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Hamid Agha-Alinejad, PhD Associate Prof. of Exercise Physiology Tarbiat Modares University High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)

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  • Hamid Agha-Alinejad, PhD

    Associate Prof. of Exercise Physiology

    Tarbiat Modares University

    High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)

  • Introduction

    HIIT refers to exercise that is characterized by relatively short bursts of vigorous activity, interspersed by periods of rest or low-intensity exercise for recovery.

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  • OVERLOAD

    Unless the body is subjected to increased demands, improvements in physical fitness will not be made.

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  • EFFICIENCY

    The efficiency principle refers to cost-benefit analysis of training.

    Examples of efficient exercise training;- High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)

    - Resistance training with Blood Flow Restriction (BFR)

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  • introduction

    The specific physiological adaptations induced by HIIT determined by:

    - The mode of exercise

    - Exercise intensity

    - Exercise duration

    - The number of intervals performed

    - The duration of recovery

    - The activity patterns during recovery

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  • ( HIIT)

    .HIIT-

    (31)(2000)-

    15HIIT2(32)

    3045

    .12

    Rodas G, Ventura JL, Cadefau JA, et al. 2000. A short training programme for the rapid improvement

    of both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. Eur J Appl Physiol; 82(5-6):480-486.

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  • (2000)

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  • 17HIIT8(2004)-

    .

    Barnett C, Carey M, Proietto J, et al. 2004. Muscle metabolism during sprint exercise in man: influence of sprint

    training. J Sci Med Sport; 7(3):314-322.

    (26)(2005)-

    4307-4)2HIIT6

    .(

    Burgomaster KA, Hughes SC, Heigenhauser GJ, et al. 2005. Six sessions of sprint interval training increases muscle

    oxidative potential and cycle endurance capacity in humans. J Appl Physiol; 98(6):1985-1990.

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  • .

    Burgomaster K A et al. J Appl Physiol 2005;98:1985-1990

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  • 2(2006)-

    4HIIT(4-6

    .(

    Gibala MJ, Little JP, van Essen M, et al. 2006. Short-term sprint interval versus traditional endurance training:

    similar initial adaptations in human skeletal muscle and exercise performance. J Physiol; 575(Pt 3):901-911.

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  • 2(50)(2006)-

    430HIIT(4-7

    .(

    Burgomaster KA, Heigenhauser GJ, Gibala MJ. 2006. Effect of short-term sprint interval training on human skeletal

    muscle carbohydrate metabolism during exercise and time-trial performance. J Appl Physiol; 100(6):2041-2047.

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  • 6(2008)-

    HIIT(4-64/5)

    .

    Burgomaster KA, Howarth KR, Phillips SM, et al. 2008. Similar metabolic adaptations during exercise after low

    volume sprint interval and traditional endurance training in humans. J Physiol; 586(1):151160.

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  • HIIT.

    .

    (1998)

    7

    (30HIIT(4-10

    .HIIT

    MacDougall JD, Hicks AL, MacDonald JR, et al. 1998. Muscle performance and enzymatic adaptations to sprint interval training. J

    Appl Physiol; 84(6):2138-2142.

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  • MacDougall J D et al. J Appl Physiol 1998;84:2138-2142

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    Agha-Alinejad H. (2017)

  • HIIT2(2006)-

    .(4304-7)

    .(PDH)

    Burgomaster KA, Heigenhauser GJ, Gibala MJ. 2006. Effect of short-term sprint interval training on human

    skeletal muscle carbohydrate metabolism during exercise and time-trial performance. J Appl Physiol;

    100(6):2041-2047.

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  • (2008)-

    PGC-1-3

    4/5HIIT(6-46

    .(

    Burgomaster KA, Howarth KR, Phillips SM, et al. 2008. Similar metabolic adaptations during exercise after low volume sprint

    interval and traditional endurance training in humans. J Physiol; 586(1):151160.

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  • HIIT

    .

    -215HIIT(2-66(1987)-(306

    .(ST)(FTa)

    Jacobs I, Esbjrnsson M, Sylvn C, et al. 1987. Sprint training effects on muscle myoglobin, enzymes, fiber types,

    and blood lactate. Med Sci Sports Exerc; 19(4):368-374.

    (30)HIIT6-4(1990)-38322.

    .48571

    Jansson E, Esbjrnsson M, Holm I, et al. 1990. Increase in the proportion of fast-twitch muscle fibres by sprint

    training in males. Acta Physiol Scand.; 140(3):359-363.

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  • (1993)-

    555)HIIT7b

    .(

    .HIIT

    Linossier MT, Denis C, Dormois D, et al. 1993. Ergometric and metabolic adaptation to a 5-s sprint

    training programme. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol; 67(5):408-414.

    HIIT6( 1998)-

    .12

    Dawson B, Fitzsimons M, Green S, et al. 1998. Changes in performance, muscle metabolites, enzymes

    and fibre types after short sprint training. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol; 78(2):163-169.

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  • 30(1994)-

    HIIT(3(2

    FTb(MHC)

    .FTaMHC

    Allemeier CA, Fry AC, Johnson P, et al. 1994. Effects of sprint cycle training on human skeletal

    muscle. J Appl Physiol, 77(5): 2385-2390.

    1515HIIT(30-406(1998)-

    .(

    Franch J, Madsen K, Djurhuus MS, et al. 1998. Improved running economy following intensified training correlates with

    reduced ventilatory demands. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 30(8): 1250-1256.

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  • .HIIT

    .

    HIIT

    .

    (2000)-

    HIIT.

    .

    Green H, Tupling R, Roy B, et al. Adaptations in skeletal muscle exercise metabolism to a sustained

    session of heavy intermittent exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2000; 278: E118-126.

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  • -

    .

    (1990)-

    ()

    .

    Jansson E, Esbjrnsson M, Holm I, et al. 1990. Increase in the proportion of fast-twitch muscle

    fibres by sprint training in males. Acta Physiol Scand.; 140(3):359-363.

    21

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  • (2004)-

    30HIIT(4-104(EMG)

    .(4

    Creer AR, Ricard MD, Conlee RK, et al. 2004. Neural, metabolic, and performance adaptations to four

    weeks of high intensity sprint-interval training in trained cyclists. Int J Sports Med; 25(2):92-98.

    (NVC)HIIT-

    .(MVC)

    Ross A, Leveritt M, Riek S, 2001. Neural Influences on Sprint Running: Training Adaptations and Acute

    Responses. Sports Med, 31(6): 409-425

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  • HIIT5-3(2008)-

    .

    .

    Buchheit M, Millet GP, Parisy A, et al. 2008. Supramaximal Training and Postexercise

    Parasympathetic Reactivation in Adolescents. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc, 40(2): 362-371.

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  • (80-30)HIIT6(2006)-

    HIIT.

    .

    HIIT6-

    Botcazou M, Zouhal H, Jacob C, et al. 2006. Effect of training and detraining on catecholamine

    responses to sprint exercise in adolescent girls. Eur J Appl Physiol, 97: 68-75.

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  • (2009)-

    HIIT(4.(80250

    .

    Meckel Y, Eliakim A, Seraev M, et al. 2009. The effect of a brief sprint interval exercise on growth

    factors and inflammatory mediators. J Strength Conditioning Res; 23(1):225230.

    HIIT4(2011)-

    (TCR)

    (FTCR).

    Farzad B, Gharakhanlou R, Agha-Alinejad H, Curbay DC, Bayati M, Bahraminejad M, Maestu J.(2011).

    Physiological and Performance Changes from the Addition of a Sprint Interval Program to

    Wrestling Training. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 25(9): 23922399.

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  • Types of HIIT

    - Short-term HIIT . In untrained and recreationally active individuals

    - Long-term HIIT

    . In trained and elite athletes

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  • low-volume HIIT in untrained & recreationally

    active individuals

    The most common model employed in low-volume HIIT:

    - Wingate Test, which consists of 30 s of all-out cycling(46 work bouts separated by a few minutes of recovery, for a total of 23 min of intense exercise spread over a training session that lasts 20 min.)

    Burgomaster et al. (2005) showed that subjects doubled the length of time that exercise could be maintained at a fixed submaximal workload from 26 to 51 min during cycling at 80% of pre-training VO 2 max after only 2 weeks of HIIT.

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  • Physiological adaptations to 6 sessions of Wingate basedHIIT over 2 weeks:

    - Enhanced skeletal muscle oxidative capacity as reflected by the maximal activity and/or protein content of mitochondrial enzymes

    - Improvements in VO2 max

    - Enhanced peripheral vascular structure and function

    - Reduced rate of glycogen utilization

    - Reduced lactate production

    - Increased capacity for whole-body and skeletal muscle lipid oxidation

    - Increased muscle content of metabolic transport proteins

    van Loon LJC, Meeusen R (eds): Limits of Human Endurance. Nestl Nutr Inst Workshop Ser, vol 76, pp 5160, ( DOI: 10.1159/000350256 ) Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG., Basel, 2013

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  • A more practical protocol;The protocol consists of 10 60-second work bouts at a constant-load intensity that elicits 90% of MHR, interspersed with 60 s of recovery.

    the model is also effective at inducing rapid skeletal muscle remodeling towards a more oxidative phenotype.

    Little JP, Safdar A, Wilkin GP, et al: A practical model of low-volume high-intensity interval training induces mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle: potential mechanisms. J Physiol 2010; 588: 10111022.

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  • Why HIIT in untrained & recreationally active

    individuals

    HIIT accelerates the adaptation to training

    HIIT may be especially beneficial early in a training intervention in such populations, and may be supplemented with traditional aerobic training later on to maximize training adaptations.

    HIIT provides infinite variety, with the number, duration and intensity of each of the work bouts being adjustable, along with the duration and intensity of the recovery intervals.

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  • Coyles modelEndurance performance is a function of - TheVO2max, - Efficiency (exercise economy), and - The fractional utilization of the VO2max.

    While longer term HIIT may invoke central cardiovascular adaptations, it appears that the short term HIIT mainly stimulates peripheral muscle metabolic adaptations.

    Coyle EF: Integration of the physiological factors determining endurance performance ability. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 1995; 23: 2563.

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  • In terms of Coyles model, HIIT-induced improvements in substrate utilization and oxidative energy turnover may therefore enhance endurance capacity by increasing the fractional utilization of the VO2max.

    Coyles model

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  • High-volume HIIT in Highly Trained Individuals

    The precise nature of the HIIT stimulus has varied from repeated intervals lasting

    - up to 5 min at an intensity eliciting 80% VO2max

    to

    - 30-second efforts at an all-out pace or power outputs corresponding to 175% of VO2max.

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  • Research finding

    One of the first studies to demonstrate the beneficial effect of HIIT on performance in trained subjects was conducted by Acevedo and Goldfarb (1989).

    7 competitive male distance runners; 8 weeks; 3 days per week; intervals at 9095% of MHR or Fartlek style workouts, whereas they maintained their habitual continuous runs on the other days of the week.

    Results:

    10-km race time improved after the intervention by over 1

    min from 35:27 to 34:24, despite no change in VO2max.Acevedo EO, Goldfarb AH: Increased training intensity effects on plasma lactate, ventilatory threshold, and endurance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1989; 21: 563568.

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  • Research finding

    6- to 9-week period; a group of runners replaced approximately one quarter of their normal training volume with 1230s all-out sprint runs; 34 times per week; and a group continued their normal endurance training ( 55 km/week).

    Results:VO2max was not altered; however, the HIIT intervention improved 3 km (from 10.4 to 10.1 min) and 10 km run time (from 37.3 to 36.3 min), whereas the control group showed no change in performance.

    Bangsbo J, Gunnarsson TP, Wendell J, et al: Reduced volume and increased training intensity elevate muscle Na+-K+ pump alpha2-subunit expression as well as short- and longterm work capacity in humans. J Appl Physiol 2009; 107: 17711780.

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  • The mechanisms of performance improvements

    after HIIT

    The mechanisms responsible for the observed performance improvements after HIIT in highly trained individuals are likely different compared to less trained subjects.

    HIIT in highly trained subjects improves

    - Skeletal muscle buffering capacity, and

    - Na + /K + pump activity

    may help to preserve cell excitability and force production, thereby delay fatigue development during intense exercise

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  • HIIT planning consideration

    1) It is recommended that HIIT be used periodically as an additional stimulus to adaptation, perhaps every 810 weeksand/or in the taper period prior to a major competition.

    2) It has been proposed that a polarized approach to training, in which

    - 75% of total training volume be performed at low intensities, with

    - 1015% performed at very high intensities

    may be the optimal training intensity distribution for elite athletes who compete in intense endurance events.

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  • It is feasible that- Performing HIIT in hypoxia might further increase the

    signaling which results in enhanced angiogenesis or mitochondrial biogenesis.

    - Several nutritional ergogenic aids including caffeine, creatine, nitrate, sodium bicarbonate and -alanine, alone or in combination, during HIIT could theoretically facilitate training quality and thus result in an improved training outcome.

    HIIT planning consideration

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  • A Model for the Interference Phenomenon

    HIIT planning consideration

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  • The Little/Gibala protocol goes as follows: 60 seconds high intensity 75 seconds recovery Repeat for 8 12 cycles Total time: 18 - 27 minutes 6 sessions over 2 weeks

    Outcomes; Improves in VO2max Improves in time trial performance Increases in mitochondrial enzymes

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    HIIT protocols

  • The Tabata protocol: 20 seconds high intensity

    10 seconds recovery

    Repeat for 8 cycles

    Total time: 4 minutes

    5 times per week over 6 weeks

    Outcomes;Tabata found that the 4 minute Tabata routine was comparable to 60

    minutes of cycling at 70% MHR when measuring improvements in VO2 max .

    However, when assessing improvements in anaerobic threshold, the CT cyclists had not experienced any improvements, whereas the Tabatasubjects had increases in anaerobic capacity by 28%.

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    HIIT protocols

  • HIIT Modes

    Walking

    Running

    Cycling

    Rowing

    Skipping

    Stair Climbing

    Stepping

    Swimming

    Boxing

    Kettlebells

    Bodyweight Circuits

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  • HIIT ModesAgha-Alinejad H. (2017)

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  • Agha-Alinejad H. (2017)

    https://telegram.me/DrAlinejadFitness

    [email protected]

    [email protected]

    Thanks for your attention

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