Histologi Ginjal Dan Hepar

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  • Volume 2 Issue 4 1000123J Cytol HistolISSN: 2157-7099 JCH, an open access journal

    Research Article Open Access

    Mahran et al., J Cytol Histol 2011, 2:4http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2157-7099.1000123

    Research Article Open Access

    Cytology & Histology

    Protective Effect of Zinc (Zn) on the Histology and Histochemistry of Liver and Kidney of Albino Rat Treated with CadmiumAlsayed Ali Mahran1, Husam Eldien H. Osman1, Ahmed M. A. Abd El-Mawla2,3* and Adel M. Attia4

    1Department of Anatomy and Histology, Faculty of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Taif University, Taif 21974, Saudi Arabia2Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, Assiut 71526, Egypt3Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif 21974, Saudi Arabia4Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif 21974, Saudi Arabia

    *Corresponding author: Dr. Ahmed Abd El-Mawla, Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, Assiut 71526, Egypt, Tel: +20882411330; Fax: +20882332776; E-mail: Ahmedpha2000@yahoo.com

    Received April 30, 2011; Accepted September 10, 2011; Published September 13, 2011

    Citation: Mahran AA, Husam Eldien HO, Abd El-Mawla AMA, Attia AM (2011) Protective Effect of Zinc (Zn) on the Histology and Histochemistry of Liver and Kidney of Albino Rat Treated with Cadmium. J Cytol Histol 2:123. doi:10.4172/2157-7099.1000123

    Copyright: 2011 Mahran AA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    AbstractThe protective effect of zinc (Zn) on the liver and kidney of albino rats exposed to intraperitoneal injection of

    cadmium chloride (CdCl2) was studied. Light microscopic examination for rats which were injected intraperitonealy with of 0.16 mg CdCl2/kg of body weight for 8 weeks indicated severe histological changes in both liver and kidney. In liver, a blurred trabecular structure, vacuolar degeneration and increased density of nuclear chromatin with very compact nuclear structure were found in hepatocytes. Moreover; mononuclear cell infiltrations and necrosis of single cells were also observed. In the kidney tubules, degeneration and hypertrophy of epithelial cells and dilation in the glomeruli were also observed. The effects of cadmium on the ultrastructures of both organs were studied. There are ultrastructural damages appeared in both organs as nuclear membrane damage, chromatin condensation, swelling of the mitochondria with regression of mitochondrial cristae, degranulation and disintegration of protein-synthesizing structures such as rough endoplasmic reticulum, increased number of lysosomes and ultimately cell death. Zn partially alleviated the damage observed in both the liver and kidney and differences in histological structure has been observed between the Zn-Cd and the control groups. Our results demonstrate the protective effect of ZnCl2 in prevention CdCl2- induced significant toxic pathological changes in the liver and kidney of the albino rats.

    Keywords: Zinc chloride; Cadmium chloride; Kidney; Liver; Histology; Histochemistry

    IntroductionCadmium (Cd) is known as a heavy and high toxic metal that

    widely distributed in the environment. It is present in trace levels in seawater and a broad range of animal and plant species [1-5]. It was reported that the maximum tolerance dietary Cd level for domestic animals was 0.5 ppm. Dietary concentrations of one ppm Cd results undesirable effects, while concentrations of 5 ppm leads to adverse health effects [6]. Gastrointestinal absorption of Cd is affected by the diet and nutritional status [7]. Absorption of ingested Cd is only about 5% and after absorption it accumulates in the liver and then in the kidney [8,9]. Therefore, one of the most important health effects of chronic Cd exposure is the liver and kidney damage [2,10,11].

    Zinc is one of the important nutrients that can reduce the toxicity of orally administrated Cd and shows its effect by competing with Cd for some transport system as well as for the bending sites in the metalothionin [2,9,12,13]. The aim of the present study was to investigate the histological and histochemical changes in the liver and kidney of albino rat exposed to intraperitoneal injection of Cd, and the protective effect of intraperitoneal injection of zinc on Cd-induced changes in both.

    Materials and MethodsAnimals

    The present study was based on materials obtained from 60 adult albino rats of both sexes with body weigh from 220-250 gm. The experiment was conducted to 8 weeks, and the animals were randomly designed into three groups, each of 20 rats: two experimental groups and one control group. Each group was isolated in a single cage and kept in the same conventional condition of diet and environment in the animal house.

    ChemicalsThe cadmium chloride (CdCl2) and zinc chloride (ZnCl2) of

    analytical grade or higher purity were the substances used in this study. Each was soluble in physiological saline and was injected intraperitonealy at dose levels of 0.16 mg CdCl2/kg of body weight and 0.53 mg ZnCl2/kg boy weight [9].

    Experimental designThe experiment was conducted for 8 weeks. The animals were

    randomly allocated into three groups: two experimental groups and one control group each include 20 rats.

    Rats of experimental group 1 were injected intraperitonealy with cadmium chloride solution (0.16 mg CdCl2/kg of body weight) [9].

    Rats of experimental group 2 were injected intraperitonealy with both zinc chloride solution (0.53 mg ZnCl2/kg of body weight) [9] after injection with cadmium chloride in an aforementioned dose.

    Rats of control group were received injection of the same dose of normal saline. The injections were done into the peritoneum of used rats for eight weeks five times/week. The animals of each group were

  • Page 2 of 9

    Volume 2 Issue 4 1000123J Cytol HistolISSN: 2157-7099 JCH, an open access journal

    Citation: Mahran AA, Husam Eldien HO, Abd El-Mawla AMA, Attia AM (2011) Protective Effect of Zinc (Zn) on the Histology and Histochemistry of Liver and Kidney of Albino Rat Treated with Cadmium. J Cytol Histol 2:123. doi:10.4172/2157-7099.1000123

    sacrificed with inhalation of over dose of ether. The kidney and liver were excised and divided into small pieces for histological examination.

    Light microscopySmall slices of kidney and liver tissue were taken and fixed in 10 %

    formalin for 24 hours, and were imbedded in paraffin. Five-micron-thick sections were routinely stained with hematoxyline and eosin [14].

    Histo chemical studySome paraffin sections were stained with (a) periodic acid-Schiffs

    method to demonstrate carbo hydrates [15] and with (b) Mallory method to demonstrate the tissue fibroses [14].

    Electron microscopyBoth liver and kidney were cut into small pieces 1 mm thick and

    fixed in 4F,G in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.2) for 3 h at 4C, after which the tissues were removed and postfixed in buffered 2% OsO4 for one hour at 4C. Postfixed tissues were rinsed in the buffer and dehydrated at 4C through a graded series of ethanol. Then they were embedded in epon-araldite mixture in labeled beam capsules. Ultrathin sections (50 nm thick) were cut, collected on naked copper-mesh grids and stained with uranyl acetate for 1/2 hour and lead citrate for 20-30 min [16].

    ResultsLight microscopic observations

    The Liver of a control rat should a normal structure where the liver appeared to de composed of hexagonal or pentagonal lobules with a central veins and peripheral hepatic triads or tetrads embedded in connective tissue. The hepatocytes are arranged in trabecules running radiantly from the central vein and the spaces between the cell cords called blood sinusoids which converged towards the central vein and lined by Kupffer cells. Also the hepatocytes are regular and contain a large spherical nucleus with a distinctly marked nucleolus and peripheral chromatin distribution. Some cells have two nuclei (Figure 1 and 2).

    The Kidney of control rats, had normal renal structure of both (a) cortex which showed a normal structure of; renal glomeruli.

    The proximal convoluted tubules are lined with typical thick cubic epithelium. The distal convoluted tubules show considerably lower cubic epithelium. The tubules have a relatively regular distinct lumen. , the glomerular capsule are lined with a flat epithelium, and (b) medulla in which, the collecting tubules are lined with the relatively low simple cubic epithelium. The thick descending and ascending parts of Henles loops are lined with simple cubical epithelium with small caliber, and a small amount of interstitial tissue can be seen normally in the cross-sections (Figure 3 and 4).

    Light microscopic examination in the liver of rats treated with CdCl2 showed that there were degenerative changes in numerous hepatocytes; the cells were enlarged and had light and foamy cytoplasm filled with numerous vacuole-like spaces. The walls of the blood sinusoids were dilated and showed numerous Kupffer cells. In a few liver zones, the CdCl2 induced also hepatocytes necrotic changes which appeared as; a small, pycnotic cellular nucleus with condensed chromatin, lack of nucleolus and strongly acidophilic cytoplasm. Mononuclear cell infiltrates were also noted in hepatic areas (Figure 5 and 6).

    Light microscopic examination in the kidney of rats treated with CdCl2 only showed that there were many areas of tubular damages

    Figure 1: Light photomicrography of liver of a control rat: the organ It is composed of lobules which are roughly hexagonal in shape, with