Hiromi arai jsbi personalgenome

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  • 1. 12014/10/3@ IIBMP2014

2. Agenda 2 @ IIBMP2014 3. 3 @ IIBMP2014 4. What is genomic privacy?sensitiveSensitive(Quasi-)Identifierslinkable linkable4 @ IIBMP2014 5. sensitive informationSNPs/Personal SNPDBPattern of personal SNPs5 @ IIBMP2014 6. 6 @ IIBMP2014 7. For research, business, social networking, /7 @ IIBMP2014 8. DB (DB) ()8 @ IIBMP2014 9. /genome DBDB responses9 @ IIBMP2014 10. :GWASGWAS[Homer 06]GWAS study Case10 @ IIBMP2014 11. :Jim WatsonAlzheimerAPOESNPsAPOESNP(r2>0.6)Alzheimer[Nyholt 09]APOEAPOEAPOEAPOEAPOE11 @ IIBMP2014 12. :[Goodrich 09]Bob : quererQueries {Vi}Alice : DBgenetic string Q V1, V2, Similarity scoresBetween Q and V1, V2, Q12 @ IIBMP2014 13. :Surname inference from Y-chromosome[Gymrek 2013]Y-haplotypehaplotype13 @ IIBMP2014 14. Dr,Yaniv Erlich 14 @ IIBMP2014 15. SNS phenotypeSNSGeni.comY-STR(ASGH2013) OpenSNP Exogen 23andMe, Sophia genetics15 @ IIBMP2014 16. Exogen:DNA16 @ IIBMP2014 17. PGPDBupidentifier DBID IDDB[Kaufman 2011] ExpressionSNP[Shadt 2012]17 @ IIBMP2014 18. 18 @ IIBMP2014 19. 19 @ IIBMP2014 20. Output Privacyraw data mining process raw output sanitized outputInference attackMultiPartyComputationraw datamining process outputdataownersData20 @ IIBMP2014 21. APOE21 @ IIBMP2014 22. (identiier)1 21 2 24 3 27 4 31 5 24 6 38 7 38 8 42 9 43 10 47 1 21 2 24 3 27 4 31 5 24 6 38 7 38 8 42 9 43 10 47 data raw data sanitized dataownerInference attackOK!!22 @ IIBMP2014 23. Link attack [Sweeny02]1 21 H252 24 H233 27 H234 31 H225 24 H256 38 H247 38 H258 42 H251 21 2 24 3 27 4 31 5 24 6 38 7 38 8 42 23 @ IIBMP2014 24. Quasi-identifiersidentifierSAFE HARBOR 18(quasi-)identifier1 21 2 24 3 27 4 31 5 32 6 38 7 38 8 42 9 43 10 47 quasi-identifier24 @ IIBMP2014 25. Kquasi-identifierk/1 21 2 24 3 27 4 31 5 32 6 38 7 38 8 42 9 43 10 47 1 2x 2 2x 3 2x 4 3x 5 3x 6 3x 7 3x 8 4x 9 4x 10 4x quasi-identifier34325 @ IIBMP2014 26. KLDSensitivel1 2x 2 2x 3 2x 4 3x 5 3x 6 3x 7 3x 8 4x 9 4x 10 4x 3434026 @ IIBMP2014 27. ItemAItemBItemCA 1 0 1 B 0 1 1 20BBac2020a b cGroup 20 42 3 89Group 20 w/o B 41 3 8827 @ IIBMP2014 28. (1)[Dwork 06]12w/Alicew/oAlice28 @ IIBMP2014 29. 2DBf(x)sensitivityf -f (x)+Y,Y ~ (Lap(Df /e ))(exponential mechanism[Mcsherry 07])f=1, =ln2f(x)=101 at mosttimesf(x)=100DBD (w/ Alice) D (w/o Alice)29 @ IIBMP2014 30. (2)[Nabar 08] 20Decide respond or refusequeries20a b cw/ Yoko 42 3 8930 @ IIBMP2014 31. 31 @ IIBMP2014 32. Multi Party Computation (MPC)xA,xBf(xA,xB)=(yA,yB)MPC Alice BobMPCxAxByAyB32 @ IIBMP2014 33. MPC(1):33 @ IIBMP2014 34. MPC(2) (n,k)-nk 34 @ IIBMP2014 35. GenoDroid[De Cristofaro2012]..5478297342....GATTACA..: paillier5 3 835 @ IIBMP2014 36. DBDBa80511deab252354c1f04cc1d1a194b96c0546a202207f5c834d44de7ad1262012 (CSS2012) 36 @ IIBMP2014 37. GWASsharemindGWAS[Kamm 2013]ID 1 ..GATTACA..2 ..GATAACA..3 ..GGATACA..DBID 1 ..5478297342..2 ..3545628904..3 ..0842894578.. DB(1)DB(2)DB5DBDB37 @ IIBMP2014 38. MPC /38 @ IIBMP2014 39. SAFE HARBOR/39 @ IIBMP2014 40. 40 @ IIBMP2014 41. /SNS41 @ IIBMP2014 42. ()(KDD2014 Panel Does Social Good JustifyRisking Personal Privacy?)(GenoPri2014 Panel)42 @ IIBMP2014 43. //43 @ IIBMP2014 44. AAAS2014GenoPri2014 (workshop w/ PETS2014)KDD2015system designiDASH(UCSD)/[Angrist 2013]/[Greenbaum2011,Erlich 2013]44 @ IIBMP2014 45. 45 @ IIBMP2014 46. [Angrist2013] Misha Angrist. Genetic privacy needs a more nuanced approach.Nature, 494:7,2013.[De Cristofaro et al.2012] Emiliano De Cristofaro, Sky Faber, Paolo Gasti, andGene Tsudik. Genodroid: are privacy-preserving genomic tests ready for primetime? In Proceedings of the 2012 ACM workshop on Privacy in the electronicsociety, pages 97108. ACM, 2012.[Dwork et al.2006] C. Dwork, F. McSherry, K. Nissim, and A. Smith. Calibratingnoise to sensitivity in private data analysis. Theory of Cryptography, pages265284, 2006.[Erlich and Narayanan2013] Yaniv Erlich and Arvind Narayanan. Routes forbreaching and protecting genetic privacy. arXiv preprint arXiv:1310.3197,2013.[Greenbaum et al.2011] Dov Greenbaum, Andrea Sboner, Xinmeng JasmineMu, and Mark Gerstein. Genomics and privacy: implications of the new realityof closed data for the field. PLoS computational biology, 7(12), 2011.46 @ IIBMP2014 47. [Gymrek et al.2013] Melissa Gymrek, Amy L McGuire, David Golan, EranHalperin, and Yaniv Erlich. Identifying personal genomes by surnameinference. Science, 339(6117):321324, 2013.[Homer et al.2008] Nils Homer, Szabolcs Szelinger, Margot Redman, DavidDuggan, Waibhav Tembe, Jill Muehling, John V Pearson, Dietrich A Stephan,Stanley F Nelson, and David W Craig. Resolving individuals contributing traceamounts of dna to highly complex mixtures using high-density snp genotypingmicroarrays. PLoS genetics, 4(8):e1000167, 2008.[Kamm et al.2013] Liina Kamm, Dan Bogdanov, Sven Laur, and Jaak Vilo. Anew way to protect privacy in large-scale genome-wide association studies.Bioinformatics, 29(7):886893, 2013.[Nabar et al.2008] S.U. Nabar, K. Kenthapadi, N. Mishra, and R. Motwani. Asurvey of query auditing techniques for data privacy. Privacy-Preserving DataMining, pages 415431, 2008.47 @ IIBMP2014 48. [Goodlich 2009] Goodrich, M.T., The Mastermind Attack on Genomic Data,Security and Privacy, 2009 30th IEEE Symposium on , vol., no., pp.204,218, 17-20 May 2009[Nyholt et al.2009] DR Nyholt, CE Yu, and PM Visscher. On jim watsons apoestatus: genetic information is hard to hide. European journal of humangenetics: EJHG, 17(2):147149, 2009.[Schadt et al.2012] Eric E Schadt, SangsoonWoo, and Ke Hao. Bayesianmethod to predict individual snp genotypes from gene expression data.Nature genetics, 44(5):603608, 2012.[Sweeney2002] L. Sweeney. Achieving k-anonymity privacy protection usinggeneralization and suppression. International Journal of Uncertainty Fuzzinessand Knowledge-Based Systems, 10(5):571588, 2002.48 @ IIBMP2014