that established direct links with Africa, the Americas and Asia, while religiouswars continued to be fought in Europe,[2] which ended in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia.European overseas expansion led to the rise of colonial empires, producing the Columbian Exchange.[3] Thecombination of resource inflows from the New World and the Industrial Revolution of Great Britain, allowed a neweconomy based on manufacturing instead of subsistence agriculture.[4] Starting in 1775, British Empire colonies inAmerica revolted to establish a representative government. Political change in continental Europe was spurred by theFrench Revolution under the motto libert, egalit, fraternit. The ensuing French leader, Napoleon Bonaparte,conquered and enforced reforms through war up to 1815.