Historical Steelwork Handbook

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    HSTORIC LSTRUCTUR L STEELWORKH NDBOOKPr oper t i es of U K and EuropeanCast r o n Wought I ron and SteelSect i ons i ncl udi ng Desi gn Load andSt r ess Dat a s i nce t he d 19thCent ury

    P ub l i s h ed byhe Br i t i sh Const r uct i onal St eel work Associ at i on L imted4 Whi t ehal l Cour t Westm nst er London SW ESelephone 071 839 8566

    Compi l ed and W i t t e n byates CEng FI Str uctE

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    UDC 624. 94. 0 1 4 . 2I SBN 0850730155

    BatesHi s t o r i c al s t r u c t u r a l st eel work handbook Commer ci al bui l di ngs Handbooks mnual s et c 2 Structural f r ames Handbooks manual s et c3 Col umns I r o n and s t e e l Handbooks manual s et c 4

    T r u s s e s Handbooks manual s et c 5

    I n d u s t r i a l bui l di ngs Handbooks manual s et c

    I T i t l e693 . 71

    TH4311

    I SBN o 85073 01 5 5

    The B r i t i s h Const r uct i onal Steel work Associ ati on Lt d BCSA i s the nat i onalr epresent a t i ve or gan i s a t i on f or the Const r uct i onal Steel work I ndu s t r y i t s Membercompani es undert ake t he desi gn fabri cati on and erect i on of st eel work f or al l f o r m o fcons tr uct i on i n bui l di ng andc i v i l engi neeri ng Associ ateMembers arethosepr i nci palcompani es i nvol ved i n the purchase, desi gn or supp y of components, mat eri al sservices et c r e l a t e d t o the i ndus t r y Thepr i ncpal obj ect i ves o f theAssoci ati on are t opr omot e t he use of s t r u c t u r a l st eel work ; t o a s s i s t s pec i f i e r s and c l i e n t s ; t o ensure t h a tthe capabi l i t i es and act i v i t i es of the i ndus t r y are w del y understoodand t o provi demmbers w t h pr of es si o nal servi ces i n t e c hn i c a l commer ci al contr act ual and qual i tyassurance m t t e r s

    Al though care has been taken t o ensure tothebest of i t s knowedge, that al l dataand i nformati on contai ned herei n i s accurate t o the ext ent that i t r e l a t e s t o ei t hermatters of f act or accepted pr act i ce or matters of op ni on at thetimof publ i cati onTheB r i t i s h Constructi onal Steel work Associati onLtddoes not assum r e s pons i bi l i t yf or any er rors i n or ms i nt e rpre t a t i ons of such data and/or i nfor mat i on or any l os s ordamge a r i s i n g f r o m or r e l a t e d t o i t s us e Copyri ght o f t he cont ents o f t hi s publ i cati onbel ongs t o The B r i t i s h Const r uct i onal Steel work Associ at i on Ltd 4 Whi t eha l l CourtWestmnster, London SW A2ES I t maynot be cop ed i n any formor s t o re d i n aret r i eval systemwthout the BCSAspermssi on

    Thi s book i s oneof a s er i e s of publ i ca t i ons producedby the BCSAt o gi ve practi caladvi ceandgui dance t o al l personnel engaged i n worki ngwi t h s t ruc tura l steel work i nthe cons tr uct i on i ndus t r y For det a i l s o f ot her publ i cat i ons contact the BCSA

    1s t E d i t i o n Ap r i l 84 M2nd I mpr ess i on March 87 0 4M3rd I mpr ess i on A pr i l 90 0. 3M4th I mpr ess i on A pr i l 91 0. 5MPri nted by The Chamel eon Press Limt ed 5 2 5 Burr Road London SW184SG

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    PREFACEOneof themost regul ar questi ons theBCSAi s askedas part of i t s advi sory servi ceto thepubl i c i s toi dent i f y a steel sect i on f romi t s accessi bl e dmnsions and suggest ways of det ermni ng i t s l oad beari ngcapaci t y Thi s publ i cat i on has been prepared t o enable cl i ents archi t ect s and engi neers t o have a comrehensi vegui de to t he vari ous f actors t hat need t o be consi dered i n assessi ng t he l oad beari ng capaci t y of an ex i s t i ngsteel f ramd bui l ding Thetext i s suppl emntedwthadvi ceonhowo proceedwth suchstructurali nvest i gat i ons and der i vi ng addi t i onal dat a by si mpl e cal cul at i on Theauthorwas theChi ef Structural Engi neer of RedpathDormnLongandhas hadwdeexperi enceoft hi s type of workThi s book can be summri sed as bei ng gui de t o over a cent ury of bui l di ng i n i ron and steel sect i ons contai ni ng i nf ormat i on on propert i es of mater i al s prof i l es l oads and stresses

    ACKNOWEDGEMENTS n compi l i ng t hi s work the author has recei ved help and encouragemnt from sources too numrous t omntion i n detai l However speci al ref erence mst be mde t o

    r i t i s h Standards I ns t i tut i onI ns t i tut i on of Str uct ural ngineersLondon County Counci l r i t i s h Steel Corpor ati on

    t o f ormer col l eagues and t o t he very mny peopl e w t h whomhe serves on t echni cal commttees both i nt h i s country and i n Europe Wthout thei r hel p so f reel y gi ven th is publ i cat i on coul d not have been compi l ed i n i t s present formCopies of current r i t i s h Standards can be obt ai ned f romt he r i t i s h Standards I nst i tut i on L in ford WoodMl ton KeynesMK 6LE

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    ONT NTS

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    PageSecti on I ntr oducti on and Hi stori cal Notes1 1 I nt roducti on 71 2 Hi stori cal Notes 7Secti on2 Materi al s2 1 I nt roducti on 82 2 Cast i ron as a structural materi al 82 3 Wought i ron as a structural mater i al 92 4 Steel as a structural mater i al 92 5 Br i t i sh Standard Speci f i cat i ons f or structural s t e e l 92 6 General 11Secti on3 Shapes and Si zes3 I nt roducti on 123 2 Cas t I r on 123 2 1 Cas t I r on Beam 123 2 2 Cas t I r on Col umns 133 3 Wought I ron 143 4 Steel 153 5 Tabl es 153 6 Concl usi on 44Sect i on 4 Codes of Pract i ce andBui l di ng Regul at i ons41 I ntr oducti on 454 2 London County Counci l 454 2 1 L General Powers Act 1909 454 2 2 L General Powers Act 1915 454 2 3 LCC General Powers Acts 1920/ 1929 454 2 4 London Bui l di ng Acts 1930/ 1939 454 2 5 London Bui l di ng Const r ucti onal By Laws 1952 454 2 6 Amendment 1965 t o above 454 2 7 General 454 3 The Bui l di ng Regul at i ons 1965 454 4 I nsti tuti on of Structural Engi neers 454 5 Br i t i sh Standar ds I nst i tut i on 464 5 1 BS449Useof Structural Steel i n Bui l di ngs 464 5 2 CP113The Structural use of Steel i n Bui l di ngs 464 5 3 CP3ChapterVBasic Data f or the Des i gn of Bui l di ngs 464 5 4 BS648 Schedul e of Wei ght s of Bui l di ng Materi al s 464 6 Other specif i cati ons and codes 46Sect i on 5 Loads5 1 I nt roducti on 475 2 Dead Loads 475 3 Li ve Loads 475 3 1 Encycl opedi a of Archi t ecture 1881 475 3 2 Dorman Long andCo Handbook 1895 475 3 3 Appl eby s Handbook of Machi nery 1903 475 3 4 L Gener al Powers Act 1909 485 3 5 I nsti tuti on of Structural Engi neers 1927/ 1933 485 3 6 BS4491932 505 3 7 BS4491948 505 3 8 General 55 4 Wnd Loads 55 4 LCC Gener al Powers Act 1909 55 4 2 I nsti tuti on of Structural Engi neers 1927 55 4 3 I nsti tuti on of Structural Engi neers 1938 515 4 4 BS4491932 515 4 5 BS4491948 515 4 6 CP3ChapterV1952 525 4 7 CP3ChapterV1972 525 5 General 52Secti on6 Desi gn Stresses6 1 I nt r oducti on 536 2 Symbol s 536 3 Al l owabl e stresses i n beam bef ore 1900 536 3 1 Cast I ron Beam 536 3 2 Wought I ron Beam 536 3 3 M l d Steel Beam 53

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    64 Al l owabl e stresses i ncol umns before 1QOO . 548 4 1 Genera - 546 4 2 Eul e formul a - 546 4 3 Runki no s f ormul a 646 4 4 Other ear l y col umn formulae 55GAB ear l y f ormulae 55GAG 1 Cast I r on Columm - . 55G. 452 Col umns 556 4 5 3 M l d StruuCohmmm . 67S4 6 4 Comments oncompari sonand recommendati ons 576 5 Al l owabl e stresses Kbeam si nce 1900 57G 5 Cast , on Beam - - . 57SB2 Wought I ron Beam 57S5AI M l d Steel Bezi m 57~G Al l owabl e stresses i noohumm~nco1BDO 58GA Cw I r on Col umns . 586 6 2 Wought I r on Col umns 580A3 M l d Steel Col umns . 58OO 3 1 M l d SUMCol umns t o LCC1909 58GJG32 M l d SUMCol umns t o Moncr i ef f Formula 1909 - 58G633 M l d SUMCol umnouo E1927 . 68GAA Cohumnstmoe t o BS44Q1Q37 - 58GA5 Col umn stresses to8844B1Q48 58GA]G Col umn stresses uoBS440after 1948 82G Ecuont r i c l oads oncol umns - 626 8 Hi gh St r engt h St eel s 62Secti on 7 Devel opments i n Fabr i cat i on and Des i gn71 I nt r oducti on 6372 R vowdandBol tedConnecti ons - 637 3 El ec t r i c A Wldi ngofst nokwo k 637A Useof Hi gh Str engt h F r i c t ion Gri p Bol t s 6373 Ri gi d Frame Anal ysi s - . 657 6 Pl as t i c Mthods of Des i gn 6573 Computer Anal ysi s . . 657]9 Gonom 65Sect i on8 Cont i nent al Secti ons81 nt r nduct i on . - GG8 2 Fr ench sect i ons GG83 mi an, oot i o, o . - . GG8 4 Luxembourg secti ons 668 5 Belgi umsecti ons . - - . GGBA German ooi nn - - 668 7 SkobnnB oud Fl ange Beam 678f | Gener al remarks - 67Sect i on 9 M scel l aneous9 , u, odunt i on . 739 2 Concrete encased st ee wo, k - 73R2 G i l gobeumo - 73922 Fi kr j o i s t f l oo, oonot r vut i on . 73923 Beam suppor t i ng f l oor s l abs . . . 73824 Concrete encased vohumm - . 7393 Asymmetri cal Secti ons - 73931 Wal l beam . . - 73932 CraneGantry G rde r s . 739 4 I dent i f i cat i on of mater i al 7595 Rel ati onship between past andpr esent 759 5 Mater i al . . 76152 Loadi n 9 . - . . 75Q.53 Suosm . . . . 759 6 Recommendat i ons f oxdesi gn . 75Sect i on 10 Bi bl i ogr aphy1 ( l 1 Bi bl i ogr aphy . 7G

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    L i s t of Tabl esPageTabl e 2 Ul t i mat e Str engths of Cast I r on 1879 8

    Tabl e 3 Conversi on Factors 153 2 Equi val ent Deci mal val ues 153 3 Properti es of Dorman LongBeams 1887 163 4 L i s t of Dorman Long Channel s 1887 183 5 L i s t of Dorman Long Equal Angl es 1887 193 6 L i s t of Dorman Long Unequal Angl es 1887 193 7 Properti es of Br i t i sh Standar d Beams 1903 213 8