History notes form 2

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Transcript of History notes form 2

  • History Form 2

    Stephanie Ellul

  • History Form 2 Ms.S.Ellul


    1. The fall of the Roman Republic

    In a republic, citizens can choose their leaders.

    The Roman republic was established in 509 B.C. and lasted nearly 500 years.

    One difference between the Roman republic and the Greek democracy was

    that in Greece all men could vote, but in Rome, only men with money and

    property could vote.

    Since the Romans did not want one man to make all of the laws, they

    decided to balance the power of the government between three branches:

    1. The executive branch - The consuls, who were elected for just one year by

    the upper class and had to supervise the Senate and order the Roman

    army during wars.

    2. The legislative branch The Senate, which consisted of a group of about

    300 male citizens. They owned land and they could tell the consuls how

    much money they could spend and on what.

    3. The judicial branch Which was made up of six judges who were elected

    every two years and were in charge of deciding punishments that criminals

    would receive.

    You might find the following website interesting:


  • History Form 2 Ms.S.Ellul


    Who was Julius Caesar?

    Was born into a wealthy family and he was a

    well-educated child.

    In 59 BC, he was appointed a consul and in 58

    BC he went to Gaul (France) where he served

    as governor.

    Was seen by some as a cruel man solely

    driven by expanding his own personal power.

    Who was Pompey?

    was one of the most powerful consuls together with Caesar.

    was know as Pompey the Great.

    What happened between them?

    Pompey was married to Caesars daughter but fought against him because

    they both wanted power.

    A. In not more than 150 words write the difference between Roman Republic

    and Roman Empire.











    (12 marks)

  • History Form 2 Ms.S.Ellul


    B. Crossword




    10 4



    8 3



    a) 1. was one of the most powerful consuls of the Roman 2.


    b) Caesar was the governor of which country? 3. .

    c) 4. was one of the most powerful consuls together with


    d) Cleopatra was the 5. of 6. .


    e) The 7.__________ consisted of 300 male 8. ___.

    f) Caesar was appointed 9. because he wanted to be the only

    person in power.

    g) Caesar's heir, later known as 10. , rose to sole power, and

    the era of the Roman 11. began.

    (11 marks)

  • History Form 2 Ms.S.Ellul


    2. Constantine and Christianity in Europe

    In the first few centuries AD, Christians were

    prosecuted and punished, often with death by the

    Emperor Nero. Moreover, some say that Nero was

    responsible for a colossal fire that broke out at

    Rome and destroyed much of the city.

    All this changed when Constantine became the Emperor of the Roman


    Constantine brought about many changes in the empire. Here are some of

    the good changes brought by him:

    1. ____________________________________________________________________

    2. ____________________________________________________________________

    3. ____________________________________________________________________

    4. ______________________________________________________________________

    (2.5 marks)

    Constantine chose Christian men as his

    advisers. He provided many benefits for the

    clergy. The clergy did not have to pay taxes

    and they did not have to serve in the military.

    Constantine also contributed greatly to the

    building of great church buildings. Magnificent

    church buildings were built in Jerusalem,

    Bethlehem, Constantinople and other places.

    Constantine wanted all men everywhere to embrace the Christian faith and

    he wanted Christians to be united together. He thought that Christianity was

    the one thing that could unite his empire and make it great.

  • History Form 2 Ms.S.Ellul


    It was during the time of Constantine the great, that the Church in Malta


    Saint Paul's Shipwreck on his way to Rome in AD 60, saw the beginning of

    Christianity in Malta. The conversation to Christianity did not happen in a blink

    of an eye but Saint Paul managed to convert a large number of Maltese to

    the Christian faith. According to tradition, Publius, the Roman Governor of

    Malta at the time of Saint Paul's shipwreck, became the first Bishop of Malta.

    A. Mark T for True and F for False in the boxes provided.

    1. Constantine was known as Constantine the Great. ____

    2. Nero established Constantinople as the new capital of Rome. ____

    3. Constantine was the first Roman Emperor to recognize Christianity. ____

    4. Constantine took from the Christians all their property. ____

    5. Saint Paul's Shipwreck on his way to Rome happened in AD 400. ____

    6. Saint Paul managed to convert a large number of Maltese to the Christian

    faith. ____

    7. Publius was the Governor of Greece at the time of Saint Paul's shipwreck.


    8. Saint Paul became the first Bishop of Malta following his conversion to

    Christianity. ____

    (4 marks)

    3. The Byzantine Empire

    In order to improve and maintain control,

    the work of the Emperor was divided

    between different individuals. These so

    called co-emperors had a form of power-


  • History Form 2 Ms.S.Ellul


    The division of labour was divided between the Western and Eastern Empire

    and often this division created a sense of competition between the co-


    In 330 AD, Constantine, transferred the capital from Rome to Byzantine which

    is located on the eastern region of the European continent.

    Constantinople: Istanbul today

    Byzantine, and its capital

    Constantinople, held a strategic

    geographical significance because it

    is located right between the Black

    Sea and the entrance to the

    Mediterranean Sea.

    One of the most famous buildings in

    Constantinople was the church of

    Hagia Sophia which was the largest

  • History Form 2 Ms.S.Ellul


    cathedral in the world for nearly a thousand years. This building was originally

    constructed as a church.

    The end of the Byzantine Empire

    The Byzantine Empire feared the Turks in fact the emperor asked the leader of

    the Christian churchthe Popeto assist in a holy war against the Turks.

    In the end, the Turks conquered the Byzantine Empire. Turkish has replaced

    Greek as the language and more than 99% of the people in modern Turkey

    are Muslims.


  • History Form 2 Ms.S.Ellul


    4. The Arabs and the rise of Mohammed

    In the ____________ there wa