HFSS User Guide

600
1-1 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. February 23, 2009 Inventory #002593 1-1 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. February 20, 2009 Inventory #002704 Chapter 1 - Introduction Ansoft HFSS – User Guide

Transcript of HFSS User Guide

Page 1: HFSS User Guide

1-1ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

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ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary© 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Chapter 1 - Introduction

Ansoft HFSS – User Guide

Page 2: HFSS User Guide

Introduction

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Ansoft HFSS – User Guide

Inventory Number: 002704

3rd Edition

HFSS Release: 11.1

Published Date: February 20, 2009

Registered Trademarks:ANSYS® is a registered trademark of SAS IP Inc.All other product names mentioned in this manual are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective manufacturers.

Disclaimer Notice:This document has been reviewed and approved in accordance with the ANSYS, Inc. Documentation Review and Approval Procedures. “This ANSYS Inc. software product (the Program) and program documentation (Documentation) are furnished by ANSYS, Inc. under an ANSYS Software License Agreement that contains provisions concerning non-disclosure, copying, length and nature of use, warranties, disclaimers and remedies, and other provisions. The Program and Documentation may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of that License Agreement.”

Copyright © 2008 SAS IP, Inc.Proprietary data. Unauthorized use, distribution, or duplication is prohibited.

All Rights Reserved.

Training ManualAnsoft HFSS for SI – User Guide

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Introduction

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Table of Contents1. Introduction 1-1

– Table of Contents 1-3– Welcome to Ansoft HFSS 1-4– Getting Help 1-7– Ansoft Desktop 1-9– Simulation Overview 1-18

2. Simulation Basics 2-1

3. Boundary Conditions 3-1

4. Appendix – Boundary Conditions 4-1

5. Examples – Antenna– UHF Probe 5.1– Conical Horn 5.2– Probe Fed Patch 5.3– Slot Coupled Patch 5.4– Endfire Waveguide Array 5.5

6. Examples – Microwave – Magic T 6.1– Coax Connector 6.2

– 180° Ring Hybrid 6.3– Coax Stub 6.4– Microstrip – Wave Port 6.5– Ferrite Circulator 6.6

7. Examples – Filters – Bandpass Filter 7.1

8. Examples – Signal Integrity– LVDS Differential Pair 8.1– Segmented Return Path 8.2– Non-ideal Planes 8.3– Return Path 8.4

9. Examples – On-Chip– Spiral Inductor 9.1

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Welcome to Ansoft HFSS• What is HFSS?

– HFSS is a high-performance full-wave electromagnetic(EM) field simulator for arbitrary 3D volumetric passive device modeling that takes advantage of the familiar Microsoft Windows graphical user interface. It integrates simulation, visualization, solid modeling, and automation in an easy-to-learn environment where solutions to your 3D EM problems are quickly and accurately obtained. Ansoft HFSS employs the Finite Element Method(FEM), adaptive meshing, and brilliant graphics to give you unparalleled performance and insight to all of your 3D EM problems. Ansoft HFSS can be used to calculate parameters such as S-Parameters, Resonant Frequency, and Fields. Typical uses include:

• Package Modeling – BGA, QFP, Flip-Chip• PCB Board Modeling – Power/Ground planes, Mesh Grid Grounds, Backplanes

• Silicon/GaAs - Spiral Inductors, Transformers• EMC/EMI – Shield Enclosures, Coupling, Near- or Far-Field Radiation• Antennas/Mobile Communications – Patches, Dipoles, Horns, Conformal Cell Phone Antennas, Quadrafilar Helix, Specific

Absorption Rate(SAR), Infinite Arrays, Radar Cross Section(RCS), Frequency Selective Surfaces(FSS)• Connectors – Coax, SFP/XFP, Backplane, Transitions• Waveguide – Filters, Resonators, Transitions, Couplers

• Filters – Cavity Filters, Microstrip, Dielectric

– HFSS is an interactive simulation system whose basic mesh element is a tetrahedron. This allows you to solve any arbitrary 3D geometry, especially those with complex curves and shapes, in a fraction of the time it would take using other techniques.

– The name HFSS stands for High Frequency Structure Simulator. Ansoft pioneered the use of the Finite Element Method(FEM) for EM simulation by developing/implementing technologies such as tangential vector finite elements, adaptive meshing, and Adaptive Lanczos-Pade Sweep(ALPS). Today, HFSS continues to lead the industry with innovations such as Modes-to-Nodes and Full-Wave Spice™.

– Ansoft HFSS has evolved over a period of years with input from many users and industries. In industry, Ansoft HFSS is the tool of choice for high-productivity research, development, and virtual prototyping.

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Installing the Ansoft HFSS software• System Requirements

– For up-to-date information, refer to the HFSS Installation Guide

• Installing the Ansoft HFSS Software– For up-to-date information, refer to the HFSS Installation Guide

• Starting Ansoft HFSS1. Click the Microsoft Start button, select Programs, and select the Ansoft, HFSS 11 program group. Click HFSS 11.2. Or Double click on the HFSS 11 icon on the Windows Desktop

NOTE: You should make backup copies of all HFSS projects createNOTE: You should make backup copies of all HFSS projects createNOTE: You should make backup copies of all HFSS projects createNOTE: You should make backup copies of all HFSS projects created with a d with a d with a d with a

previous version of the software before opening them in HFSS v11previous version of the software before opening them in HFSS v11previous version of the software before opening them in HFSS v11previous version of the software before opening them in HFSS v11

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Web Update• WebUpdate

– This feature allows you to update any existing Ansoft software from the WebUpdate window. This feature automatically scans your system to find any Ansoft software, and then allows you to download any updates if they are available.

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Getting Help• Getting Help

– If you have any questions while you are using Ansoft HFSS you can find answers in several ways:• Ansoft HFSS Online Help provides assistance while you are working.

– To get help about a specific, active dialog box, click the Help button in the dialog box or press the F1 key.– Select the menu item Help > Contents to access the online help system.– Tooltips are available to provide information about tools on the toolbars or dialog boxes. When you hold the

pointer over a tool for a brief time, a tooltip appears to display the name of the tool.– As you move the pointer over a tool or click a menu item, the Status Bar at the bottom of the Ansoft HFSS

window provides a brief description of the function of the tool or menu item.– The Ansoft HFSS Getting Started guide provides detailed information about using HFSS to create and solve

3D EM projects.• Ansoft Technical Support

– To contact Ansoft technical support staff in your geographical area, please log on to the Ansoft corporate website, www.ansoft.com and select Contact .

• Your Ansoft sales engineer may also be contacted in order to obtain this information.

• Visiting the Ansoft Web Site– If your computer is connected to the Internet, you can visit the Ansoft Web site to learn more about the Ansoft company

and products. • From the Ansoft Desktop

– Select the menu item Help > Ansoft Corporate Website to access the Online Technical Support (OTS) system.

• From your Internet browser– Visit www.ansoft.com

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Getting Help• For Technical Support

– The following link will direct you to the Ansoft Support Page. The Ansoft Support Pages provide additional documentation, training, and application notes.

• Web Site: http://www.ansoft.com/support.cfm• Technical Support:

– 9-4 EST: • Pittsburgh, PA• (412) 261-3200 x0 – Ask for Technical Support

• Burlington, MA• (781) 229-8900 x0 – Ask for Technical Support

– 9-4 PST: • San Jose, CA • (408) 261-9095 x0 – Ask for Technical Support

• Portland, OR• (503) 906-7944

• Irvine, CA• (714) 417-9311 x6

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Ansoft Desktop Terms• Ansoft Desktop Terms

– The Ansoft HFSS Desktop has several optional panels:• A Project Manager which contains a design tree which lists the structure of the project. • A Message Manager that allows you to view any errors or warnings that occur before you begin a simulation.• A Property Window that displays and allows you to change model parameters or attributes. • A Progress Window that displays solution progress.• A 3D Modeler Window which contains the model and model tree for the active design.

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Ansoft HFSS Desktop

Menu Menu Menu Menu

barbarbarbar

Progress Progress Progress Progress

WindowWindowWindowWindow

Property WindowProperty WindowProperty WindowProperty Window

Message Message Message Message

ManagerManagerManagerManager

ProjectProjectProjectProject

ManagerManagerManagerManager

with projectwith projectwith projectwith project

treetreetreetree

Status Status Status Status

barbarbarbar

3D Modeler3D Modeler3D Modeler3D Modeler

WindowWindowWindowWindow

ToolbarsToolbarsToolbarsToolbars

Coordinate Entry FieldsCoordinate Entry FieldsCoordinate Entry FieldsCoordinate Entry Fields

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Ansoft Desktop Terms• Project Manager

ProjectProjectProjectProject

DesignDesignDesignDesign

Design ResultsDesign ResultsDesign ResultsDesign Results

Design SetupDesign SetupDesign SetupDesign Setup

Design AutomationDesign AutomationDesign AutomationDesign Automation•ParametricParametricParametricParametric•OptimizationOptimizationOptimizationOptimization

•SensitivitySensitivitySensitivitySensitivity

•StatisticalStatisticalStatisticalStatistical

Project Manager WindowProject Manager WindowProject Manager WindowProject Manager Window

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Ansoft Desktop Terms• Property Window

Property WindowProperty WindowProperty WindowProperty Window

Property tabsProperty tabsProperty tabsProperty tabs

Property Property Property Property

buttonsbuttonsbuttonsbuttonsProperty Property Property Property

tabletabletabletable

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Ansoft Desktop Terms• Ansoft 3D Modeler

EdgeEdgeEdgeEdgeVertexVertexVertexVertex

PlanePlanePlanePlane

Coordinate System (CS)Coordinate System (CS)Coordinate System (CS)Coordinate System (CS)

OriginOriginOriginOrigin

FaceFaceFaceFace

ModelModelModelModel

3D Modeler Window3D Modeler Window3D Modeler Window3D Modeler Window

GraphicsGraphicsGraphicsGraphics

areaareaareaarea

ModelModelModelModel

3D Modeler 3D Modeler 3D Modeler 3D Modeler

design treedesign treedesign treedesign tree

Context menuContext menuContext menuContext menu

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Ansoft Desktop Terms• 3D Modeler Design Tree

Grouped by MaterialGrouped by MaterialGrouped by MaterialGrouped by Material

Object ViewObject ViewObject ViewObject View

MaterialMaterialMaterialMaterial

ObjectObjectObjectObject

Object Command Object Command Object Command Object Command

HistoryHistoryHistoryHistory

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Design Windows• Design Windows

– In the Ansoft HFSS Desktop, each project can have multiple designs and each design is displayed in a separate window.

– You can have multiple projects and design windows open at the same time. Also, you can have multiple views of the same design visible at the same time.

– To arrange the windows, you can drag them by the title bar, and resize them by dragging a corner or border. Also, you can select one of the following menu options: Window >Cascade , Window >Tile Vertically , or Window > Tile Horizontally.

– To organize your Ansoft HFSS window, you can iconize open designs. Click the Iconize ** symbol in the upper right corner of the document border. An icon appears in the lower part of the Ansoft HFSS window. If the icon is not visible, it may be behind another open document. Resize any open documents as necessary. Select the menu item Window > Arrange Icons to arrange them at the bottom of the Ansoft HFSS window.

– Select the menu item Window > Close All to close all open design. You are prompted to Save unsaved designs.

Design iconsDesign iconsDesign iconsDesign icons

IconizeIconizeIconizeIconize

SymbolSymbolSymbolSymbol

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Toolbars• Toolbars

– The toolbar buttons are shortcuts for frequently used commands. Most of the available toolbars are displayed in this illustration of the Ansoft HFSS initial screen, but your Ansoft HFSS window probably will not be arranged this way. You can customize your toolbar display in a way that is convenient for you.

– Some toolbars are always displayed; other toolbars display automatically when you select a document of the related type. For example, when you select a 2D report from the project tree, the 2D report toolbar displays.

• To display or hide individual toolbars:– Right-click the Ansoft HFSS window frame.

• A list of all the toolbars is displayed. The toolbars with a check mark beside them are visible; the toolbars without a check mark are hidden. Click the toolbar name to turn its display on or off

– To make changes to the toolbars, select the menu item Tools > Customize . See Customize and Arrange Toolbars on the next page.

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Toolbars• Customize and Arrange Toolbars

– To customize toolbars:• Select the menu item Tools > Customize , or right-click the Ansoft HFSS window frame and click Customize at

the bottom of the toolbar list.• In the Customize dialog, you can do the following:

– View a Description of the toolbar commands1.Select an item from the Component pull-down list2.Select an item from the Category list3.Using the mouse click on the Buttons to display the Description4.Click the Close button when you are finished

– Toggle the visibility of toolbars1.From the Toolbar list, toggle the check boxes to control the visibility of the toolbars2.Click the Close button when you are finished

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Overview• Ansoft HFSS Desktop

– The Ansoft HFSS Desktop provides an intuitive, easy-to-use interface for developing passive RF device models. Creating designs, involves the following:

1. Parametric Model Generation – creating the geometry, boundaries and excitations2. Analysis Setup – defining solution setup and frequency sweeps3. Results – creating 2D reports and field plots4. Solve Loop - the solution process is fully automated

– To understand how these processes co-exist, examine the illustration shown on the next page.

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Overview

DesignDesignDesignDesign

Solution TypeSolution TypeSolution TypeSolution Type

BoundariesBoundariesBoundariesBoundaries

ExcitationsExcitationsExcitationsExcitations

Mesh Mesh Mesh Mesh

OperationsOperationsOperationsOperationsAnalysisAnalysisAnalysisAnalysis

Solution SetupSolution SetupSolution SetupSolution Setup

Frequency SweepFrequency SweepFrequency SweepFrequency Sweep

Parametric ModelParametric ModelParametric ModelParametric ModelGeometry/MaterialsGeometry/MaterialsGeometry/MaterialsGeometry/Materials

ResultsResultsResultsResults2D Reports2D Reports2D Reports2D Reports

FieldsFieldsFieldsFields

MeshMeshMeshMesh

RefinementRefinementRefinementRefinementSolveSolveSolveSolve

UpdateUpdateUpdateUpdate

ConvergedConvergedConvergedConverged

AnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyze

FinishedFinishedFinishedFinished

Solve LoopSolve LoopSolve LoopSolve Loop

NONONONO

YESYESYESYES

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Opening a Design• Opening a HFSS project

– This section describes how to open a new or existing project.

– Opening a New project• To open a new project :

1. In an Ansoft HFSS window, select the menu item File > New .2. Select the menu Project > Insert HFSS Design .

– Opening an Existing HFSS project• To open an existing project :

1. In an Ansoft HFSS window, select the menu File > Open . Use the Open dialog to select the project.

2. Click Open to open the project

– Opening an Existing Project from Explorer• You can open a project directly from the Microsoft Windows Explorer.• To open a project from Windows Explorer, do one of the following :

– Double-click on the name of the project in Windows Explorer.– Right-click the name of the project in Windows Explorer and select Open from the shortcut menu.

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Set Solution Type• Set Solution Type

– This section describes how to set the Solution Type. The Solution Type defines the type of results, how the excitations are defined, and the convergence. The following Solution Types are available:

1. Driven Modal - calculates the modal-based S-parameters. The S-matrix solutions will be expressed in terms of the incident and reflected powers of waveguide modes.

2. Driven Terminal - calculates the terminal-based S-parameters of multi-conductor transmission line ports. The S-matrix solutions will be expressed in terms of terminal voltages and currents.

3. Eignemode – calculate the eigenmodes, or resonances, of a structure. The Eigenmode solver finds the resonant frequencies of the structure and the fields at those resonant frequencies.

– Convergence• Driven Modal – Delta S for modal S-Parameters. This was the only convergence method available for Driven

Solutions in previous versions.• Driven Terminal – Delta S for the single-ended or differential nodal S-Parameters. • Eigenmode - Delta F

– To set the solution type:1. Select the menu item HFSS > Solution Type2. Solution Type Window:

1. Choose one of the following:1.Driven Modal2.Driven Terminal3.Eigenmode

2. Click the OK button

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Converting older files• Converting Older HFSS file to HFSS v11

– Because of changes to the HFSS files with the development of HFSS v11, opening a HFSS document from an earlier release may take more time than you are used to experiencing. However, once the file has been opened and saved, subsequent opening time will return to normal

– Ansoft HFSS v11 provides a way for you to automatically convert your HFSS projects from an earlier version to the HFSS v11 format.

– To access HFSS projects in an earlier version.• From HFSS v11,

1. Select the menu item File > Open2. Open dialog

1.Files of Type: Ansoft HFSS Project Files (.hfss)2.Browse to the existing project and select the .hfss file3.Click the Open button

Page 23: HFSS User Guide

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Chapter 2 – Simulation Basics

Ansoft HFSS - User Guide

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• What is HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator)?– “HFSS is the industry-standard software for S-parameter, full-wave SPICE extraction and

electromagnetic simulation of high-frequency and high-speed components. HFSS is widely used for the design of on-chip embedded passives, PCB interconnects, antennas, RF/microwave components, and high-frequency IC packages.”

– “HFSS improves engineering productivity, reduces development time, and better assures first-pass design success. The latest release of HFSS delivers significant productivity gains to Microwave/RF engineers and expands electromagnetic co-design to a new segment of engineers working in the areas of RF/analog IC and multi-gigabit designs as well as EMI/EMC.”

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GUIGUIGUIGUI

MeshMeshMeshMesh SolverSolverSolverSolver

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HFSS – Methodology• HFSS uses the Finite Element Method (FEM) to solve Ma xwell‘s equations.

– The primary advantage of the FEM for solving partial differential equations lies in the ability of the basic building blocks used to discretize the model to confrom to arbitrary geometry.

– The arbitrary shape of the basic building block (tetrahedron) also allows HFSS to generate a coarse mesh where fewer cells are needed to yield an accuate solution, while creating a finely discretized mesh where the field is rapidly varying or higher accuaracy is needed to obtain an accurate global solution.

• The FEM has been a standard for solving electromagn etic problems since the inception of HFSS in 1990.

– The FEM has been a standard for solving problems in structure mechanics since the mid 1950‘s.

TetrahedronTetrahedronTetrahedronTetrahedron

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HFSS - Technology• Tangential Vector Finite Elements

• Transfinite Element Method

• Adaptive Meshing

Vertex: Explicitly Vertex: Explicitly Vertex: Explicitly Vertex: Explicitly

SolvedSolvedSolvedSolved

Edge: Explicitly Edge: Explicitly Edge: Explicitly Edge: Explicitly

SolvedSolvedSolvedSolved

Face: Face: Face: Face:

InterpolatedInterpolatedInterpolatedInterpolated

InitialInitialInitialInitial ConvergedConvergedConvergedConverged

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• The “Solve”Create Initial

Mesh

Solve fields using theFinite Element Method

Max(|∆∆∆∆S|)<goal?Calculate localSolution error

Generate New Mesh

Calculate broad bands-parameters (if desired)

no

yes

Start

HFSS – Automated solution process

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1D FEM Example

• The finite element method (FEM) can be used to appr oximate the unknown curve F(x).

• The model is “discretized” into 6 individual cells. w0 – w6 are the piecewise linear “basis functions” from which the ap proximate solution will be built.

x

F(x)

1w1

10

2

w2

3

w3

4

w4

5

w5

6

w6w0

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1D FEM Example• In the FEM, the unknown function is expressed as a weighted sum of the

piecewise continuous basis functions.

x

F(x)

1

Node 1 2 3 4 5 6

F’(x)= ΣΣΣΣa wi i

The approximate solution resulting from the FEM The approximate solution resulting from the FEM The approximate solution resulting from the FEM The approximate solution resulting from the FEM calculation is calculation is calculation is calculation is F’(x) shown as a dotted line.shown as a dotted line.shown as a dotted line.shown as a dotted line.

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• A key feature of the FEM, as it is implemented in H FSS, is the ability to locally determine the error. Recall that F(x) is not known, but the ERROR can be determined 1.

x

F(x)

Node 1 2 3 4 5 6

1D FEM Example

1 D. K. Sun, Z. Cendes, J.-Fa Lee, „Adaptive Mesh Re finement, h-Version, for Solving Multiport Microwave Devices in Three Dimensions, IEEE Trans Magnetics , pp 1596-1599, Vol. 36, N.4, July 2000

Error!F’(x)= ΣΣΣΣa wi i

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1D FEM Example• The mesh density is increased where the error is la rgest. Hence, the final

(and computationally most expensive) solution will have a mesh that yields the greatest accuracy with the fewest possible mesh cells.

x

F(x)

1

Node 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

F’(x)= ΣΣΣΣa wi i

Page 33: HFSS User Guide

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The key to success

• Finite elements and adaptive meshing– Optimal, geometrically conformal mesh created autom atically by the

software

• Remove requirements for “meshing expertise”

Vertex: Explicitly SolvedVertex: Explicitly SolvedVertex: Explicitly SolvedVertex: Explicitly Solved

Edge: Explicitly SolvedEdge: Explicitly SolvedEdge: Explicitly SolvedEdge: Explicitly Solved

Face: InterpolatedFace: InterpolatedFace: InterpolatedFace: Interpolated

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Adaptive Meshing - Example• Example

– 11.5GHz patch antenna– Mesh elements concentrate at the perimeter of the p atch– Optimal mesh automatically generated by HFSS

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Quick Start

• Quick Example – Coax Tee • HFSS – High Frequency Structure Simulator

– Full-Wave 3D field solver– Solves for the fields in an arbitrary volume

Coax DielectricCoax DielectricCoax DielectricCoax Dielectric

Coax Center PinCoax Center PinCoax Center PinCoax Center Pin

Outer BoundaryOuter BoundaryOuter BoundaryOuter Boundary

Coax ShieldCoax ShieldCoax ShieldCoax Shield

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HFSS – Start to Finish

• The Process DesignDesignDesignDesign

Solution TypeSolution TypeSolution TypeSolution Type

BoundariesBoundariesBoundariesBoundaries

ExcitationsExcitationsExcitationsExcitations

Mesh Mesh Mesh Mesh OperationsOperationsOperationsOperations

AnalysisAnalysisAnalysisAnalysisSolution SetupSolution SetupSolution SetupSolution Setup

Frequency SweepFrequency SweepFrequency SweepFrequency Sweep

Parametric ModelParametric ModelParametric ModelParametric ModelGeometry/MaterialsGeometry/MaterialsGeometry/MaterialsGeometry/Materials

ResultsResultsResultsResults2D Reports2D Reports2D Reports2D Reports

FieldsFieldsFieldsFields

MeshMeshMeshMeshRefinementRefinementRefinementRefinement

SolveSolveSolveSolve

UpdateUpdateUpdateUpdate

ConvergedConvergedConvergedConverged

AnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyze

FinishedFinishedFinishedFinished

Solve LoopSolve LoopSolve LoopSolve Loop

NONONONO

YESYESYESYES

Page 37: HFSS User Guide

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• Starting HFSS– Click the Microsoft Start button, select Programs, and select Ansoft > HFSS 11 > HFSS 11– Or Double click on the HFSS 11 icon on the Windows Desktop

• Adding a Design– When you first start HFSS a new project with a new design will be automatically added to the Project Tree.

– To include additional designs into an existing project, select the menu item Project > Insert HFSS DesignProject > Insert HFSS DesignProject > Insert HFSS DesignProject > Insert HFSS Design

– Alternatively to open a new project with a new design manually, select the menu item File > NewFile > NewFile > NewFile > New....

Toolbar: Insert HFSS DesignToolbar: Insert HFSS DesignToolbar: Insert HFSS DesignToolbar: Insert HFSS Design

Page 38: HFSS User Guide

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Ansoft Desktop

Menu Menu Menu Menu

barbarbarbar

Progress Progress Progress Progress

WindowWindowWindowWindow

Property Property Property Property

WindowWindowWindowWindow

Message Message Message Message

ManagerManagerManagerManager

ProjectProjectProjectProject

ManagerManagerManagerManager

with projectwith projectwith projectwith project

treetreetreetree

Status Status Status Status

barbarbarbar

3D Modeler3D Modeler3D Modeler3D Modeler

WindowWindowWindowWindow

ToolbarsToolbarsToolbarsToolbars

Coordinate Entry FieldsCoordinate Entry FieldsCoordinate Entry FieldsCoordinate Entry Fields

Page 39: HFSS User Guide

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Project Manager• Ansoft Desktop – Project Manager

– Multiple Designs per Project– Multiple Projects per Desktop– Integrated Optimetrics Setup

• Requires License for Analysis

ProjectProjectProjectProject

DesignDesignDesignDesign

Design ResultsDesign ResultsDesign ResultsDesign Results

Design SetupDesign SetupDesign SetupDesign Setup

Design AutomationDesign AutomationDesign AutomationDesign Automation•ParametricParametricParametricParametric

•OptimizationOptimizationOptimizationOptimization•SensitivitySensitivitySensitivitySensitivity

•StatisticalStatisticalStatisticalStatistical

Project Manager WindowProject Manager WindowProject Manager WindowProject Manager Window

Page 40: HFSS User Guide

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3D Modeler

EdgeEdgeEdgeEdgeVertexVertexVertexVertex

PlanePlanePlanePlane

Coordinate System (CS)Coordinate System (CS)Coordinate System (CS)Coordinate System (CS)

OriginOriginOriginOrigin

FaceFaceFaceFace

ModelModelModelModel

Modeler WindowModeler WindowModeler WindowModeler Window

GraphicsGraphicsGraphicsGraphics

areaareaareaarea

ModelModelModelModel

Modeler Modeler Modeler Modeler

design treedesign treedesign treedesign tree

Context menuContext menuContext menuContext menu

Page 41: HFSS User Guide

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• Set Solution Type– To set the solution type:

• Select the menu item HFSS > Solution Type• Solution Type Window:

– Choose Driven Terminal– Click the OK button

• HFSS - Solution Types– Driven Modal - calculates the modal-based S-parameters. The S-matrix solutions will be expressed in terms of the

incident and reflected powers of waveguide modes.• Generalized S-parameters

– Driven Terminal - calculates the terminal-based S-parameters of multi-conductor transmission line ports. The S-matrix solutions will be expressed in terms of terminal voltages and currents.

– Eigenmode – calculate the eigenmodes, or resonances, of a structure. The Eigenmode solver finds the resonant frequencies of the structure and the fields at those resonant frequencies.

– Convergence• Driven Modal – Delta S for modal S-Parameters. • Driven Terminal – Delta S for the single-ended or differential nodal S-Parameters. • Eigenmode - Delta F

Page 42: HFSS User Guide

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• Set Model Units– To set the units :

• Select the menu item Modeler > Units• Set Model Units:

– Select Units: mm– Click the OK button

• Set Default Material– To set the default material :

• Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose Select• Select Definition Window:

– Type pec in the Search by Name field– Click the OK button

Page 43: HFSS User Guide

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3D Modeler – Create a Primitive

• The Coordinate Entry fields allow equations to be entered for position values.

– Examples: 2*5, 2+6+8, 2*cos(10*(pi/180)).

– Variables are not allowed in the Coordinate Entry Field

• NoteNoteNoteNote: Trig functions are in radians

Point 2Point 2Point 2Point 2

Point 3Point 3Point 3Point 3

Point 1Point 1Point 1Point 1

Grid PlaneGrid PlaneGrid PlaneGrid Plane

Base RectangleBase RectangleBase RectangleBase Rectangle

Point 1Point 1Point 1Point 1

Point 2Point 2Point 2Point 2

Point 3Point 3Point 3Point 3

Coordinate Entry FieldsCoordinate Entry FieldsCoordinate Entry FieldsCoordinate Entry Fields

Page 44: HFSS User Guide

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3D Modeler – Object Properties

AttributesAttributesAttributesAttributes

CommandsCommandsCommandsCommands

AttributesAttributesAttributesAttributes

CommandsCommandsCommandsCommands

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3D Modeler - Attributes

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• Set Grid Plane– To set the Grid Plane:

• Select the menu item Modeler > Grid Plane > YZ

• Create Coax Pin– To create the coax pin:

• Select the menu item Draw > Cylinder• Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the center position

– X: 0.0, Y: 0.0, Z: 0.0, Press the Enter key

• Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius of the cylinder– dX: 0.0, dY: 0.86, dZ: 0.0, Press the Enter key

• Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the height of the cylinder– dX: 6.0, dY: 0.0 dZ: 0.0, Press the Enter key

– Continued on Next Page

Page 47: HFSS User Guide

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• Create Coax Pin (Continued)– To Parameterize the Height

• Select the Command tab from the Properties window• Height: H• Press the Tab key• Add Variable Window

– Value: 6mm– Click the OK button

– To set the name :• Select the Attribute tab from the Properties window.• For the Value of Name type: Coax_Pin

– To set the color :• Select the Attribute tab from the Properties window.• Click the Edit button

– To set the transparency :• Select the Attribute tab from the Properties window.• Click the OK button

– To finish editing the object properties• Click the OK button

– To fit the view :• Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active View

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• Modeler - Views– View > Modify Attributes >

• Orientation – Predefined/Custom View Angles • Lighting – Control angle, intensity, and color of light• Projection – Control camera and perspective• Background Color – Control color of 3D Modeler background

– View > Active View Visibility - Controls the display of: 3D Modeler Objects, Color Keys, Boundaries, Excitations, Field Plots

– View > Options – Stereo Mode, Drag Optimization, Color Key Defaults,Default Rotation

– View > Render > Wire Frame or Smooth Shaded (Default)

– View > Coordinate System > Hide or Small (Large)

– View > Grid Setting – Controls the grid display

Toolbar: Toggle Grid VisibilityToolbar: Toggle Grid VisibilityToolbar: Toggle Grid VisibilityToolbar: Toggle Grid Visibility

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Changing the View

– Context Menu

– Shortcuts• Since changing the view is a frequently used operation, some useful shortcut keys exist. Press the appropriate

keys and drag the mouse with the left button pressed:– ALT + Drag – Rotate

• In addition, there are 9 pre-defined view angles that can be selected by holding the ALT key and double clicking on the locations shown on the next page.

– Shift + Drag - Pan– ALT + Shift + Drag – Dynamic Zoom

PanPanPanPan

Rotate AroundRotate AroundRotate AroundRotate Around

Model CenterModel CenterModel CenterModel Center

Dynamic ZoomDynamic ZoomDynamic ZoomDynamic Zoom

Zoom In/OutZoom In/OutZoom In/OutZoom In/Out

TopTopTopTop

BottomBottomBottomBottom

RightRightRightRight

Predefined View AnglesPredefined View AnglesPredefined View AnglesPredefined View Angles

LeftLeftLeftLeft

Rotate AroundRotate AroundRotate AroundRotate Around

Current AxisCurrent AxisCurrent AxisCurrent Axis

Rotate AroundRotate AroundRotate AroundRotate Around

Screen CenterScreen CenterScreen CenterScreen Center

Fit AllFit AllFit AllFit All

Fit SelectedFit SelectedFit SelectedFit Selected

Page 50: HFSS User Guide

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• Set Default Material– To set the default material:

• Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose vacuum

• Create Coax – To create the coax :

• Select the menu item Draw > Cylinder• Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the center position

– X: 0.0, Y: 0.0, Z: 0.0, Press the Enter key• Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius of the cylinder

– dX: 0.0, dY: 2.0, dZ: 0.0, Press the Enter key• Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the height of the cylinder

– dX: 6.0, dY: 0.0 dZ: 0.0, Press the Enter key – To Parameterize the Height :

• Select the Command tab from the Properties window• Height: H• Click the OK button

– To set the name :• Select the Attribute tab from the Properties window.• For the Value of Name type: Coax• Click the OK button

– To fit the view :• Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active View

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• Create Excitation– Face Selection

• Select the menu item Edit > Select > Faces• By moving the mouse, graphically highlight the top face of the Coax object• Click the left mouse button to select the face

– Assign Excitation• Select the menu item HFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave Port• Reference Conductors for Terminals

– Conducting Objects: Coax_pin– Press OK– Note : Reference conductors are not shown because we are using Outer boundary condition as the

reference conductor. Port properties can be accessed by double clicking on Waveport1 in Project tree

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Automatic Terminal Assignment

Step 1: Assign PortStep 1: Assign PortStep 1: Assign PortStep 1: Assign Port Step 2: Choose Conductors/ReferenceStep 2: Choose Conductors/ReferenceStep 2: Choose Conductors/ReferenceStep 2: Choose Conductors/ReferenceNote: Dialog Remembers Reference ConductorsNote: Dialog Remembers Reference ConductorsNote: Dialog Remembers Reference ConductorsNote: Dialog Remembers Reference Conductors

FinishedFinishedFinishedFinished

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• Duplicate boundaries with geometry– Works with all boundaries and excitations– Select the menu item Tools > Options > HFSS Options– HFSS Options Window:

• Click the General tab– Use Wizards for data entry when creating new boundaries: Checked– Duplicate boundaries with geometry: Checked

• Click the OK button

– Example:• Assign an Excitation to the face of an object• Duplicate the object around an axis three times• The Excitation is automatically duplicated

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• Set Object Selection – Set select to objects

• Select the menu item Edit > Select > Objects

• Create Tee– To create Tee :

• Select the menu item Edit > Select All Visible . Or press the CTRL+A key.• Select the menu item, Edit > Duplicate > Around Axis .

– Axis: Z– Angle: 90– Total Number: 3– Click the OK button– Click the OK button

– To fit the view:• Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active View .

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• Unite Conductors– Select Conductors

• Select the menu item Edit > Select > By Name• Select Object Dialog,

– Select the objects named: Coax_Pin, Coax_Pin_1, Coax_Pin_2– Click the OK button

– Unite • Select the menu item Modeler > Boolean > Unite

• Unite Coax– Select Coax

• Select the menu item Edit > Select > By Name• Select Object Dialog,

– Select the objects named: Coax, Coax_1, Coax_2– Click the OK button

– Unite • Select the menu item Modeler > Boolean > Unite

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Solution Setup• Creating an Analysis Setup

– To create an analysis setup :• Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup• Solution Setup Window:

– Click the General tab:• Solution Frequency: 10.0 GHz

– Click the OK button

Adapt FrequencyAdapt FrequencyAdapt FrequencyAdapt Frequency

Add Solution SetupAdd Solution SetupAdd Solution SetupAdd Solution Setup

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• Adding a Frequency Sweep– To add a frequency sweep :

• Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Sweep– Select Solution Setup: Setup1 – Click the OK button

• Edit Sweep Window:– Sweep Type: Fast– Frequency Setup Type: Linear Step

• Start: 1.0 GHz• Stop: 10.0 GHz• Step: 0.1 GHz• Save Fields: Checked

– Click the OK button

• HFSS – Frequency Sweep – Discrete – Solves using adaptive mesh at every frequency

• Matrix Data and Fields at every frequency in sweep– Fast - ALPS

• Matrix Data and Fields at every frequency in sweep– Interpolating – Adaptively determines discrete solve

points using the adaptive mesh• Matrix Data at every frequency in sweeps• Fields at last adaptive solution

Add SweepAdd SweepAdd SweepAdd Sweep

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See: IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. 46, N o. 9, Sept. 1998

• Interpolating Sweep– The calculation of wide-band s-parameters in HFSS is achieved using the interpolating sweep. This method fits s-

parameter data to a rational polynomial transfer function using a minimum number of discrete finite element method (FEM) solutions.

– The interpolating sweep yields the poles and zeros of the transfer function. This information can be directly used in the Laplace Element from which a Full-Wave SPICE™ model can be generated (HSPICE, Spectre RF, PSPICE).

( )( ) ( )( )( ) ( )11

11

...

...

pspsps

zszszsS

qqq

qqq

−−−−−−

=−

αβ

Rational Polynomial:

S11

(dB

)

Example: Interpolating SweepExample: Interpolating SweepExample: Interpolating SweepExample: Interpolating Sweep5 cm microstrip transmission line5 cm microstrip transmission line5 cm microstrip transmission line5 cm microstrip transmission line

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S11

(dB

)

Adaptive Frequency

S11

(dB

)S

11 (

dB)

S11

(dB

)S

11 (

dB)

S11

(dB

)S

11 (

dB)

S11

(dB

)S

11 (

dB)

S11

(dB

)S

11 (

dB)

S11

(dB

)S

11 (

dB)

DONE!

Page 60: HFSS User Guide

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• Save Project– To save the project:

• In an Ansoft HFSS window, select the menu item File > Save As .• From the Save As window, type the Filename: hfss_coax_tee• Click the Save button

• Analyze

• Model Validation– To validate the model :

• Select the menu item HFSS > Validation Check• Click the Close button

– Note: To view any errors or warning messages, use the Message Manager.

• Analyze– To start the solution process:

• Select the menu item HFSS > Analyze All

ValidateValidateValidateValidate Analyze AllAnalyze AllAnalyze AllAnalyze All

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• Create Reports– To create a report:

• Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data Rep ort> Rectangular Plot• New Report Window:

– Solution: Setup1: Sweep1– Domain: Sweep

• Category: Terminal S Parameter• Quantity: St(coax_pin_T1, coax_pin_T1), St(coax_pin_T1, coax_ pin_T2), St(coax_pin_T2,

coax_pin_T3) Note : Hold Ctrl key to select multiple traces• Function: db• Click New Report button• Click Close button

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• Field Overlays– To create a field plot :

• Select an object to overlay fields– Select the menu item Edit > Select > By Name– Select Object Dialog,

• Select the objects named: Coax• Click the OK button

• Select the menu item HFSS > Fields > Fields > E > Mag_E• Create Field Plot Window

– Solution: Setup1 : LastAdaptive– Quantity: Mag_E– In Volume: All– Click the Done button

– To modify the attributes of a field plot:• Select the menu item HFSS > Fields > Modify Plot Attributes• Select Plot Folder Window:

– Select: E Field– Click the OK button

• E-Field Window:– Click the Scale tab

• Scale: Log– Click the Plot tab

• IsoValType: IsoValSurface• Click the Apply button.

• Click the Close button

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• Core Technology– HFSS – High Frequency Structure Simulator– Arbitrary 3D Volumetric Full-Wave Field Solver

• Ansoft Desktop– Advanced ACIS based Modeling– True Parametric Technology – Dynamic Editing– Powerful Report Generation– Dynamic Field Visualization– Design Flow Automation

• Optimetrics/Ansoft Designer/AnsoftLinks• Advanced Material Types

– Frequency Dependent Materials– Non-linear Materials– Anisotropic Materials

• Advanced Boundary Conditions– Radiation and Perfectly Matched Layers– Symmetry, Finite Conductivity, Infinite Planes, RLC, and Layered Impedance– Master/Slave – Unit Cells

• Advanced Solver Technology– Automatic Conformal Mesh Generation– Adaptive Mesh Generation– Internal/External Excitations – Includes Loss– ALPS Fast Frequency Sweep– Eigenmode

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• Common HFSS Applications– Antenna

• Planar Antennas - Patches, Dipoles, Horns, Conformal Cell Phone Antennas, Spirals• Waveguide – Circular/Square Horns• Wire – Dipole, Helix• Arrays - Infinite Arrays, Frequency Selective Surfaces (FSS) & Photonic Band Gaps (PBG)• Radar Cross Section (RCS)

– Microwave• Filters – Cavity Filters, Microstrip, Dielectric• EMC/EMI – Shield Enclosures, Coupling, Near- or Far-Field Radiation• Connectors – Coax, SFP/XFP, Backplane, Transitions• Waveguide – Filters, Resonators, Transitions, Couplers• Silicon/GaSa - Spiral Inductors, Transformers

– Signal Integrity/High-Speed Digital• Package Modeling – BGA, QFP, Flip-Chip• PCB Board Modeling – Power/Ground planes, Mesh Grid Grounds, Backplanes• Connectors – SFP/XFP, VHDM, GBX, NexLev, Coax• Transitions – Differential/Single-ended Vias

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HFSS - Results• Matrix Data

– Modal/Terminal/Differential• S-, Y-, and Z-Parameters• VSWR

– Excitations• Complex Propagation Constant (Gamma)• Zo

– Full-Wave Spice• Full-Wave Spice – Broadband Model• Lumped RLC – Low Frequency Model• Partial Fraction - Matlab• Export Formats – HSPICE, PSPICE, Cadence Spectre, and Maxwell SPICE

– Common Display Formats:• Rectangular, Polar• Smith Chart• Data Tables

– Common Output Formats:• Neutral Models Files (NMF) (Optimetrics only)

– Parametric Results• Touchstone, Data Tables, Matlab, • Citifile• Graphics – Windows Clipboard

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HFSS - Results• Fields

– Modal/Terminal/Differential• Electric Field• Magnetic Field• Current (Volume/Surface)• Power• Specific Absorption Rate

– Radiation• 2D/3D Far-/Near-Fields• Arrays – Regular and Custom Setups• RCS

– Field Calculator• User Defined Field Calculations

– Common Display Formats• Volume• Surface• Vector• 2D Reports – Rectangular, Polar, Radiation Patterns

– Common Output Formats:• Animations – AVI, GIF• Data Tables• Graphics – Windows Clipboard, BMP, GIF, JPG, TIFF, VRML

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• Modeler – Model Tree– Select menu item Modeler > Group by Material

Grouped by MaterialGrouped by MaterialGrouped by MaterialGrouped by Material Object ViewObject ViewObject ViewObject View

MaterialMaterialMaterialMaterial

ObjectObjectObjectObject

Object Command Object Command Object Command Object Command

HistoryHistoryHistoryHistory

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• Modeler – Commands– Parametric Technology

• Dynamic Edits - Change Dimensions• Add Variables

– Project Variables (Global) or Design Variables (Local)– Animate Geometry– Include Units – Default Unit is meters

• Supports mixed Units

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• Modeler – Primitives– 2D Draw Objects

• The following 2D Draw objects are available:– Line, Spline, Arc, Equation Based Curve,

Rectangle, Ellipse, Circle, Regular Polygon, Equation Based Surface

– 3D Draw Objects• The following 3D Draw objects are available:

– Box, Cylinder, Regular Polyhedron, Cone, Sphere, Torus, Helix, Spiral, Bond Wire

Toolbar: 2D ObjectsToolbar: 2D ObjectsToolbar: 2D ObjectsToolbar: 2D Objects Toolbar: 3D ObjectsToolbar: 3D ObjectsToolbar: 3D ObjectsToolbar: 3D Objects

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• Modeler – Boolean Operations/Transformations• Modeler > Boolean >

– Unite – combine multiple primitives• Unite disjoint objects (Separate Bodies to separate)

– Subtract – remove part of a primitive from another

– Intersect – keep only the parts of primitives that overlap– Split – break primitives into multiple parts along a plane (XY, YZ, XZ)– Split Crossing Objects – splits objects along a plane (XY, YZ, XZ) only where they intersect

– Separate Bodies – separates objects which are united but not physically connected into individual objects

• Modeler > Surfaces > Move Faces – Resize or Reposition an objects face along a normal or vector.

• Edit > Arrange >– Move – Translates the structure along a vector

– Rotate – Rotates the shape around a coordinate axis by an angle– Mirror – Mirrors the shape around a specified plane– Offset – Performs a uniform scale in x, y, and z.

• Edit > Duplicate >– Along Line – Create multiple copies of an object along a vector

– Around Axis – Create multiple copies of an object rotated by a fixed angle around the x, y, or z axis– Mirror - Mirrors the shape around a specified plane and creates a duplicate

• Edit > Scale – Allows non-uniform scaling in the x, y, or z direction

Toolbar: BooleanToolbar: BooleanToolbar: BooleanToolbar: Boolean

Toolbar: ArrangeToolbar: ArrangeToolbar: ArrangeToolbar: Arrange

Toolbar: DuplicateToolbar: DuplicateToolbar: DuplicateToolbar: Duplicate

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• Modeler - Selection– Selection Types

• Object (Default)• Face• Edge• Vertex

– Selection Modes• All Objects• All Visible Object• By Name

– Highlight Selection Dynamically – By default, moving the mouse pointer over an object will dynamically highlight the object for selection. To select the object simply click the left mouse button.

• Multiple Object Selection – Hold the CTRL key down to graphically select multiple objects• Next Behind – To select an object located behind another object, select the front object, press the b key to get

the next behind. Note: The mouse pointer must be located such that the next behind object is under the mouse pointer.

• To Disable : Select the menu item Tools > Options > 3D Modeler Options– From the Display Tab, uncheck Highlight selection dynamically

Dynamically HighlightedDynamically HighlightedDynamically HighlightedDynamically Highlighted

(Only frame of object)(Only frame of object)(Only frame of object)(Only frame of object)

SelectedSelectedSelectedSelected

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• Modeler – Moving Around

Step 1: Start PointStep 1: Start PointStep 1: Start PointStep 1: Start Point Step 2: Hold X key and select vertex pointStep 2: Hold X key and select vertex pointStep 2: Hold X key and select vertex pointStep 2: Hold X key and select vertex point

Step 3: CTRL+Enter Keys set a local referenceStep 3: CTRL+Enter Keys set a local referenceStep 3: CTRL+Enter Keys set a local referenceStep 3: CTRL+Enter Keys set a local reference Step 4: Hold Z key and set heightStep 4: Hold Z key and set heightStep 4: Hold Z key and set heightStep 4: Hold Z key and set height

Edge Center SnapEdge Center SnapEdge Center SnapEdge Center Snap

Toolbar: Snap ModeToolbar: Snap ModeToolbar: Snap ModeToolbar: Snap Mode

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Step 1: Select FaceStep 1: Select FaceStep 1: Select FaceStep 1: Select Face Step 2: Select OriginStep 2: Select OriginStep 2: Select OriginStep 2: Select Origin

Step 3: Set XStep 3: Set XStep 3: Set XStep 3: Set X----AxisAxisAxisAxis New Working CSNew Working CSNew Working CSNew Working CS

• Modeler – Coordinate System– Can be Parameterized

– Working Coordinate System• Currently selected CS. This can be a local or global CS

– Global CS• The default fixed coordinate system

– Relative CS• User defined local coordinate system.

– Offset– Rotated– Both

– Face CS (setting available to automatically switch to face coordinate system in the 3D Modeler Options)

Cone created with Face CSCone created with Face CSCone created with Face CSCone created with Face CS

Change Box Size and Cone is Change Box Size and Cone is Change Box Size and Cone is Change Box Size and Cone is

automatically positioned with automatically positioned with automatically positioned with automatically positioned with

the top face of the boxthe top face of the boxthe top face of the boxthe top face of the box

Toolbar: Coordinate SystemToolbar: Coordinate SystemToolbar: Coordinate SystemToolbar: Coordinate System

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(Overlap between two cylinders)(Overlap between two cylinders)(Overlap between two cylinders)(Overlap between two cylinders)

• Overlapping Geometry – Definition : When an object occupies volume in multiple 3D objects. This does not apply to sheet objects– Solution :

• Metal Overlapping Dielectrics– Resolution : Set Material Override

• Menu item: HFSS > Set Material Override• Dielectrics Overlapping Dielectrics

– Resolution : Correct the Overlap• Split the overlapping object into multiple pieces• Subtract the overlapping geometries

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Automatic Feature Removal

HolesHolesHolesHoles

BlendsBlendsBlendsBlends

Step 1: Enter Feature Detection OptionsStep 1: Enter Feature Detection OptionsStep 1: Enter Feature Detection OptionsStep 1: Enter Feature Detection Options

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Automatic Feature Removal

RemovedRemovedRemovedRemoved

Note: Note: Note: Note: There are two modes of operation for the feature removal: Healing

and Model Analysis. Model Analysis was used here and allows the user to

manually select which geometry features are removed. For healing, all features that meet the user defined criteria are automatically removed.

Both options are found in the menu item Modeler > Model AnalysisModeler > Model AnalysisModeler > Model AnalysisModeler > Model Analysis

Step 2: Select Features to RemoveStep 2: Select Features to RemoveStep 2: Select Features to RemoveStep 2: Select Features to Remove

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• HFSS – Matrix Data– HFSS > Results > Solution Data– Export

• NMF, Touchstone, Data Tables, Citifile, MATLAB (*.m) • NOTE: Make sure the Simulation is set to a Sweep before exporting. The Adaptive Passes will only export a

single frequency point.– Equivalent Circuit Export

• HSPICE, PSPICE, Spectre, Maxwell SPICE

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• Results – Data Management– HFSS > Results > Browse Solutions

• Solved model variations are retained. Unless otherwise notified by HFSS.

– HFSS > Results > Clean Up Solutions

– HFSS > Results > Import Solutions

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• Results – Create Reports– HFSS > Results > Create Report– Output Variables

• User Defined Equations

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• Fields– Select Object Volume, Surface, or Line to display fields– HFSS > Fields > Plot Fields >– Modify Plot – Solution/Frequency/Qty– Plot Attributes– Edit Sources – Change Excitation

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• Mesh Display– Field Overlay

• Select an object• Select the menu item HFSS > Fields > Plot Mesh

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• Measure – Modeler > Measure >

• Position – Points and Distance• Length – Edge Length• Area – Surface Area• Volume – Object Volume

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• Solver Technology

Mesh Mesh Mesh Mesh

OperationsOperationsOperationsOperations

MeshMeshMeshMesh

RefinementRefinementRefinementRefinementSolveSolveSolveSolve

ConvergedConvergedConvergedConverged

FinishedFinishedFinishedFinished

Solve LoopSolve LoopSolve LoopSolve Loop

NONONONO

YESYESYESYES

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Higher-Order Basis Functions• Solver - Higher-Order Basis Functions

– Basis functions are hierarchical– Increased Accuracy with less elements– Convergence is a function of basis order

H0(curl)elements

H1(curl)elements

H2(curl)elements

1111stststst OrderOrderOrderOrder 2222ndndndnd OrderOrderOrderOrder

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Iterative Solver• How does it work?

– The Iterative Matrix Solver works by “guessing” a solution to the matrix of unknowns, and then recursively updating the “guess” until an error tolerance has been reached

• What is the advantage?– Reduced RAM and Simulation Time

• Where do you control the Iterative Solver?– Options Tab from Solution Setup dialog

Initial guess

Preconditioner

Update solution and search direction

Converges ?

yes

no

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Example – Basis Functions & Iterative Solver

How many passes on computer w/8GB RAM?How many passes on computer w/8GB RAM?How many passes on computer w/8GB RAM?How many passes on computer w/8GB RAM?

• Direct: 3 PassesDirect: 3 PassesDirect: 3 PassesDirect: 3 Passes

• Iterative: 11 PassesIterative: 11 PassesIterative: 11 PassesIterative: 11 Passes

Copper WallCopper WallCopper WallCopper Wall

Increased Capacity (4x)Increased Capacity (4x)Increased Capacity (4x)Increased Capacity (4x)

IterativeIterativeIterativeIterativeDirectDirectDirectDirect

4x Capacity on Same Machine4x Capacity on Same Machine4x Capacity on Same Machine4x Capacity on Same Machine

2x Unknowns 2x Unknowns 2x Unknowns 2x Unknowns –––– 2x Memory 2x Memory 2x Memory 2x Memory

Volume: 447cubic wavelengths

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IterativeIterativeIterativeIterative DirectDirectDirectDirect

IterativeIterativeIterativeIterative DirectDirectDirectDirect

3.2x Less RAM3.2x Less RAM3.2x Less RAM3.2x Less RAM

6.4x Faster6.4x Faster6.4x Faster6.4x Faster

Iterative and Direct Iterative and Direct Iterative and Direct Iterative and Direct

Converge in 3 PassesConverge in 3 PassesConverge in 3 PassesConverge in 3 Passes

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• Options – General– Tools > Options > General Options

• Temp Directory – Location used during solution process– Make sure it is at least 512MB free disk.

• Options - HFSS– Tools > Options > HFSS Options > Solver

• Number of Processors – Requires additional license• Desired RAM Limit – leave it unchecked for auto-detect• Maximum RAM Limit – leave it unchecked for auto-detect• Process Priority – set the simulation priority from Critical

(highest) to Idle (lowest)

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• Project Files– Everything regarding the project is stored in an ascii file

• File: <project_name>.hfss• Double click from Windows Explorer will open and launch HFSS v11

– Results and Mesh are stored in a folder named <project_name>.hfssresults– Lock file: <project_name>.lock.hfss

• Created when a project is opened– Auto Save File: <project_name>.hfss.auto

• When recovering, software only checks date– If an error occurred when saving the auto file, the date will be newer then the original – Look at file size (provided in recover dialog)

• Converting Older HFSS Projects HFSS v9 and HFSS v10 to HFSS v11– From HFSS v11.0,

• Select the menu item File > Open• Open dialog

– Files of Type: Ansoft HFSS Project Files (.hfss)– Browse to the existing project and select the .hfss file– Click the Open button

• Legacy License– The v11 license allows users to run HFSS v9.2.1, v10.1.3 or 11.x.

• NOTE: Once a project is saved in v11 it can no longer be opened in previous versions

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• Recommended Service Packs (SP) – PC only– Microsoft Windows XP - SP2 or higher

• Memory allocation 32-bit Windows– Since the release of HFSS v9.2 you can access sup to 3GB of Ram on a 32-bit PC – All about 3GB switch, supported OS

• http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;291988– How to use /3GB switch

• http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/ddtools/hh/ddtools/bootini_1fcj.asp– Possible problems

• http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;328269

• Increasing Memory allocation HFSS v11– Since the release of HFSS v10, the solver in HFSS is 64bit and can access a large memory footprint.

• Linux Operating Systems– Red Hat Enterprise 3 and 4– SUSE Linux Enterprise 9.x– Note : Requires OpenGL– Note : Please perform required OS updates outlined in readme file on the CD

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Distributed Solve Option• Distributed Analysis

– Automated parser management and reassembly of data– Parametric tables and studies– Frequency sweeps for discrete, fast, and interpolating– Per license, distributed analysis allows up to 10 parallel simulations on remote machines, providing

near-linear reduction of simulation run times

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• Scripts– Default Script recorded in v11

• Visual Basic Script

• Distributed/Remote Solve– Tools > Options > General Options > Analysis Option s

• Uses Windows DCOM

LocalLocalLocalLocal RemoteRemoteRemoteRemote DistributedDistributedDistributedDistributed

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• For Technical Support– The following link will direct you to the Ansoft Support Page. The Ansoft Support Pages provide additional

documentation, training, and application notes. Web Site: http://www.ansoft.com/support.cfm

• Application Engineers for North America– The names and numbers in this list may change without notice

• 9-4 EST: – Pittsburgh, PA

• (412) 261-3200 x0 – Ask for Technical Support

– Burlington, MA• (781) 229-8900 x0 – Ask for Technical Support

• 9-4 PST: – San Jose, CA

• (408) 261-9095 x0 – Ask for Technical Support

– Portland, OR• (503) 906-7947

– Irvine, CA• (714) 417-9311 x6

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Chapter 3 – Boundary Conditions

Ansoft HFSS – User Guide

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• Why are They Critical?– For most practical problems, the solution to Maxwel l’s equations requires a

rigorous matrix approach such as the Finite Element Method (FEM) which is used by Ansoft HFSS .

• The wave equation solved by Ansoft HFSS is derived from the differential form of Maxwell’s equations.

– For these expressions to be valid, it is assumed th at the field vectors are:• single-valued , • bounded , and have a• continuous distribution (along with their derivatives)

– Along boundaries of media or at sources, • Field vectors are discontinuous• Derivatives of the field vectors have no meaning

Boundary Conditions

0=⋅∇=⋅∇

∂∂+=×∇

∂∂−=×∇

B

Dt

DJH

t

BE

ρ

Boundary Conditions define the field behavior across discontinuoBoundary Conditions define the field behavior across discontinuoBoundary Conditions define the field behavior across discontinuoBoundary Conditions define the field behavior across discontinuous boundariesus boundariesus boundariesus boundaries

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• Why do I Care?– They Force the fields to align with the definition of the boun dary condition

• As a user I should be asking– What assumptions, about the fields, do the boundary conditions make?– Are these assumptions appropriate for the structure being simulated?

– Model Scope• To reduce the infinite space of the real world to a finite volume, Ansoft HFSS automatically

applies a boundary to the surface surrounding the g eometric model– Outer boundary– Default Boundary: Perfect E

– Model Complexity• To reduce the complexity of a model, the boundary c onditions can be used to improve the:

– Solution Time– Computer Resources

Failure to understand boundary conditions may lead to inconsisteFailure to understand boundary conditions may lead to inconsisteFailure to understand boundary conditions may lead to inconsisteFailure to understand boundary conditions may lead to inconsistent resultsnt resultsnt resultsnt results

Boundary Conditions

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• What are Common Ansoft HFSS Boundary Conditions?– Excitations

• Wave Ports (External) • Lumped Ports (Internal)

– Surface Approximations• Perfect E or Perfect H Surface• Finite Conductivity Surface• Impedance Surface• Layered Impedance Surface• Lumped RLC• Symmetry Planes• Radiation Surface• Perfectly Matched Layer (PML)

– Strictly not a surface approximation• Master/ Slave

– Material Properties• Boundary between two dielectrics• Finite Conductivity of a conductor

Largely the users responsibilityLargely the users responsibilityLargely the users responsibilityLargely the users responsibility

Transparent to the userTransparent to the userTransparent to the userTransparent to the user

Boundary Conditions

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• Perfect E – Forces the electric field perpendicular to the surface– Outer Surface – Default Boundary– PEC/Perfect Conductor Material Property– Model complexity: Reduced by eliminating conductor loss

• Perfect H – Forces the electric field tangent to the surface

• Finite Conductivity – Lossy electric conductor.– Forces the tangential electric field at the surface to: Zs(n x Htan).

• The surface impedance (Zs) is equal to, (1+j)/(δσδσδσδσ), • Model complexity : Reduced by eliminating conductor thickness

• Impedance Surface – Represent surfaces of a known im pedance – Forces the tangential electric field at the surface to: Zs(n x Htan).

• The surface impedance (Zs) is equal to, Rs + jXs (Ohms/Square)– Layered Impedance – Models multiple thin layers in a structure as an Impedance Surface– Lumped RLC – Parallel combination

Perfect E SurfacePerfect E SurfacePerfect E SurfacePerfect E Surface

Perfect H Surface

Boundary Conditions

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• Symmetry Planes – Enable you to model only part of a structure – Perfect E or Perfect H Symmetry Planes

• Must be exposed to the outer surface• Must be on a planar surface• Remember! Mechanical Symmetry does not Equal Electr ical Symmetry

– Model complexity : Reduced by eliminating part of the solution volume

Full ModelFull ModelFull ModelFull Model

Perfect E SymmetryPerfect E SymmetryPerfect E SymmetryPerfect E Symmetry

Perfect H SymmetryPerfect H SymmetryPerfect H SymmetryPerfect H Symmetry

Boundary Conditions

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• Radiation Surface – Allows waves to radiate infinite ly far into space. – The boundary absorbs wave at the radiation surface– Can be placed on arbitrary surfaces– Accuracy depends on

• The distance between the boundary and the radiating object– The radiation boundary should be located at least one-quarter of a wavelength from a radiating structure. If

you are simulating a structure that does not radiate, the boundary can be located less then one-quarter of a wave length (The validity of this assumption will require your engineering judgment).

• The incident angle– The radiation boundary will reflect varying amounts of energy depending on the incidence angle. The best

performance is achieved at normal incidence. Avoid angles greater then ~30degrees. In addition, the radiation boundary must remain convex relative to the wave.

• Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) – Allows waves to radiat e infinitely far into space. – Not a Boundary Condition. – Fictitious materials that fully absorb the electromagnetic fields impinging upon them. – These materials are complex anisotropic.

• Types– Free Space Termination or Reflection Free Termination

• Can only be placed on planar surface• Model complexity : They do not suffer from the distance or incident angle issues, but should be place at least

one-tenth of a wave length from strong radiators

Boundary Conditions

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• Infinite Ground Planes – Simulate the effects of an infinite ground plane– Only affects the calculation of near- or far-field radiation during post processing– Types: Perfect E, Finite Conductivity, or Impedance Surface

• Frequency Dependent Boundary Conditions– The following boundary parameters can be assigned an expression that includes Freq:

• Finite Conductivity• Impedance• Lumped RLC• Layered Impedance

– Supported Frequency Sweeps• Single Frequency• Discrete Sweep• Interpolating Sweep

Boundary Conditions

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• Ports– Unique type of boundary condition

• Allow energy to flow into and out of a structure.• Defined on 2D planar surface• Arbitrary port solver calculates the natural field patterns or modes

– Assumes semi-infinitely long waveguide• Same cross-section and material properties as port surface

– 2D field patterns serve as boundary conditions for the full 3D problem

• Excitation Types– Wave Port (Waveguide) – External

• Recommended only for surfaces exposed to the background• Supports multiple modes (Example: Coupled Lines) and deembedding• Compute Generalized S-Parameters

– Frequency dependent Characteristic Impedance (Zo)– Perfectly matched at every frequency

– Lumped Port – Internal• Recommended only for surfaces internal to geometric model• Single mode (TEM) and no deembedding• Normalized to a constant user defined Zo

Port 1Port 1Port 1Port 1

Port 2Port 2Port 2Port 2Port 3Port 3Port 3Port 3

Port 4Port 4Port 4Port 4

Excitations

MeasurementsMeasurementsMeasurementsMeasurementsConstant ZoConstant ZoConstant ZoConstant Zo

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Excitations• Wave Equation

– The field pattern of a traveling wave inside a waveguide can be determined by solving Maxwell’s equations. The following equation that is solved by the 2D solver is derived directly from Maxwell’s equation.

– where:• E(x,y) is a phasor representing an oscillating electric field.• k0 is the free space wave number,

• µr is the complex relative permeability.• εr is the complex relative permittivity.

– To solve this equation, the 2D solver obtains an excitation field pattern in the form of a phasor solution, E(x,y). These phasor solutions are independent of z and t; only after being multiplied by e-γz do they become traveling waves.

– Also note that the excitation field pattern computed is valid only at a single frequency. A different excitation field pattern is computed for each frequency point of interest.

( ) 0),(,1 2

0 =−

×∇×∇ yxEkyxE r

r

εµ

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Excitations• Modes, Reflections, and Propagation

– It is also possible for a 3D field solution generated by an excitation signal of one specific mode to contain reflections of higher-order modes which arise due to discontinuities in a high frequency structure.

– If these higher-order modes are reflected back to the excitation port or transmitted onto another port, the S-parameters associated with these modes should be calculated.

– If the higher-order mode decays before reaching any port—either because of attenuation due to losses or because it is a non-propagating evanescent mode—there is no need to obtain the S-parameters for that mode.

• Wave Ports Require a Length of Uniform Cross Sectio n– Ansoft HFSS assumes that each port you define is connected to a semi-infinitely long waveguide that has the same

cross section as the Wave Port

no uniform cross sectionno uniform cross sectionno uniform cross sectionno uniform cross section

at Wave Portsat Wave Portsat Wave Portsat Wave Ports

uniform cross section uniform cross section uniform cross section uniform cross section

added for each Wave Portadded for each Wave Portadded for each Wave Portadded for each Wave Port

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Excitations• Wave Port Boundary Conditions

– Perfect E or Finite Conductivity • Default: All outer edges are Perfect E boundary .

– Port is defined within a waveguide. – Easy for enclosed transmission lines: Coax or Waveguide– Challenging for unbalanced or non-enclosed lines: Microstrip, CPW, Slotline, etc.

– Symmetry or Impedance • Recognized at the port edges

– Radiation• Default interface is a Perfect E boundary

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Excitations• Lumped Port Boundary Conditions

– Perfect E or Finite Conductivity• Any port edge that interfaces with a conductor or another port edge

– Perfect H• All remaining port edges

Perfect H

Perfect H

Perfect E

Perfect E

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Excitations• Excitation – Calibration

– Ports must be calibrated to ensure consistent resul ts. Determines :

• Direction and polarity of fields• Voltage/ Current calculations.

– Solution Type: Driven Modal• Expressed in terms of the incident and reflected powers of the waveguide modes.

– Definition not desirable for problems having several propagating quasi-TEM modes• Coupled/Multi-Coupled Transmission Lines

• Always used by the solver• Calibration: Integration Line

– Phase between Ports– Modal voltage integration path: Zpi, Zpv, Zvi

– Solution Type: Driven Terminal• Linear combination of nodal voltages and currents for the Wave Port.

– Equivalent transformation performed from Modal Solution• Calibration: Terminal Assignments

– Polarity– Nodal current integration path

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• Example Solution Types:

T1T1T1T1 T2T2T2T2

Integration LineIntegration LineIntegration LineIntegration Line

Mode 1Mode 1Mode 1Mode 1

(Even Mode)(Even Mode)(Even Mode)(Even Mode)

Integration LineIntegration LineIntegration LineIntegration Line

Mode 2Mode 2Mode 2Mode 2

(Odd Mode)(Odd Mode)(Odd Mode)(Odd Mode)

Modes to NodesModes to NodesModes to NodesModes to Nodes

TransformationTransformationTransformationTransformation

SPICESPICESPICESPICE

Differential PairsDifferential PairsDifferential PairsDifferential Pairs

ModalModalModalModalPort1Port1Port1Port1 Port2Port2Port2Port2

TerminalTerminalTerminalTerminalPort1Port1Port1Port1 Port2Port2Port2Port2

T1T1T1T1

T2T2T2T2

T1T1T1T1

T2T2T2T2

2 Modes2 Modes2 Modes2 Modes 2 Modes2 Modes2 Modes2 Modes

Excitations

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Boundary Conditions Application

• Application of Boundary Conditions - Case 1– Emulate laboratory measurements

• Verification/Validation before production

Picture courtesy of Delphi Picture courtesy of Delphi Picture courtesy of Delphi Picture courtesy of Delphi Picture courtesy of TektronixPicture courtesy of TektronixPicture courtesy of TektronixPicture courtesy of Tektronix

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• Application of Boundary Conditions - Case 2– Isolate part of a structure (i.e. Exciting arbitrar y transmission lines)

• Not physically possible to measure in the laborator y• Full-Wave analysis not required for total system

– Or total system too complex• Design work/Component level optimization• Post production problem solving

Isolated Component Isolated Component Isolated Component Isolated Component –––– Via TransitionVia TransitionVia TransitionVia Transition

Total SystemTotal SystemTotal SystemTotal System

Boundary Conditions Application

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• Example Structure– Coax to Stripline

LAYER 2 (SIGNAL)LAYER 2 (SIGNAL)LAYER 2 (SIGNAL)LAYER 2 (SIGNAL)

LAYER 3 (BOTTOM SIDE)LAYER 3 (BOTTOM SIDE)LAYER 3 (BOTTOM SIDE)LAYER 3 (BOTTOM SIDE)

LAYER 1 (TOP SIDE)LAYER 1 (TOP SIDE)LAYER 1 (TOP SIDE)LAYER 1 (TOP SIDE)

Coax to Stripline Example

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• Material Properties– All 3D (Solid) objects have material definitions

• To complete the model shown previously we must incl ude the airthat surrounds the structure.

airairairair

Note:Note:Note:Note: Substrate/Air boundary Substrate/Air boundary Substrate/Air boundary Substrate/Air boundary

included in structureincluded in structureincluded in structureincluded in structure

Coax to Stripline Example

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– Remember! Material Boundary conditions are transparent to the user• They are not visible in the Project Tree

• Example Material Boundary: Conductors Surface Approximations – Perfect Conductors Perfect E Boundary (Boundary Name: smetal)

• Forces E-Field perpendicular to surface– Lossy Conductors Finite Conductivity Boundary

• Forces tangential E-Field to ((1+j)/( δσδσδσδσ))(n x H tan).• Assumes one skin depth – User must manually force Ansoft HFSS to

solve inside lossy conductors that are ≤ a skin depth

smetalsmetalsmetalsmetal

Coax to Stripline Example

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• Surface Approximations– Background or Outer Boundary

• Not visible in the Project Tree• Any object surface that touches it Perfect E Boundary• Default boundary applied to the region surrounding the geometric model

– Model is encased in a thin metal layer that no field s propagate through

Override withOverride withOverride withOverride with

Radiation BoundaryRadiation BoundaryRadiation BoundaryRadiation Boundary

outerouterouterouter

Coax to Stripline Example

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• What Port Type Should I Use?– Example is easy decision

• Port touches background (External)• Cross Section is Coax (Enclosed Transmission Line)

– Wave Port• Solution Type: Driven Terminal

– SPICE Output

Identify Port Type &Identify Port Type &Identify Port Type &Identify Port Type &

Cross SectionCross SectionCross SectionCross Section

Assign Excitation &Assign Excitation &Assign Excitation &Assign Excitation &

Calibrate PortCalibrate PortCalibrate PortCalibrate Port

Define Default Define Default Define Default Define Default

Post ProcessingPost ProcessingPost ProcessingPost Processing

Coax to Stripline Example

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• Is it Really that Simple?– Yes, but the geometric model was setup with several considerations

1.Only the face of the coax dielectric was selected for the port face– Port Boundary conditions define outer conductor– Material Definitions define inner conductor

2.Uniform port cross-section– Only supports a single mode– Higher-order modes caused by reflections would atte nuate before port

• Modes attenuate as a function of e -ααααz, assuming propagation in the z-direction.• Required distance (uniform port length) depends on modes propagation constant.

Uniform crossUniform crossUniform crossUniform cross----sectionsectionsectionsection

Rule of Thumb: 5x Rule of Thumb: 5x Rule of Thumb: 5x Rule of Thumb: 5x

Critical DistanceCritical DistanceCritical DistanceCritical Distance

Coax to Stripline Example

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• How often is the Setup that Simple?– If you are emulating laboratory measurements? [ Case 1 ]

• Most of the time!– Laboratory equipment does not directly connect to a rbitrary transmission

lines• Exceptions

– Emulating Complex Probes with a Port Understanding of Probe

– If you are isolating part of a structure? [ Case 2 ]• For “real” designs - usually only by dumb luck!

– User Must Understand and/or Implement Correctly:1.Port Boundary conditions and impact of boundary con dition2.Fields within the structure3.Assumptions made by port solver4.Return path

Coax to Stripline Example

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• Side Note: Problems Associated with Correlating Res ults [Case 2]– Can be broken into two categories of problems

1.Complex Structure– BGA, Backplane, Antenna Feed, Waveguide “Plumbing”, etc– Most common problems result from

• Measurement setup – Test fixtures, deembedding, etc. • Failing to understand the fields in the structure Boundary Problem• Return path problems – Model truncation

2.Simple Structures– Uniform transmission lines

• Equations or Circuit Elements– Most common problems result from

• Improper use of default or excitation boundary cond itions• Failure to understand the assumptions used by “corr ect” results

(Equations or Circuit Elements)

Coax to Stripline Example

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• Why are they critical?– Any current injected into a system must return to t he source

• DC– Chooses path of least resistance

• AC– Chooses path of least inductance– A signal propagates between the signal trace and it s reference plane – Reference plane is just as important as signal trac e!

• Why do I care?– Many real designs have nonideal return paths

• These effects are only captured by full-wave simula tors– Isolating parts of a structure

• Failure to maintain the correct return path will– Limit correlation to measurements– Mask or create design problems

• Port and Boundary setup is the most common source o f error in model setup

Coax to Stripline Example

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Port1Port1Port1Port1

Port2Port2Port2Port2 Port3Port3Port3Port3

No DCNo DCNo DCNo DC

Return PathReturn PathReturn PathReturn Path

No Return Path

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Port1Port1Port1Port1

Port2Port2Port2Port2 Port3Port3Port3Port3

DCDCDCDC

Return PathReturn PathReturn PathReturn Path

DC Return Path

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DC & RFDC & RFDC & RFDC & RF

Return PathReturn PathReturn PathReturn Path

S21S21S21S21

S11S11S11S11

S31S31S31S31

DC/AC Return Path

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• Isolate part of structure - Case 2 – Isolate Transition

• Deembed• Recombine using Ansoft Designer - Circuit

Wave PortWave PortWave PortWave Port

Coax to Stripline Example

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Ansoft Designer Ansoft Designer Ansoft Designer Ansoft Designer ---- CircuitCircuitCircuitCircuit

Coax to Stripline Example

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Coax to Stripline Example

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• What went wrong?– Isolate Port from Discontinuity?

• Yes– Uniform Cross-Section?

• NO – The cross section of the port (including its bo undaries) is not maintained– Maintain Return Path?

• NO – Boundary on port shorts the planes together at edges– Identical to placing vias at port edge!

– All Modes Accounted for?• NO – Did not consider Parallel Plate mode

– Even if we did, the via (port edge) cuts off mode Reason vias are used!

Coax to Stripline Example

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StriplineStriplineStriplineStripline

ParallelParallelParallelParallel

PlatePlatePlatePlate

Ansoft Designer Ansoft Designer Ansoft Designer Ansoft Designer ---- CircuitCircuitCircuitCircuit

Wave PortWave PortWave PortWave Port

2 Terminals2 Terminals2 Terminals2 Terminals

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No DCNo DCNo DCNo DCReturn PathReturn PathReturn PathReturn Path

Port InfluencesPort InfluencesPort InfluencesPort InfluencesResultsResultsResultsResults

Lumped PortLumped PortLumped PortLumped Port

Coax to Stripline Example

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Coax to Stripline Example

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TOP

T1T2

T3

Power

GND

BOTTOM

G

P

SIDE

Power

GNDSignal

Lumped Gap Port

Terminal Line

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Lumped Gap Port

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Differential Lumped Gap PortsDifferential Lumped Gap PortsDifferential Lumped Gap PortsDifferential Lumped Gap Ports

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GGGG SSSS GGGG

PortPortPortPort

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Chapter 4 – Appendix: Boundary Conditions

Ansoft HFSS – User Guide

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Excitations and Boundary Conditions• Majority of HFSS errors are related to improper usage of excitations and boundary conditions

• Boundary conditions are important because they significantly impact electromagnetic solution

• Determine model scope– To truncate infinite space to finite volume, HFSS applies PEC boundary to surface surrounding

geometric model

• Can reduce model complexity– Boundary conditions can be used to reduce solution time and computing resource demands

Perfect E

Symmetry Plane Perfect H

Symmetry Plane

TE10 Cavity Resonator Pyramidal

Horn Antenna

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• Surface approximations– Perfect E surface– Perfect H surface– Finite conductivity surface– Impedance surface– Layered impedance– Lumped RLC boundary– Symmetry planes– Radiation (absorbing) boundary surface– Perfectly matched layer (PML)

• Strictly not boundary condition, but effectively behaves like one

– Master/slave (linked or periodic) boundaries– Screening impedance

• Excitations– Wave ports (external) – Lumped ports (internal)

User-Defined Boundary Conditions

0=⋅∇=⋅∇

∂∂+=×∇

∂∂−=×∇

B

Dt

DJH

t

BE

ρ

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Perfect E and Perfect H Boundaries• Perfect E is perfect electrical conductor (PEC)

– Forces E-field perpendicular to surface– Represents metal surfaces, ground planes, ideal cavity walls, etc.– Infinite ground plane option simulates effects of infinite ground plane in post-processing radiated fields

• Perfect H is perfect magnetic conductor (PMC)– Forces H-field perpendicular to surface and E-field tangential– Does not exist in real world– Useful boundary constraint for electromagnetic models– Represents openings in metal surfaces, etc.

• Parameters– None

Perfect E Boundary Perfect H Boundary

When you define a solid object as a ‘perf_conductor,’ a Perfect E boundary

condition is applied to its exterior surfaces.

E-field Parallel to surface

E-field Perpendicular to surface

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• All methods utilize an equivalent surface impedance applied to the field as it travels across the surface

Zs,input

Zs,AuLAu

Zs,NiLNi

Zs,CuLCu

Zs,input

Zs,AuLAu

Zs,NiLNi

Zs,CuLCu

Four Surface Loss Modeling Methods

σδj

Z s

+= 1

ωσµδ 2=

Zs specified as ΩΩΩΩ/sq

0.7mil Copper

500 µin Nickel 500 µin Gold

0.7mil Copper

500 µin Nickel 500 µin Gold

Finite Conductivity Impedance

Layered Impedance Lumped RLC

Parallel RLC Circuit

t >> δδδδ

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Finite Conductivity Boundary• Lossy electrical conductor

– Forces E-field perpendicular to surface– Surface impedance includes resistive and reactive surface losses

• Used for non-ideal conductor analysis• Infinite ground plane option simulates effects of i nfinite ground plane in post-

processing radiated fields• Parameters

– Conductivity (S/m)– Relative permeability (unitless)

When you define a solid object as a non-ideal metal (e.g. copper or aluminum), and it is set to ‘Solve Surface’, a finite conductivity

boundary is applied to its exterior faces.

ωσµδ 2=

σδj

Z s

+= 1

Surface ImpedanceSkin Depth Field Relationship

t >> δδδδ

Good conductor in skin depth regime

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Impedance Boundary• User-defined surface impedance

– Represents thin film resistors or reactive loads

• Infinite ground plane option simulates effects of i nfinite surface in post-processing radiated fields

• Calculate required impedance from desired lumped va lue, width, and length– Length (in direction of current flow) ÷ width = number of “squares”– Impedance per square = desired lumped impedance ÷ number of squares

• Parameters:– Resistance (Ω/square)– Reactance (Ω/square)

Example: Resistor in Wilkinson Power Divider

Resistor is 3.5 mils long (in direction of flow) an d4 mils wide. Desired lumped value is 35 ΩΩΩΩ.

squareN

RR

N

lumpedsheet /40

875.0

35

875.04

5.3

Ω===

==

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Layered Impedance Boundary• Models multiple thin layers in a structure as single impedance surface

– Effect is same as impedance boundary, except that HFSS calculates surface impedance based on data entered for layered structure

– Surface roughness can be included– Plating layers can be modeled by using an equivalent surface impedance

• Not available for fast frequency sweeps• Parameters

– Layer thicknesses– Material properties– Surface roughness (optional)

0.7mil Copper

500 µµµµin Nickel 500 µµµµin Gold Zs,input

Zs,AuLAu

Zs,NiLNi

Zs,CuLCu

Impedance of the layered structure is calculated by recursively calling the impedance calculation

formulation from transmission line theory

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Lumped RLC Boundary• Represents any combination of parallel-connected lu mped RLC elements on surfaces

in terms of circuit definition– Supply values for R, L, and C– HFSS determines impedance per square of lumped RLC boundary at any frequency

• Fast frequency sweeps are supported• Parameters

– Resistance– Inductance– Capacitance– Line for current flow

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• Allows for modeling portion of entire structure• For Driven Modal solutions• Two symmetry options are available

– Use perfect E when electric field is perpendicular to symmetry plane– Use perfect H when electric field is tangential to symmetry plane

• Involve further implications to boundary manager an d fields post-processing– May need to specify impedance multiplier– Existence of symmetry boundary allows for near- and far-field calculation of entire structure

• Parameters– Type– Impedance multiplier

Symmetry Plane

Conductive edges on all four sides

Waveguide contains symmetric propagating mode which could be modeled using half the

volume vertically or horizontally.

Perfect E Symmetry (bottom)

Perfect H Symmetry(left side)

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• When symmetry is used, Zpi and impedance line-depen dent Zpv and Zvi calculations will be incorrect since entire port aperture is not represented

– Impedance is halved for model with Perfect E symmetry plane– Impedance is doubled for model with Perfect H symmetry plane

• Port impedance multiplier is renormalizing factor u sed to obtain correct impedance– Value applied to all ports– Global parameter set during assignment of any port

Symmetry Plane Impedance Multiplier

Rectangular WG(No Symmetry)

Half Rectangular WG(Perfect E Symmetry)

Impedance Multiplier = 2

Half Rectangular WG(Perfect H Symmetry)

Impedance Multiplier = 0.5

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Perfect E Symmetry (top)

Perfect H Symmetry(right side)

TE20 mode in full model Properly represented with Perfect E symmetry

Mode cannot occur with Perfect H

symmetry

Symmetry Plane Mode Implications• Geometric symmetry does not necessarily imply field symmetry for higher-order

modes• Symmetry boundaries can act as mode filters

– Next higher propagating waveguide mode is not symmetric about vertical center plane of waveguide– Therefore one symmetry case is valid while the other is not

• Use caution when using symmetry planes to assure th at real behavior is not filtered out by boundary conditions

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Radiation Boundary• Mimics continued propagation beyond boundary plane

– Absorption achieved via 2nd order radiation boundary

– Place at least λ/4 from strongly radiating structure– Place at least λ/10 from weakly radiating structure– Absorbs best when incident energy flow is normal to surface– Must be concave to all incident fields from within modeled space

• Parameters– Advanced options used for incident wave and HFSS DataLink problems

Boundary is λ/4 away from horn aperture in all directions

Radiation boundary functions well for incident angles less

than 25°-30°

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• Fictitious lossy anisotropic material which fully a bsorbs electromagnetic fields• Two types of PML applications

– “PML objects accept free radiation” if PML terminates free space – “PML objects continue guided waves” if PML terminates transmission line

• Guidelines for assigning PML boundaries– Use PML setup wizard for most cases– Manually create a PML when base object is curved or inhomogeneous

• Parameters– Uniform thickness– Minimum frequency– Minimum radiating distance (between PML and antenna)

Perfectly Matched Layer (PML)

PML functions well for incident angles less

than 65°-70°

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Radiation Boundary vs PML

Radiation Boundary PML

Type 2D 3D (occupies volume)

Incident angle from normal < ~30° < ~70°

Distance from radiator > λ/4 > λ/10

Setup complexity Low Medium

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Master/Slave Boundaries• Used to model unit cell of periodic structure

– Also referred to as linked or periodic boundaries

• Master and slave boundaries are always paired– Fields on master surface are mapped to slave surface with a phase shift– Phase shift specified either as absolute phase value or using scan angle

• Constraints– Master and slave surfaces must be identical in shape and size– Coordinate systems must be created to identify point-to-point

correspondence

• Parameters– Master/slave pairing– UV coordinate systems– Phase shift method

Unit Cell Model of Waveguide Array

WG Port (bottom)

Ground Plane

PML (top)

Master Boundary

Slave Boundary

V-axis

U-axis

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Screening Impedance Boundary• Used to efficiently represent periodic screens or g rids with impedance boundary

condition– Can be anisotropic (different values in x and y directions)– Can be frequency-dependent

• Periodic grid characterized by unit cell– Dynamic link support to import impedance values from unit cell– Includes effects of polarization

• Parameters– Resistance and reactance (Ω/square)– Coordinate system if anisotropic– HFSS design for dynamic link

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Default Outer Boundary• Any exterior face of modeled geometry not given use r-defined boundary condition is

assumed to be Perfect E boundary– Default boundary called “outer”

• Imagine entire model buried in solid metal unless H FSS is instructed otherwise• Use HFSS →→→→ Boundary Display to view all boundary assignments

– Graphical window shows both user and auto-assigned boundaries

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Excitations• Provide means for energy to enter and exit model• Types of excitations

– Ports• Wave ports• Lumped ports• Floquet ports

– Voltage sources– Current sources– Magnetic biases– Incident waves

• Plane waves• Hertzian dipole• Cylindrical wave• Gaussian beam• Linear antenna wave• Far-field wave• Near-field wave

• Only ports provide S-parameters– This presentation will focus on this type of excitation

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Driven Modal vs Driven Terminal Solutions• Driven modal

– S-matrix solution expressed in terms of incident and reflected powers of waveguide modes– Always used by wave solver– Integration lines set phase between ports and modal voltage integration path (Zpv and Zvi)– Use for modal-based S-parameters of passive, high-frequency structures such as microstrips,

waveguides, and transmission lines

• Driven terminal– S-matrix solution expressed in terms of linear combination of nodal voltages and currents for wave

port– Equivalent “modes-to-nodes” transformation performed from modal solution– Use for terminal-based S-parameters of multi-conductor transmission line ports (with several quasi-

TEM modes, etc.)

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Ports• Ports are unique type of boundary condition

– Allow energy to flow into and out of structure– Defined on 2D planar surface– 2D field patterns serve as boundary conditions for full 3D problem

• Incorrect port setup will produce incorrect results– If port fields are incorrect, then solution will be incorrect– Assumed boundary condition on port edges should always be considered

Initial Mesh

Seeding and Lambda Refinement (Single Frequency)

Port Solution(Adaptive)

Full Volumetric

Solution

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• External port type• Arbitrary port solver calculates natural waveguide field patterns (modes)

– Assumes semi-infinitely long waveguide with same cross-section and material properties as port surface

• Recommended only for surfaces exposed to background object• Supports multiple modes, de-embedding, and re-norma lization• Computes generalized S-parameters

– Frequency-dependent characteristic impedance– Perfectly matched at every frequency

Port 1Port 1Port 1Port 1

Port 2Port 2Port 2Port 2Port 3Port 3Port 3Port 3

Port 4Port 4Port 4Port 4

Wave Ports

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Port Solver• Wave port solver solves two-dimensional wave equati on• Field pattern of traveling wave inside waveguide ca n be determined by solving

Maxwell’s equations• Wave equation is derived directly from Maxwell’s equ ations

• where– E(x,y) is phasor representing oscillating electric field– k0 is free space wave number

– µr is complex relative permeability– εr is complex relative permittivity

• 2D solver obtains excitation field pattern in form of phasor solution E(x,y)– Phasor solutions are independent of z and time

– Only after being multiplied by e-γz do they become traveling waves– Different excitation field pattern is computed for each frequency point of interest

( ) 0),(,1 2

0 =−

×∇×∇ yxEkyxE r

r

εµ

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Wave Port Boundary Conditions• All outer edges are assigned Perfect E boundary by default

– Port is defined within waveguide – Simple setup for enclosed transmission lines (coax, waveguide, etc.)– Challenging setup for unbalanced or non-enclosed lines (microstrip, CPW, slotline, etc.)

• Symmetry or impedance boundaries also recognized at port edges• For port on same surface as radiation boundary, def ault interface is Perfect E

boundary– Can set option to use radiation boundary on port edges during port solution

• Creating port edges too close to current-carrying l ines will allow coupling from trace to port walls

– Causes incorrect modal solution which will suffer immediate discontinuity as energy is injected past port into model

Port too narrow (fields coupled to sidewalls)

Correct port size

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Wave Port Sizing Guidelines• Microstrip port height between 6h and

10h– Tend towards upper limit as dielectric

constant drops and fringing fields increase– Make bottom edge of port co-planar with

upper face of ground plane

• Microstrip port width– 10w for w ≥ h– 5w, or on order of 3h to 4h, for w < h

• Extend stripline port height from upper to lower groundplane (h)

• Stripline port width– 8w for w ≥ h– 5w, or on order of 3h to 4h, for w < h

• Can also make side walls of port Perfect H boundaries

w

h

6h to 10h

10w, w ≥≥≥≥ hor

5w (3h to 4h), w < h

Port sizing guidelines are not inviolable rules. If meeting height and width requirements result in rectangular aperture larger than λ/2 in one dimension, the substrate and trace may be ignored in

favor of a waveguide mode. When in doubt, run a ports-only solution to determine which modes are propagating.

wh

8w, w ≥≥≥≥ hor

5w (3h to 4h), w < h

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Wave Port Sizing Guidelines• Slotline port height at least 4h or 4g

(whichever is larger)– Include air above and below substrate– If ground plane is present, port should

terminate at ground plane

• Port width should contain at least 3g to either side of slot or 7g total minimum

– Port boundary must intersect both side ground planes or they will ‘float’ and become signal conductors

• Coplanar waveguide port height at least 4h or 4g (whichever is larger)

– Include air above and below substrate– If ground plane is present, port should

terminate at ground plane

• Port width should contain 3-5g or 3-5s of side grounds (whichever is larger)

– Total width ~10g or ~10s– Port outline must intersect both side grounds

or they will ‘float’ and become signal conductors

g

Approx 7g minimum

h

Larger of 4h or 4g

For Driven Modal solutions, use Zpv for impedance calculation

Larger of approx. 10g or 10s

s

h

Larger of 4h or 4g

g

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Uniform crossUniform crossUniform crossUniform cross----section section section section

added for each wave portadded for each wave portadded for each wave portadded for each wave port

Wave Port Implications• Modes, reflections, and propagation

– It is possible for 3D field solution generated by excitation signal of one specific mode to contain reflections of higher-order modes which arise due to discontinuities

– If higher-order mode is reflected back to excitation port or transmitted onto another port, its S-parameters should be calculated

– If higher-order mode decays before reaching any port (because of attenuation or because it is a non-propagating evanescent mode), there is no need to obtain its S-parameters

• Wave ports require a length of uniform cross-sectio n– HFSS assumes that each port is connected to semi-infinitely long waveguide with same cross-section

as wave port

No uniform cross sectionNo uniform cross sectionNo uniform cross sectionNo uniform cross section

at wave portsat wave portsat wave portsat wave ports

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• Wave ports can be placed internal to model by provi ding boundary condition normally seen by external wave port

– Create PEC “cap” to back the wave port and enable excitation in proper direction

Example coax feed within solution volume

Coaxial antenna feed with coaxial wave port capped by PEC object

Internal Wave Ports

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Integration Lines• Applicable to driven modal solution types• Port vector which can serve several purposes• Calibration line which specifies direction of excit ation electric field pattern at port

– Define separate integration line for each mode on multi-mode ports

• Impedance line along which to compute Zpv or Zvi po rt impedance– Select two points with maximum voltage differential

Microstrip lineWaveguide

Slotline

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Lumped Ports• Recommended only for surfaces internal to model

– Single TEM mode with no de-embedding– Uniform electric field on port surface– Normalized to constant user-defined Z0

• Lumped port boundary conditions– Perfect E or finite conductivity boundary for port edges which interface

with conductor or another port edge– Perfect H for all remaining port edges

Uniform electric fieldUser-defined Z o

Zo

Dipole element with lumped port

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Wave Ports vs Lumped Ports

Wave port Lumped port

Accessibility External Faces Internal to Model

Higher order modes Yes No

De-embedding Yes No

Re-normalization Yes Yes

Setup complexity Moderate Low

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Example – UHF Probe

The Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) ProbeThis example is intended to show you how to create, simulate, and analyze a

UHF probe, using the Ansoft HFSS Design Environment.

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Example – UHF Probe

Ansoft HFSS Design EnvironmentThe following features of the Ansoft HFSS Design Environment are used to

create this passive device model

3D Solid Modeling

Primitives: Cylinders, BoxesCylinders, BoxesCylinders, BoxesCylinders, Boxes

Boolean Operations: Unite, SubtractUnite, SubtractUnite, SubtractUnite, Subtract

Boundaries/Excitations

Ports: Wave PortsWave PortsWave PortsWave Ports

Analysis

Sweep: Fast Frequency: Fast Frequency: Fast Frequency: Fast Frequency

Results

Cartesian plottingCartesian plottingCartesian plottingCartesian plotting

Field Overlays:

3D Far Field Plots3D Far Field Plots3D Far Field Plots3D Far Field Plots

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Example – UHF Probe

Getting Started

Launching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSS

1. To access Ansoft HFSS, click the Microsoft StartStartStartStart button, select ProgramsProgramsProgramsPrograms, and select

the Ansoft, HFSS 11Ansoft, HFSS 11Ansoft, HFSS 11Ansoft, HFSS 11 program group. Click HFSS 11HFSS 11HFSS 11HFSS 11.

Setting Tool OptionsSetting Tool OptionsSetting Tool OptionsSetting Tool Options

To set the tool options:To set the tool options:To set the tool options:To set the tool options:

Note: Note: Note: Note: In order to follow the steps outlined in this example, verify that the following tool options are set : : : :

1. Select the menu item Tools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS Options

2. HFSS Options Window:

1. Click the GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneral tab

Use Wizards for data input when creating new boundaries: : : :

CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

Duplicate boundaries with geometry: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

3. Select the menu item Tools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler Options.

4. Modeler Options Window:

1. Click the OperationOperationOperationOperation tab

Automatically cover closed polylines: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

2. Click the DrawingDrawingDrawingDrawing tab

Edit property of new primitives: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Example – UHF Probe

Opening a New ProjectOpening a New ProjectOpening a New ProjectOpening a New Project

To open a new project:To open a new project:To open a new project:To open a new project:

1. In an Ansoft HFSS window, click the On the Standard toolbar, or select

the menu item File > NewFile > NewFile > NewFile > New.

2. From the ProjectProjectProjectProject menu, select Insert HFSS DesignInsert HFSS DesignInsert HFSS DesignInsert HFSS Design....

Set Solution TypeSet Solution TypeSet Solution TypeSet Solution Type

To set the solution type:To set the solution type:To set the solution type:To set the solution type:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution Type

2. Solution Type Window:

1. Choose Driven TerminalDriven TerminalDriven TerminalDriven Terminal

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Creating the 3D Model

Set Model UnitsSet Model UnitsSet Model UnitsSet Model Units

To set the units:To set the units:To set the units:To set the units:

1. Select the menu item Modeler > UnitsModeler > UnitsModeler > UnitsModeler > Units

2. Set Model Units:

1. Select Units: in (inches)in (inches)in (inches)in (inches)

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Set Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default Material

To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:

1. Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose SelectSelectSelectSelect

2. Select Definition Window:

1. Type coppercoppercoppercopper in the Search by NameSearch by NameSearch by NameSearch by Name field

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Creating Annular RingsCreating Annular RingsCreating Annular RingsCreating Annular Rings

Creating a ring is accomplished by creating a cylinder that represents the outer radius and a cylinder that represents the inner radius. By performing a Boolean

subtraction, the resulting geometry is a ring.

For this model, two sets of rings are necessary. Instead of manually creating

both rings, we will create one ring, copy it, and edit the dimensions of the copy.

Create Ring 1Create Ring 1Create Ring 1Create Ring 1

1. Select the menu item Draw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > Cylinder

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the cylinder position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the Enter Enter Enter Enter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius:

dX: 0.310.310.310.31, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the height:

dX: 0.00.00.00.0, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 5.0, 5.0, 5.0, 5.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: ring_innerring_innerring_innerring_inner

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . . Or press the CTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+D

key

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Creating Annular Rings (Continued)Creating Annular Rings (Continued)Creating Annular Rings (Continued)Creating Annular Rings (Continued)

Create Ring 1 (Continued)Create Ring 1 (Continued)Create Ring 1 (Continued)Create Ring 1 (Continued)

1. Select the menu item Draw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > Cylinder

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the cylinder position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius:

dX: 0.370.370.370.37, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the height:

dX: 0.00.00.00.0, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 5.05.05.05.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: ring_1ring_1ring_1ring_1

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To select objects to be subtracted:To select objects to be subtracted:To select objects to be subtracted:To select objects to be subtracted:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: ring_1, ring_innerring_1, ring_innerring_1, ring_innerring_1, ring_inner

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

To subtract:To subtract:To subtract:To subtract:

1. Select the menu item Modeler > Boolean > SubtractModeler > Boolean > SubtractModeler > Boolean > SubtractModeler > Boolean > Subtract

2. Subtract Window

Blank Parts: ring_1ring_1ring_1ring_1

Tool Parts: ring_innerring_innerring_innerring_inner

Clone tool objects before subtract: UncheckedUncheckedUncheckedUnchecked

Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Creating Annular Rings (Continued)Creating Annular Rings (Continued)Creating Annular Rings (Continued)Creating Annular Rings (Continued)

Create Ring 2 Create Ring 2 Create Ring 2 Create Ring 2

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: ring_1ring_1ring_1ring_1

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

3. Select the menu item Edit > CopyEdit > CopyEdit > CopyEdit > Copy

4. Select the menu item Edit > PasteEdit > PasteEdit > PasteEdit > Paste

Change the dimensions of Ring 2Change the dimensions of Ring 2Change the dimensions of Ring 2Change the dimensions of Ring 2

1. To change the dimensions of ring_2, expand the model tree as shown below. It should be noted that order of the editing is important. If you make

the inner radius > then the outer radius, a invalid object will result and it will

be removed from the model.

2. Using the mouse, double click the left mouse button on the CreateCylinderCreateCylinderCreateCylinderCreateCylindercommand for ring_2ring_2ring_2ring_2

3. Properties dialog

1. Change the radius to: 0.5 in0.5 in0.5 in0.5 in

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

4. Using the mouse, double click the left mouse button on the CreateCylinderCreateCylinderCreateCylinderCreateCylinder

command for the ring_inner1ring_inner1ring_inner1ring_inner1

5. Properties dialog

1. Change the radius to: 0.435 in0.435 in0.435 in0.435 in

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Create Arm_1Create Arm_1Create Arm_1Create Arm_1

To create Arm_1To create Arm_1To create Arm_1To create Arm_1

1. Select the menu item Draw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > Box

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box position

X: ----0.10.10.10.1, Y: ----0.310.310.310.31, Z: 5.05.05.05.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the base rectangle:

dX: 0.20.20.20.2, dY: ----4.694.694.694.69, dZ: ----0.0650.0650.0650.065, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: Arm_1Arm_1Arm_1Arm_1

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . . Or press the CTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+Dkey.

Group ConductorsGroup ConductorsGroup ConductorsGroup Conductors

To group the conductors:To group the conductors:To group the conductors:To group the conductors:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select All VisibleEdit > Select All VisibleEdit > Select All VisibleEdit > Select All Visible. . . . Or press the CTRL+ACTRL+ACTRL+ACTRL+A key

2. Select the menu item, Modeler > Boolean > UniteModeler > Boolean > UniteModeler > Boolean > UniteModeler > Boolean > Unite

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Create the Center pinCreate the Center pinCreate the Center pinCreate the Center pin

To create the center pinTo create the center pinTo create the center pinTo create the center pin

1. Select the menu item Draw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > Cylinder

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the cylinder position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius:

dX: 0.10.10.10.1, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the height:

dX: 0.00.00.00.0, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 5.15.15.15.1, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: center_pincenter_pincenter_pincenter_pin

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Create Arm_2Create Arm_2Create Arm_2Create Arm_2

To create Arm_2To create Arm_2To create Arm_2To create Arm_2

1. Select the menu item Draw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > Box

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box position

X: ----0.10.10.10.1, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 5.15.15.15.1, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the base rectangle:

dX: 0.20.20.20.2, dY: 5.05.05.05.0, dZ: ----0.0650.0650.0650.065, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: Arm_2Arm_2Arm_2Arm_2

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

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Create the Grounding PinCreate the Grounding PinCreate the Grounding PinCreate the Grounding Pin

To create the grounding pinTo create the grounding pinTo create the grounding pinTo create the grounding pin

1. Select the menu item Draw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > Cylinder

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the cylinder position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 1.01.01.01.0, Z: 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius:

dX: 0.06250.06250.06250.0625, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the height:

dX: 0.00.00.00.0, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 5.15.15.15.1, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: pinpinpinpin

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Group ConductorsGroup ConductorsGroup ConductorsGroup Conductors

To group the conductors:To group the conductors:To group the conductors:To group the conductors:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: Arm_2, center_pin, pinArm_2, center_pin, pinArm_2, center_pin, pinArm_2, center_pin, pin

Note:Note:Note:Note: Use the Ctrl + Left mouse button to select multiple

objects

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

3. Select the menu item, Modeler > Boolean > UniteModeler > Boolean > UniteModeler > Boolean > UniteModeler > Boolean > Unite

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Create the Wave portCreate the Wave portCreate the Wave portCreate the Wave port

To create a circle that represents the port:To create a circle that represents the port:To create a circle that represents the port:To create a circle that represents the port:

1. Select the menu item Draw > CircleDraw > CircleDraw > CircleDraw > Circle

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the center position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius of the circle:

dX: 0.310.310.310.31, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: p1p1p1p1

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Set Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default Material

To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:

Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose vacuumvacuumvacuumvacuum

Create AirCreate AirCreate AirCreate Air

To create AirTo create AirTo create AirTo create Air

1. Select the menu item Draw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > Box

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box position

X: ----5.05.05.05.0, Y: ----10.010.010.010.0, Z: 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the base

rectangle:

dX: 10.010.010.010.0, dY: 20.020.020.020.0, dZ: 12.012.012.012.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: AirAirAirAir

3. Set the Display WireframeDisplay WireframeDisplay WireframeDisplay Wireframe option to CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

4. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

To deselect all objects:To deselect all objects:To deselect all objects:To deselect all objects:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Deselect AllEdit > Deselect AllEdit > Deselect AllEdit > Deselect All. . . .

Create Radiation BoundaryCreate Radiation BoundaryCreate Radiation BoundaryCreate Radiation Boundary

To create a radiation boundaryTo create a radiation boundaryTo create a radiation boundaryTo create a radiation boundary

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > Faces

2. While holding the CTRL CTRL CTRL CTRL key, select all of the faces of the Air Air Air Air vacuum

object exceptexceptexceptexcept the face on the XY plane. Use the rotate button in between

selections to access the back side faces.

3. Once the 5 faces are selected, go to the menu item HFSS > Boundaries HFSS > Boundaries HFSS > Boundaries HFSS > Boundaries >Assign> Radiation>Assign> Radiation>Assign> Radiation>Assign> Radiation

4. Radiation Boundary window

1. Name: Rad1Rad1Rad1Rad1

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Create Wave Port Excitation 1 (Continued)Create Wave Port Excitation 1 (Continued)Create Wave Port Excitation 1 (Continued)Create Wave Port Excitation 1 (Continued)To select the object p1:To select the object p1:To select the object p1:To select the object p1:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > ObjectsEdit > Select > ObjectsEdit > Select > ObjectsEdit > Select > Objects

2. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

3. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: p1p1p1p1

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

To assign wave port excitationTo assign wave port excitationTo assign wave port excitationTo assign wave port excitation

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave Port

2. Place Arm_2 Arm_2 Arm_2 Arm_2 in the Conducting ObjectConducting ObjectConducting ObjectConducting Object list and Arm_1 Arm_1 Arm_1 Arm_1 in the Reference Reference Reference Reference Conductor Conductor Conductor Conductor list

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Rename the Wave Port and TerminalRename the Wave Port and TerminalRename the Wave Port and TerminalRename the Wave Port and Terminal

1. Double click on WavePort1WavePort1WavePort1WavePort1 under ExcitationsExcitationsExcitationsExcitations in the project tree.

2. Rename the port to p1p1p1p1

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

4. Double click on the terminal named Arm_2_T1Arm_2_T1Arm_2_T1Arm_2_T1

5. Rename the terminal to T1T1T1T1

6. Click the OK OK OK OK button

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Create Infinite Ground PlaneCreate Infinite Ground PlaneCreate Infinite Ground PlaneCreate Infinite Ground Plane

To create an Infinite groundTo create an Infinite groundTo create an Infinite groundTo create an Infinite ground

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > Faces

2. Graphically select the face of the Air object at Z=0

3. Select the menu item HFSS > Boundaries > Assign> Finite ConductivityHFSS > Boundaries > Assign> Finite ConductivityHFSS > Boundaries > Assign> Finite ConductivityHFSS > Boundaries > Assign> Finite Conductivity

4. Finite Conductivity Boundary window

1. Name: gnd_planegnd_planegnd_planegnd_plane

2. Use Material: CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

3. Click the vacuumvacuumvacuumvacuum button

4. Select Definition Window:

1. Type coppercoppercoppercopper in the Search Search Search Search

by Nameby Nameby Nameby Name field

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

5. Infinite Ground Plane: CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

6. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Create a Radiation SetupCreate a Radiation SetupCreate a Radiation SetupCreate a Radiation Setup

To define the radiation setupTo define the radiation setupTo define the radiation setupTo define the radiation setup

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Radiation > Insert Far Field Setup > Infinite HFSS > Radiation > Insert Far Field Setup > Infinite HFSS > Radiation > Insert Far Field Setup > Infinite HFSS > Radiation > Insert Far Field Setup > Infinite SphereSphereSphereSphere

2. Far Field Radiation Sphere Setup dialog

1.1.1.1. Infinite SphereInfinite SphereInfinite SphereInfinite Sphere Tab

1. Name: ff_2dff_2dff_2dff_2d

2. Phi: (Start: 0, 0, 0, 0, Stop: 90, 90, 90, 90, Step Size: 90)90)90)90)

3. Theta: (Start: ----180, 180, 180, 180, Stop: 180, 180, 180, 180, Step Size: 2)2)2)2)

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Add Length Based Mesh Operation to the Radiation BoundaryAdd Length Based Mesh Operation to the Radiation BoundaryAdd Length Based Mesh Operation to the Radiation BoundaryAdd Length Based Mesh Operation to the Radiation BoundaryFar fields are calculated by integrating the fields on the radiaFar fields are calculated by integrating the fields on the radiaFar fields are calculated by integrating the fields on the radiaFar fields are calculated by integrating the fields on the radiation surface. To tion surface. To tion surface. To tion surface. To

obtain accurate far fields for antenna problems, the integrationobtain accurate far fields for antenna problems, the integrationobtain accurate far fields for antenna problems, the integrationobtain accurate far fields for antenna problems, the integration surface should be surface should be surface should be surface should be

forced to have a forced to have a forced to have a forced to have a λλλλ/6 to /6 to /6 to /6 to λλλλ/8 maximum tetrahedra length./8 maximum tetrahedra length./8 maximum tetrahedra length./8 maximum tetrahedra length.

To create a length based seed on the radiation boundary:To create a length based seed on the radiation boundary:To create a length based seed on the radiation boundary:To create a length based seed on the radiation boundary:

Switch back to object selection by selecting the menu item Edit > Select Edit > Select Edit > Select Edit > Select ObjectsObjectsObjectsObjects

Select the AirAirAirAir object by left clicking it in the drawing window

While the Air Air Air Air object is selected, move the mouse to the project tree and

right click on Mesh OperationsMesh OperationsMesh OperationsMesh Operations > > > > Assign Assign Assign Assign > > > > On Selection On Selection On Selection On Selection > > > > Length BasedLength BasedLength BasedLength Based

Name: LengthOnRadiationLengthOnRadiationLengthOnRadiationLengthOnRadiation

Maximum Length of Elements: 3.5in 3.5in 3.5in 3.5in (this is about λλλλ/6 /6 /6 /6 at 0.55GHz0.55GHz0.55GHz0.55GHz)

Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Analysis Setup

Creating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis Setup

To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup

2. Solution Setup Window:

1. Click the GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneral tab::::

Solution Frequency: 0.55 GHz: 0.55 GHz: 0.55 GHz: 0.55 GHz

Maximum Number of Passes: 10101010

Maximum Delta S per Pass: 0.020.020.020.02

2. Click the OptionsOptionsOptionsOptions tab:

Enable Iterative Solver: CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

3. Maximum Click the OKOKOKOK button

Adding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency Sweep

To add a frequency sweep:To add a frequency sweep:To add a frequency sweep:To add a frequency sweep:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Frequency SweepHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Frequency SweepHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Frequency SweepHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Frequency Sweep

1. Select Solution Setup: Setup1 Setup1 Setup1 Setup1

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

2. Edit Sweep Window:

1. Sweep Type: Fast: Fast: Fast: Fast

2. Frequency Setup Type: Linear Count: Linear Count: Linear Count: Linear Count

Start: 0.35GHz0.35GHz0.35GHz0.35GHz

Stop: 0.75GHz: 0.75GHz: 0.75GHz: 0.75GHz

Count: 401: 401: 401: 401

Save Fields: CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Save ProjectSave ProjectSave ProjectSave Project

To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:

1. In an Ansoft HFSS window, select the menu item File > Save AsFile > Save AsFile > Save AsFile > Save As.

2. From the Save As Save As Save As Save As window, type the Filename: hfss_uhf_probehfss_uhf_probehfss_uhf_probehfss_uhf_probe

3. Click the SaveSaveSaveSave button

Model ValidationModel ValidationModel ValidationModel Validation

To validate the model:To validate the model:To validate the model:To validate the model:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation Check

2. Click the Close Close Close Close button

Note:Note:Note:Note: To view any errors or warning messages, use the Message

Manager.

AnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyze

To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analyze AllHFSS > Analyze AllHFSS > Analyze AllHFSS > Analyze All

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Solution DataSolution DataSolution DataSolution Data

To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution Data

To view the Profile:To view the Profile:To view the Profile:To view the Profile:

1. Click the ProfileProfileProfileProfile Tab.

To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:

1. Click the ConvergenceConvergenceConvergenceConvergence Tab

Note: Note: Note: Note: The default view is for convergence is TableTableTableTable. Select

the PlotPlotPlotPlot radio button to view a graphical representations of

the convergence data.

To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:

1. Click the Matrix DataMatrix DataMatrix DataMatrix Data Tab

Note: Note: Note: Note: To view a real-time update of the Matrix Data, set the

Simulation to Setup1, Last AdaptiveSetup1, Last AdaptiveSetup1, Last AdaptiveSetup1, Last Adaptive

To view the Mesh Statistics:To view the Mesh Statistics:To view the Mesh Statistics:To view the Mesh Statistics:

1. Click the Mesh StatisticsMesh StatisticsMesh StatisticsMesh Statistics Tab.

2. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

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Create Reports

Create Terminal SCreate Terminal SCreate Terminal SCreate Terminal S----Parameter Plot Parameter Plot Parameter Plot Parameter Plot ---- MagnitudeMagnitudeMagnitudeMagnitude

To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data Report > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular Plot

2. Traces Window::::

1. Solution: Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1

2. Domain: SweepSweepSweepSweep

3. Category: Terminal S ParameterTerminal S ParameterTerminal S ParameterTerminal S Parameter

4. Quantity: St(T1,T1) St(T1,T1) St(T1,T1) St(T1,T1)

5. Function: dBdBdBdB

6. Click the New ReportNew ReportNew ReportNew Report button

7. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

Change the xChange the xChange the xChange the x----axis label settings:axis label settings:axis label settings:axis label settings:

1. Double click on the numbers on the plot’s x-axis to bring up the properties

window

2. Change the Number FormatNumber FormatNumber FormatNumber Format from AutoAutoAutoAuto to DecimalDecimalDecimalDecimal

3. Change the Field PrecisionField PrecisionField PrecisionField Precision from 2222 to 0000

4. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Far Field Overlays

Create Far Field OverlayCreate Far Field OverlayCreate Far Field OverlayCreate Far Field Overlay

To create a 2D polar far field plot :To create a 2D polar far field plot :To create a 2D polar far field plot :To create a 2D polar far field plot :

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Far Fields Report > HFSS > Results > Create Far Fields Report > HFSS > Results > Create Far Fields Report > HFSS > Results > Create Far Fields Report > Radiation PatternRadiation PatternRadiation PatternRadiation Pattern

2. Traces Window::::

1. Solution: Setup1: LastAdaptiveSetup1: LastAdaptiveSetup1: LastAdaptiveSetup1: LastAdaptive

2. Geometry: ff_2dff_2dff_2dff_2d

3. In the Trace tabTrace tabTrace tabTrace tab

1. Category: GainGainGainGain

2. Quantity: GainTotalGainTotalGainTotalGainTotal

3. Function: dBdBdBdB

4. Click the New ReportNew ReportNew ReportNew Report button

5. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

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Dual Mode Conical Horn This example is intended to show you how to create, simulate, and analyze a

waveguide horn antenna using the Ansoft HFSS Design Environment.

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Ansoft HFSS Design EnvironmentThe following features of the Ansoft HFSS Design Environment are used to

create this passive device model:

3D Solid Modeling

Primitives: CylindersCylindersCylindersCylinders

Boolean: Union, Subtract, ConnectUnion, Subtract, ConnectUnion, Subtract, ConnectUnion, Subtract, Connect

Boundaries/Excitations

Excitations: Wave PortsWave PortsWave PortsWave Ports

Boundaries: RadiationRadiationRadiationRadiation

Results

Plotting: Radiation PatternRadiation PatternRadiation PatternRadiation Pattern

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Design ReviewPort Size/TypePort Size/TypePort Size/TypePort Size/Type

Since the port is external to the model we could use a Wave Port. The size

of the port is determined by the physical dimensions of the waveguide.

Because the waveguide is circular, we must Polarize the E-Field for the

port definition.

Free SpaceFree SpaceFree SpaceFree Space

Since we are evaluating a radiating structure, we need to create a free

space environment for the device to operate in. This can be achieved by using the Radiation Boundary condition or a Perfectly Matched Layer

(PML). We will use a Radiation Boundary since the surface will be

cylindrical.

The Radiation Boundary needs to be placed at least λ/4 from radiating devices. For our example we will assume that ~λ/4 (0.6in)

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Getting Started

Launching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSS

1. To access Ansoft HFSS, click the Microsoft StartStartStartStart button, select ProgramsProgramsProgramsPrograms, and

select the Ansoft, HFSS 11Ansoft, HFSS 11Ansoft, HFSS 11Ansoft, HFSS 11 program group. Click HFSS 11HFSS 11HFSS 11HFSS 11

Setting Tool OptionsSetting Tool OptionsSetting Tool OptionsSetting Tool Options

To set the tool options:To set the tool options:To set the tool options:To set the tool options:

Note: Note: Note: Note: In order to follow the steps outlined in this example, verify that the following tool options are set : : : :

1. Select the menu item Tools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS Options

2. HFSS Options Window:

1. Click the GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneral tab

Use Wizards for data entry when creating new boundaries: : : :

CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

Duplicate boundaries with geometry: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

3. Select the menu item Tools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler Options.

4. 3D Modeler Options Window:

1. Click the OperationOperationOperationOperation tab

Automatically cover closed polylines: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

2. Click the DrawingDrawingDrawingDrawing tab

Edit property of new primitives: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Opening a New ProjectOpening a New ProjectOpening a New ProjectOpening a New Project

To open a new project:To open a new project:To open a new project:To open a new project:

1. In the Ansoft HFSS desktop, a new project is automatically inserted.

2. When a new project is automatically opened, a new HFSS Design is also

automatically inserted into the project.

Set Solution TypeSet Solution TypeSet Solution TypeSet Solution Type

To set the solution type:To set the solution type:To set the solution type:To set the solution type:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution Type

2. Solution Type Window:

1. Choose Driven ModalDriven ModalDriven ModalDriven Modal

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Creating the 3D Model

Set Model UnitsSet Model UnitsSet Model UnitsSet Model Units

To set the units:To set the units:To set the units:To set the units:

1. Select the menu item Modeler > UnitsModeler > UnitsModeler > UnitsModeler > Units

2. Set Model Units:

1. Select Units: in in in in

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Set Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default Material

To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:

Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose vacuumvacuumvacuumvacuum

Create Circular WaveguideCreate Circular WaveguideCreate Circular WaveguideCreate Circular Waveguide

Create waveguideCreate waveguideCreate waveguideCreate waveguide

1. Select the menu item Draw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > Cylinder

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the cylinder position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Press the Enter Enter Enter Enter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius:

dX: 0.8380.8380.8380.838, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Press the Enter Enter Enter Enter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the height:

dX: 0.00.00.00.0, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 Press the Enter Enter Enter Enter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: WaveguideWaveguideWaveguideWaveguide

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

Or press the CTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+D key

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Create Offset Coordinate SystemCreate Offset Coordinate SystemCreate Offset Coordinate SystemCreate Offset Coordinate System

Create CSCreate CSCreate CSCreate CS

1. Select the menu item Modeler > Coordinate System > Create > Relative Modeler > Coordinate System > Create > Relative Modeler > Coordinate System > Create > Relative Modeler > Coordinate System > Create > Relative CS > OffsetCS > OffsetCS > OffsetCS > Offset

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the origin

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 Press the Enter Enter Enter Enter key

Create Transition RegionCreate Transition RegionCreate Transition RegionCreate Transition Region

Create waveguide transitionCreate waveguide transitionCreate waveguide transitionCreate waveguide transition

1. Select the menu item Draw > ConeDraw > ConeDraw > ConeDraw > Cone

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the center position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the lower radius:

dX: 0.8380.8380.8380.838, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the upper radius:

dX: 0.7090.7090.7090.709, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

5. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the height:

dX: 0.00.00.00.0, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 1.227 1.227 1.227 1.227 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: TaperTaperTaperTaper

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Create Offset Coordinate SystemCreate Offset Coordinate SystemCreate Offset Coordinate SystemCreate Offset Coordinate System

Create CSCreate CSCreate CSCreate CS

1. Select the menu item Modeler > Coordinate System > Create > Relative Modeler > Coordinate System > Create > Relative Modeler > Coordinate System > Create > Relative Modeler > Coordinate System > Create > Relative CS > OffsetCS > OffsetCS > OffsetCS > Offset

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the origin

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 1.227 1.227 1.227 1.227 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

Create the ThroatCreate the ThroatCreate the ThroatCreate the Throat

Create ThroatCreate ThroatCreate ThroatCreate Throat

1. Select the menu item Draw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > Cylinder

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the cylinder position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius:

dX: 1.5471.5471.5471.547, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the height:

dX: 0.00.00.00.0, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 3.236 3.236 3.236 3.236 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: ThroatThroatThroatThroat

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

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Group ObjectsGroup ObjectsGroup ObjectsGroup Objects

To group the objects:To group the objects:To group the objects:To group the objects:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select All VisibleEdit > Select All VisibleEdit > Select All VisibleEdit > Select All Visible. . . . Or press the CTRL+ACTRL+ACTRL+ACTRL+A key

2. Select the menu item, Modeler > Boolean > UniteModeler > Boolean > UniteModeler > Boolean > UniteModeler > Boolean > Unite

Rename groupRename groupRename groupRename group

To rename the group of objects:To rename the group of objects:To rename the group of objects:To rename the group of objects:

1. From the ModelModelModelModel tree, select the only object shown

2. Click the Properties Properties Properties Properties button

1. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: Horn_AirHorn_AirHorn_AirHorn_Air

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

3. Click the DoneDoneDoneDone button

Set Working Coordinate SystemSet Working Coordinate SystemSet Working Coordinate SystemSet Working Coordinate System

To set the working coordinate system:To set the working coordinate system:To set the working coordinate system:To set the working coordinate system:

1. Select the menu item Modeler > Coordinate System > Set Working CSModeler > Coordinate System > Set Working CSModeler > Coordinate System > Set Working CSModeler > Coordinate System > Set Working CS

2. Select Coordinate System Window,

1. From the list, select the CS: GlobalGlobalGlobalGlobal

2. Click the SelectSelectSelectSelect button

Set Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default Material

To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:

1. Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose SelectSelectSelectSelect

2. Select Definition Window:

1. Type pecpecpecpec in the Search by NameSearch by NameSearch by NameSearch by Name field

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Create the Horn WallCreate the Horn WallCreate the Horn WallCreate the Horn Wall

Create hornCreate hornCreate hornCreate horn

1. Select the menu item Draw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > Cylinder

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the cylinder position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius:

dX: 1.6471.6471.6471.647, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.0 : 0.0 : 0.0 : 0.0 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the height:

dX: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0, dY: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0, dZ: 7.463 : 7.463 : 7.463 : 7.463 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: HornHornHornHorn

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

Complete the HornComplete the HornComplete the HornComplete the Horn

To select the objectTo select the objectTo select the objectTo select the object

Select the menu item Edit > Select All VisibleEdit > Select All VisibleEdit > Select All VisibleEdit > Select All Visible. . . . Or press the CTRL+ACTRL+ACTRL+ACTRL+A key

To complete the horn:To complete the horn:To complete the horn:To complete the horn:

1. Select the menu item Modeler > Boolean > Subtract Modeler > Boolean > Subtract Modeler > Boolean > Subtract Modeler > Boolean > Subtract

2. Subtract Window

Blank Parts: HornHornHornHorn

Tool Parts: Horn_AirHorn_AirHorn_AirHorn_Air

Clone tool objects before subtract: UncheckedUncheckedUncheckedUnchecked

Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Set Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default Material

To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:

Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose vacuumvacuumvacuumvacuum

Create AirCreate AirCreate AirCreate Air

Create AirCreate AirCreate AirCreate Air

1. Select the menu item Draw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > Cylinder

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the cylinder position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.0 : 0.0 : 0.0 : 0.0 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius:

dX: 2.2: 2.2: 2.2: 2.2, dY: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0, dZ: 0.0 : 0.0 : 0.0 : 0.0 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the height:

dX: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0, dY: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0, dZ: 8.2 : 8.2 : 8.2 : 8.2 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: AirAirAirAir

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View....

Create Radiation BoundaryCreate Radiation BoundaryCreate Radiation BoundaryCreate Radiation Boundary

To create a radiation boundaryTo create a radiation boundaryTo create a radiation boundaryTo create a radiation boundary

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: AirAirAirAir

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

3. Select the menu item HFSS > Boundaries > Assign> RadiationHFSS > Boundaries > Assign> RadiationHFSS > Boundaries > Assign> RadiationHFSS > Boundaries > Assign> Radiation

4. Radiation Boundary window

1. Name: Rad1Rad1Rad1Rad1

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Create the Wave portCreate the Wave portCreate the Wave portCreate the Wave port

To create a circle that represents the port:To create a circle that represents the port:To create a circle that represents the port:To create a circle that represents the port:

1. Select the menu item Draw > CircleDraw > CircleDraw > CircleDraw > Circle

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the center position

X: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0, Y: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0, Z: 0.0 : 0.0 : 0.0 : 0.0 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius of the circle:

dX: 0.838: 0.838: 0.838: 0.838, dY: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0, dZ: 0.0 : 0.0 : 0.0 : 0.0 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: p1p1p1p1

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To select the object p1:To select the object p1:To select the object p1:To select the object p1:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: p1p1p1p1

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

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Create Wave Port Excitation 1 (Continued)Create Wave Port Excitation 1 (Continued)Create Wave Port Excitation 1 (Continued)Create Wave Port Excitation 1 (Continued)

To assign wave port excitationTo assign wave port excitationTo assign wave port excitationTo assign wave port excitation

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave Port

2. Wave Port : General

1. Name: p1p1p1p1

2. Click the NextNextNextNext button

3. Wave Port : Modes

1. Number of Modes: 2222

2. For Mode 1Mode 1Mode 1Mode 1, click the NoneNoneNoneNone under Integration Line Integration Line Integration Line Integration Line column and select

New LineNew LineNew LineNew Line

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the vector position

X: : : : ----0.8380.8380.8380.838, Y: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0, Z: 0.0 : 0.0 : 0.0 : 0.0 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the vertex

dX: 1.676: 1.676: 1.676: 1.676, dY: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0, dZ: 0.0 : 0.0 : 0.0 : 0.0 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

5. Polarize E Field: CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

6. Click the NextNextNextNext button

4. Wave Port : Post Processing

5. Click the FinishFinishFinishFinish button

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Create Offset Coordinate SystemCreate Offset Coordinate SystemCreate Offset Coordinate SystemCreate Offset Coordinate System

Create CSCreate CSCreate CSCreate CS

1. Select the menu item Modeler > Coordinate System > Create > Relative Modeler > Coordinate System > Create > Relative Modeler > Coordinate System > Create > Relative Modeler > Coordinate System > Create > Relative CS > OffsetCS > OffsetCS > OffsetCS > Offset

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the origin

X: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0, Y: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0, Z: 7.463 : 7.463 : 7.463 : 7.463 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

Create a Radiation SetupCreate a Radiation SetupCreate a Radiation SetupCreate a Radiation Setup

To define the radiation setupTo define the radiation setupTo define the radiation setupTo define the radiation setup

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Radiation > Insert Far Field Setup > Infinite HFSS > Radiation > Insert Far Field Setup > Infinite HFSS > Radiation > Insert Far Field Setup > Infinite HFSS > Radiation > Insert Far Field Setup > Infinite SphereSphereSphereSphere

2. Far Field Radiation Sphere Setup dialog

Infinite SphereInfinite SphereInfinite SphereInfinite Sphere Tab

1. Name: ff_2dff_2dff_2dff_2d

2. Phi: (Start: 0, 0, 0, 0, Stop: 90, 90, 90, 90, Step Size: 90)90)90)90)

3. Theta: (Start: ----180, 180, 180, 180, Stop: 180, 180, 180, 180, Step Size: 2)2)2)2)

1.1.1.1. Coordinate System Coordinate System Coordinate System Coordinate System Tab

1. Select Use local coordinate systemUse local coordinate systemUse local coordinate systemUse local coordinate system

2. Choose RelativeCS3RelativeCS3RelativeCS3RelativeCS3

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Analysis Setup

Creating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis Setup

To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup

2. Solution Setup Window:

1. Click the GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneral tab::::

Solution Frequency: 5.0 GHz: 5.0 GHz: 5.0 GHz: 5.0 GHz

Maximum Number of Passes: 10101010

Maximum Delta S per Pass: 0.020.020.020.02

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Save ProjectSave ProjectSave ProjectSave Project

To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:

1. In an Ansoft HFSS window, select the menu item File > Save AsFile > Save AsFile > Save AsFile > Save As.

2. From the Save As Save As Save As Save As window, type the Filename: hfss_chornhfss_chornhfss_chornhfss_chorn

3. Click the SaveSaveSaveSave button

Analyze

Model ValidationModel ValidationModel ValidationModel Validation

To validate the model:To validate the model:To validate the model:To validate the model:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation Check

2. Click the Close Close Close Close button

Note:Note:Note:Note: To view any errors or warning messages, use the Message

Manager.

AnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyze

To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analyze AllHFSS > Analyze AllHFSS > Analyze AllHFSS > Analyze All

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Solution DataSolution DataSolution DataSolution Data

To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution Data

To view the Profile:To view the Profile:To view the Profile:To view the Profile:

1. Click the ProfileProfileProfileProfile Tab.

To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:

1. Click the ConvergenceConvergenceConvergenceConvergence Tab

Note: Note: Note: Note: The default view is for convergence is TableTableTableTable. Select

the PlotPlotPlotPlot radio button to view a graphical representations of

the convergence data.

To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:

1. Click the Matrix DataMatrix DataMatrix DataMatrix Data Tab

Note: Note: Note: Note: To view a real-time update of the Matrix Data, set the

Simulation to Setup1, Last AdaptiveSetup1, Last AdaptiveSetup1, Last AdaptiveSetup1, Last Adaptive

2. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

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Example – Conical Horn

Far Field Overlays

Edit SourcesEdit SourcesEdit SourcesEdit Sources

To Modify a Terminal excitation:To Modify a Terminal excitation:To Modify a Terminal excitation:To Modify a Terminal excitation:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Fields > Edit SourcesHFSS > Fields > Edit SourcesHFSS > Fields > Edit SourcesHFSS > Fields > Edit Sources

2. Edit Sources window

1. Source: p1:1p1:1p1:1p1:1

1. Scaling Factor: 1111

2. Offset: 0000

2. Source: p1:2p1:2p1:2p1:2

1. Scaling Factor: 1111

2. OffsetPhase: 90909090

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Create Far Field OverlayCreate Far Field OverlayCreate Far Field OverlayCreate Far Field Overlay

To create a 2D polar far field plot :To create a 2D polar far field plot :To create a 2D polar far field plot :To create a 2D polar far field plot :

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Far Fields Report > HFSS > Results > Create Far Fields Report > HFSS > Results > Create Far Fields Report > HFSS > Results > Create Far Fields Report > Radiation PatternRadiation PatternRadiation PatternRadiation Pattern

2. Traces Window::::

1. Solution: Setup1: LastAdaptiveSetup1: LastAdaptiveSetup1: LastAdaptiveSetup1: LastAdaptive

2. Geometry: ff_2dff_2dff_2dff_2d

3. Category: GainGainGainGain

4. Quantity: GainLHCP, GainRHCPGainLHCP, GainRHCPGainLHCP, GainRHCPGainLHCP, GainRHCP

5. Function: dBdBdBdB

6. Click the New ReportNew ReportNew ReportNew Report button

7. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

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Example – Conical Horn

-36.00

-22.00

-8.00

6.00

90

60

30

0

-30

-60

-90

-120

-150

-180

150

120

Ansoft Corporation HFSSDesign1Radiation Pattern 1Curve Info

dB(GainLHCP)Setup1 : LastAdaptiveFreq='5GHz' Phi='0deg'

dB(GainLHCP)Setup1 : LastAdaptiveFreq='5GHz' Phi='90deg'

dB(GainRHCP)Setup1 : LastAdaptiveFreq='5GHz' Phi='0deg'

dB(GainRHCP)Setup1 : LastAdaptiveFreq='5GHz' Phi='90deg'

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Example – Probe Feed Patch Antenna

The Probe Feed Patch AntennaThis example is intended to show you how to create, simulate, and analyze a

probe feed patch antenna using the Ansoft HFSS Design Environment.

Infinite Ground

Sub1 (Dielectric)

Patch (Signal)

0.32cm

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Getting Started

Launching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSS

1. To access Ansoft HFSS, click the Microsoft StartStartStartStart button, select ProgramsProgramsProgramsPrograms, and select

the Ansoft > HFSS 11Ansoft > HFSS 11Ansoft > HFSS 11Ansoft > HFSS 11 program group. Click HFSS 11HFSS 11HFSS 11HFSS 11.

Setting Tool OptionsSetting Tool OptionsSetting Tool OptionsSetting Tool Options

To set the tool options:To set the tool options:To set the tool options:To set the tool options:

Note: Note: Note: Note: In order to follow the steps outlined in this example, verify that the following tool options are set : : : :

1. Select the menu item Tools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS Options

2. HFSS Options Window:

1. Click the GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneral tab

Use Wizards for data entry when creating new boundaries: : : :

CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

Duplicate boundaries with geometry: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

3. Select the menu item Tools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler Options.

4. 3D Modeler Options Window:

1. Click the OperationOperationOperationOperation tab

Automatically cover closed polylines: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

2. Click the DrawingDrawingDrawingDrawing tab

Edit property of new primitives: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Opening a New ProjectOpening a New ProjectOpening a New ProjectOpening a New Project

To open a new project:To open a new project:To open a new project:To open a new project:

1. In an Ansoft HFSS window, click the On the Standard toolbar, or select

the menu item File > NewFile > NewFile > NewFile > New.

2. From the ProjectProjectProjectProject menu, select Insert HFSS DesignInsert HFSS DesignInsert HFSS DesignInsert HFSS Design....

Set Solution TypeSet Solution TypeSet Solution TypeSet Solution Type

To set the solution type:To set the solution type:To set the solution type:To set the solution type:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution Type

2. Solution Type Window:

1. Choose Driven TerminalDriven TerminalDriven TerminalDriven Terminal

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Creating the 3D Model

Set Model UnitsSet Model UnitsSet Model UnitsSet Model Units

To set the units:To set the units:To set the units:To set the units:

1. Select the menu item Modeler > UnitsModeler > UnitsModeler > UnitsModeler > Units

2. Set Model Units:

1. Select Units: cmcmcmcm

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Set Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default Material

To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:

1. Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose SelectSelectSelectSelect

2. Select Definition Window:

1. Type Rogers RT/duroid 5880 (tm)Rogers RT/duroid 5880 (tm)Rogers RT/duroid 5880 (tm)Rogers RT/duroid 5880 (tm) in the Search by NameSearch by NameSearch by NameSearch by Name field

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Create SubstrateCreate SubstrateCreate SubstrateCreate Substrate

To create the substrate:To create the substrate:To create the substrate:To create the substrate:

1. Select the menu item Draw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > Box

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box position

X: ----5.05.05.05.0, Y: ----4.54.54.54.5, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the box

dX: 10.010.010.010.0, dY: 9.09.09.09.0, dZ: 0.320.320.320.32, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the AttributeTo set the AttributeTo set the AttributeTo set the Attribute

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: Sub1Sub1Sub1Sub1

3. Set TransparentTransparentTransparentTransparent level to 0.7

4. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . . Or press the CTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+D key

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Create Infinite GroundCreate Infinite GroundCreate Infinite GroundCreate Infinite Ground

To create the infinite ground:To create the infinite ground:To create the infinite ground:To create the infinite ground:

1. Select the menu item Draw > RectangleDraw > RectangleDraw > RectangleDraw > Rectangle

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the rectangle position

X: ----5.05.05.05.0, Y: ----4.54.54.54.5, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the rectangle:

dX: 10.010.010.010.0, dY: 9.09.09.09.0, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: Inf_GNDInf_GNDInf_GNDInf_GND

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

Assign a Perfect E boundary to the Infinite GroundAssign a Perfect E boundary to the Infinite GroundAssign a Perfect E boundary to the Infinite GroundAssign a Perfect E boundary to the Infinite Ground

To select the trace:To select the trace:To select the trace:To select the trace:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: Inf_GNDInf_GNDInf_GNDInf_GND

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

To assign the Perfect E boundaryTo assign the Perfect E boundaryTo assign the Perfect E boundaryTo assign the Perfect E boundary

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Perfect EHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Perfect EHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Perfect EHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Perfect E

2. Perfect E Boundary window

1. Name: PerfE_Inf_GNDPerfE_Inf_GNDPerfE_Inf_GNDPerfE_Inf_GND

2. Infinite Ground Plane: CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Create Infinite Ground Cut OutCreate Infinite Ground Cut OutCreate Infinite Ground Cut OutCreate Infinite Ground Cut Out

To create the cut out:To create the cut out:To create the cut out:To create the cut out:

1. Select the menu item Draw > CircleDraw > CircleDraw > CircleDraw > Circle

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the center position

X: ----0.50.50.50.5, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius:

dX: 0.160.160.160.16, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: Cut_OutCut_OutCut_OutCut_Out

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View

Complete the Infinite GroundComplete the Infinite GroundComplete the Infinite GroundComplete the Infinite Ground

To select the objects Inf_GND & Cut_Out:To select the objects Inf_GND & Cut_Out:To select the objects Inf_GND & Cut_Out:To select the objects Inf_GND & Cut_Out:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: Inf_GND, Cut_OutInf_GND, Cut_OutInf_GND, Cut_OutInf_GND, Cut_Out

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

To complete the ring:To complete the ring:To complete the ring:To complete the ring:

1. Select the menu item Modeler > Boolean > Subtract Modeler > Boolean > Subtract Modeler > Boolean > Subtract Modeler > Boolean > Subtract

2. Subtract Window

Blank Parts: Inf_GnDInf_GnDInf_GnDInf_GnD

Tool Parts: Cut_OutCut_OutCut_OutCut_Out

Clone tool objects before subtract: UncheckedUncheckedUncheckedUnchecked

Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Create PatchCreate PatchCreate PatchCreate Patch

To create the patch:To create the patch:To create the patch:To create the patch:

1. Select the menu item Draw > RectangleDraw > RectangleDraw > RectangleDraw > Rectangle

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the rectangle position

X: ----2.02.02.02.0, Y: ----1.51.51.51.5, Z: 0.320.320.320.32, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the rectangle:

dX: 4.04.04.04.0, dY: 3.03.03.03.0, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: PatchPatchPatchPatch

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

Assign a Perfect E boundary to the TraceAssign a Perfect E boundary to the TraceAssign a Perfect E boundary to the TraceAssign a Perfect E boundary to the Trace

To select the trace:To select the trace:To select the trace:To select the trace:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: PatchPatchPatchPatch

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

To assign the Perfect E boundaryTo assign the Perfect E boundaryTo assign the Perfect E boundaryTo assign the Perfect E boundary

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Perfect EHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Perfect EHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Perfect EHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Perfect E

2. Perfect E Boundary window

1. Name: PerfE_PatchPerfE_PatchPerfE_PatchPerfE_Patch

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Set Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default Material

To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:

1. Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose vacuum vacuum vacuum vacuum

Create the CoaxCreate the CoaxCreate the CoaxCreate the Coax

To create the coax:To create the coax:To create the coax:To create the coax:

1. Select the menu item Draw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > Cylinder

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the cylinder position

X: ----0.50.50.50.5, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius:

dX: 0.160.160.160.16, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the height:

dX: 0.00.00.00.0, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: ----0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: CoaxCoaxCoaxCoax

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

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Set Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default Material

To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:

1. Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose SelectSelectSelectSelect

2. Select Definition Window:

1. Type pecpecpecpec in the Search by NameSearch by NameSearch by NameSearch by Name field

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Create the Coax PinCreate the Coax PinCreate the Coax PinCreate the Coax Pin

To create the coax pin:To create the coax pin:To create the coax pin:To create the coax pin:

1. Select the menu item Draw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > Cylinder

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the cylinder position

X: ----0.50.50.50.5, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius:

dX: 0.070.070.070.07, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the height:

dX: 0.00.00.00.0, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: ----0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: Coax_PinCoax_PinCoax_PinCoax_Pin

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

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Create the Wave portCreate the Wave portCreate the Wave portCreate the Wave port

To create a circle that represents the port:To create a circle that represents the port:To create a circle that represents the port:To create a circle that represents the port:

1. Select the menu item Draw > CircleDraw > CircleDraw > CircleDraw > Circle

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the center position

X: : : : ----0.50.50.50.5, Y: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0, Z: : : : ----0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius of the circle:

dX: 0.16: 0.16: 0.16: 0.16, dY: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0, dZ: 0.0 : 0.0 : 0.0 : 0.0 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: Port1Port1Port1Port1

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To select the object Port1:To select the object Port1:To select the object Port1:To select the object Port1:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: Port1Port1Port1Port1

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

To assign wave port excitationTo assign wave port excitationTo assign wave port excitationTo assign wave port excitation

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave Port

2. In the pop up Reference Conductors for Terminals Reference Conductors for Terminals Reference Conductors for Terminals Reference Conductors for Terminals window, leave Pin Pin Pin Pin in

Conducting Objects. Conducting Objects. Conducting Objects. Conducting Objects. Click OKOKOKOK

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Create the ProbeCreate the ProbeCreate the ProbeCreate the Probe

To create the probe:To create the probe:To create the probe:To create the probe:

1. Select the menu item Draw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > Cylinder

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the cylinder position

X: ----0.50.50.50.5, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius:

dX: 0.070.070.070.07, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the height:

dX: 0.00.00.00.0, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: ProbeProbeProbeProbe

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

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Set Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default Material

To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:

1. Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose vacuum vacuum vacuum vacuum

Create AirCreate AirCreate AirCreate Air

To create the air:To create the air:To create the air:To create the air:

1. Select the menu item Draw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > Box

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box position

X: ----5.05.05.05.0, Y: ----4.54.54.54.5, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the box

dX: 10.010.010.010.0, dY: 9.09.09.09.0, dZ: 3.323.323.323.32, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the Atttribute:To set the Atttribute:To set the Atttribute:To set the Atttribute:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: AirAirAirAir

3. Set TransparentTransparentTransparentTransparent level to 0.90.90.90.9

4. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

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Create Radiation BoundaryCreate Radiation BoundaryCreate Radiation BoundaryCreate Radiation Boundary

Picking the faces:Picking the faces:Picking the faces:Picking the faces:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > Faces

2. Graphically select allallallall of the facesfacesfacesfaces of the AirAirAirAir object except except except except the face at Z=0.0cmface at Z=0.0cmface at Z=0.0cmface at Z=0.0cm

To create a radiation boundaryTo create a radiation boundaryTo create a radiation boundaryTo create a radiation boundary

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Boundaries > Assign> RadiationHFSS > Boundaries > Assign> RadiationHFSS > Boundaries > Assign> RadiationHFSS > Boundaries > Assign> Radiation

2. Radiation Boundary window

1. Name: Rad1Rad1Rad1Rad1

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Create a Radiation SetupCreate a Radiation SetupCreate a Radiation SetupCreate a Radiation Setup

To define the radiation setupTo define the radiation setupTo define the radiation setupTo define the radiation setup

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Radiation > Insert Far Field Setup > Infinite HFSS > Radiation > Insert Far Field Setup > Infinite HFSS > Radiation > Insert Far Field Setup > Infinite HFSS > Radiation > Insert Far Field Setup > Infinite SphereSphereSphereSphere

2. Far Field Radiation Sphere Setup dialog

1. Select the Infinite SphereInfinite SphereInfinite SphereInfinite Sphere Tab

1. Name: ff_2dff_2dff_2dff_2d

2. Phi: (Start: 0, 0, 0, 0, Stop: 90, 90, 90, 90, Step Size: 90)90)90)90)

3. Theta: (Start: ----180, 180, 180, 180, Stop: 180, 180, 180, 180, Step Size: 2)2)2)2)

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Analysis Setup

Creating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis Setup

To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup

2. Solution Setup Window:

1. Click the GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneral tab::::

Solution Frequency: 2.25 GHz: 2.25 GHz: 2.25 GHz: 2.25 GHz

Maximum Number of Passes: 20202020

Maximum Delta S per Pass: 0.020.020.020.02

2. Click the OptionOptionOptionOption tab:

Solution Operations/ Order of Basis Functions: Second OrderSecond OrderSecond OrderSecond Order

Enable Iterative Solver CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Adding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency Sweep

To add a frequency sweep:To add a frequency sweep:To add a frequency sweep:To add a frequency sweep:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add SweepHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add SweepHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add SweepHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Sweep

1. Select Solution Setup: Setup1 Setup1 Setup1 Setup1

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

2. Edit Sweep Window:

1. Sweep Type: Fast: Fast: Fast: Fast

2. Frequency Setup Type: Linear Count: Linear Count: Linear Count: Linear Count

Start: 1.0GHz1.0GHz1.0GHz1.0GHz

Stop: 3.5GHz: 3.5GHz: 3.5GHz: 3.5GHz

Count: 201: 201: 201: 201

Save Fields: CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Save ProjectSave ProjectSave ProjectSave Project

To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:

1. In an Ansoft HFSS window, select the menu item File > Save AsFile > Save AsFile > Save AsFile > Save As.

2. From the Save As Save As Save As Save As window, type the Filename: hfss_probepatchhfss_probepatchhfss_probepatchhfss_probepatch

3. Click the SaveSaveSaveSave button

Analyze

Model ValidationModel ValidationModel ValidationModel Validation

To validate the model:To validate the model:To validate the model:To validate the model:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation Check

2. Click the Close Close Close Close button

Note:Note:Note:Note: To view any errors or warning messages, use the Message Manager.

AnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyze

To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analyze AllHFSS > Analyze AllHFSS > Analyze AllHFSS > Analyze All

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Solution DataSolution DataSolution DataSolution Data

To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution Data

To view the Profile:To view the Profile:To view the Profile:To view the Profile:

1. Click the ProfileProfileProfileProfile Tab.

To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:

1. Click the ConvergenceConvergenceConvergenceConvergence Tab

Note: Note: Note: Note: The default view is for convergence is TableTableTableTable. Select

the PlotPlotPlotPlot radio button to view a graphical representations of

the convergence data.

To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:

1. Click the Matrix DataMatrix DataMatrix DataMatrix Data Tab

Note: Note: Note: Note: To view a real-time update of the Matrix Data, set the

Simulation to Setup1, Last AdaptiveSetup1, Last AdaptiveSetup1, Last AdaptiveSetup1, Last Adaptive

To view the Mesh StatisticsTo view the Mesh StatisticsTo view the Mesh StatisticsTo view the Mesh Statistics

1. Click the Mesh StatisticsMesh StatisticsMesh StatisticsMesh Statistics Tab

2. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

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Create Reports

Create Terminal SCreate Terminal SCreate Terminal SCreate Terminal S----Parameter Plot Parameter Plot Parameter Plot Parameter Plot ---- MagnitudeMagnitudeMagnitudeMagnitude

To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data Report> Rectangular PlotReport> Rectangular PlotReport> Rectangular PlotReport> Rectangular Plot

2. Traces Window::::

1. Solution: Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1

2. Domain: SweepSweepSweepSweep

3. Click the TraceTraceTraceTrace tab

1. Category: Terminal S ParameterTerminal S ParameterTerminal S ParameterTerminal S Parameter

2. Quantity: St(coax_pin_T1,coax_pin_T1) St(coax_pin_T1,coax_pin_T1) St(coax_pin_T1,coax_pin_T1) St(coax_pin_T1,coax_pin_T1) Function: dBdBdBdB

3. Click the New ReportNew ReportNew ReportNew Report button

4. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

Mark all tracesMark all tracesMark all tracesMark all traces

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select AllEdit > Select AllEdit > Select AllEdit > Select All

2. Select the menu item Report 2D > Marker > Add MinimumReport 2D > Marker > Add MinimumReport 2D > Marker > Add MinimumReport 2D > Marker > Add Minimum

3. When you are finished, select the menu item Report 2D > Marker > Clear Report 2D > Marker > Clear Report 2D > Marker > Clear Report 2D > Marker > Clear All All All All to remove the marker.

1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50Freq [GHz]

-25.00

-20.00

-15.00

-10.00

-5.00

0.00

dB(S

t(co

ax_p

in_T

1,co

ax_p

in_T

1))

Ansoft Corporation HFSSDesign1XY Plot 1

m1

Curve Info

dB(St(coax_pin_T1,coax_pin_T1))Setup1 : Sweep1

Name X Y

m1 2.3625 -21.4575

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Far Field Overlays

Create Far Field OverlayCreate Far Field OverlayCreate Far Field OverlayCreate Far Field Overlay

To create a 2D polar far field plot :To create a 2D polar far field plot :To create a 2D polar far field plot :To create a 2D polar far field plot :

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Far Fields Report > HFSS > Results > Create Far Fields Report > HFSS > Results > Create Far Fields Report > HFSS > Results > Create Far Fields Report > Radiation PatternRadiation PatternRadiation PatternRadiation Pattern

2. Traces Window::::

1. Solution: Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1

2. Geometry: ff_2dff_2dff_2dff_2d

3. In the FamiliesFamiliesFamiliesFamilies tab, change the frequency to 2.3625GHz2.3625GHz2.3625GHz2.3625GHz

4. In the Trace tabTrace tabTrace tabTrace tab

1. Primary Sweep: ThetaThetaThetaTheta

2. Category: GainGainGainGain

3. Quantity: GainTotalGainTotalGainTotalGainTotal

4. Function: dBdBdBdB

5. Click the New ReportNew ReportNew ReportNew Report button

6. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

-14.00

-8.00

-2.00

4.00

90

60

30

0

-30

-60

-90

-120

-150

-180

150

120

Ansoft Corporation HFSSDesign1Radiation Pattern 1Curve Info

dB(GainTotal)Setup1 : Sweep1Phi='0deg'

dB(GainTotal)Setup1 : Sweep1Phi='90deg'

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The Slot Coupled Patch AntennaThis example is intended to show you how to create, simulate, and analyze a

probe feed patch antenna using the Ansoft HFSS Design Environment.

Slot (Plane)

Feed (Signal)

Sub2 (Dielectric) 0.16cm

Sub1 (Dielectric)

Patch (Signal)

0.16cm

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Getting Started

Launching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSS

1. To access Ansoft HFSS, click the Microsoft StartStartStartStart button, select ProgramsProgramsProgramsPrograms, and select

the Ansoft > HFSS 11Ansoft > HFSS 11Ansoft > HFSS 11Ansoft > HFSS 11 program group. Click HFSS 11HFSS 11HFSS 11HFSS 11

Setting Tool OptionsSetting Tool OptionsSetting Tool OptionsSetting Tool Options

To set the tool options:To set the tool options:To set the tool options:To set the tool options:

Note: Note: Note: Note: In order to follow the steps outlined in this example, verify that the following tool options are set : : : :

1. Select the menu item Tools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS Options

2. HFSS Options Window:

1. Click the GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneral tab

Use Wizards for data input when creating new boundaries: : : :

CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

Duplicate boundaries with geometry: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

3. Select the menu item Tools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler Options.

4. 3D Modeler Options Window:

1. Click the OperationOperationOperationOperation tab

Automatically cover closed polylines: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

2. Click the DrawingDrawingDrawingDrawing tab

Edit property of new primitives: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Opening a New ProjectOpening a New ProjectOpening a New ProjectOpening a New Project

To open a new project:To open a new project:To open a new project:To open a new project:

1. In an Ansoft HFSS window, click the On the Standard toolbar, or select

the menu item File > NewFile > NewFile > NewFile > New.

2. From the ProjectProjectProjectProject menu, select Insert HFSS DesignInsert HFSS DesignInsert HFSS DesignInsert HFSS Design....

Set Solution TypeSet Solution TypeSet Solution TypeSet Solution Type

To set the solution type:To set the solution type:To set the solution type:To set the solution type:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution Type

2. Solution Type Window:

1. Choose Driven TerminalDriven TerminalDriven TerminalDriven Terminal

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Creating the 3D Model

Set Model UnitsSet Model UnitsSet Model UnitsSet Model Units

To set the units:To set the units:To set the units:To set the units:

1. Select the menu item Modeler > UnitsModeler > UnitsModeler > UnitsModeler > Units

2. Set Model Units:

1. Select Units: cmcmcmcm

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Set Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default Material

To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:

1. Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose SelectSelectSelectSelect

2. Select Definition Window:

1. Type Rogers Rogers Rogers Rogers in the Search by NameSearch by NameSearch by NameSearch by Name field and select the row for

Rogers RT/duroid 5880 (tm)Rogers RT/duroid 5880 (tm)Rogers RT/duroid 5880 (tm)Rogers RT/duroid 5880 (tm)

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Create SubstrateCreate SubstrateCreate SubstrateCreate Substrate

To create the substrate:To create the substrate:To create the substrate:To create the substrate:

1. Select the menu item Draw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > Box

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box position

X: ----7.07.07.07.0, Y: ----4.54.54.54.5, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the box

dX: 12.012.012.012.0, dY: 9.09.09.09.0, dZ: 0.320.320.320.32, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: Sub1Sub1Sub1Sub1

3. Change the ColorColorColorColor to Light GrayLight GrayLight GrayLight Gray

4. Change the TrasparencyTrasparencyTrasparencyTrasparency to 0.60.60.60.6

5. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . . Or press the CTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+D key

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Create the FeedCreate the FeedCreate the FeedCreate the Feed

To create the feed:To create the feed:To create the feed:To create the feed:

1. Select the menu item Draw > RectangleDraw > RectangleDraw > RectangleDraw > Rectangle

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the rectangle position

X: ----5.05.05.05.0, Y: ----0.24750.24750.24750.2475, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the rectangle:

dX: 7.07.07.07.0, dY: 0.4950.4950.4950.495, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: FeedFeedFeedFeed

3. Change the ColorColorColorColor to Bright BlueBright BlueBright BlueBright Blue

4. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

Assign a Perfect E boundary to the FeedAssign a Perfect E boundary to the FeedAssign a Perfect E boundary to the FeedAssign a Perfect E boundary to the Feed

To select the feed:To select the feed:To select the feed:To select the feed:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: FeedFeedFeedFeed

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

To assign the Perfect E boundaryTo assign the Perfect E boundaryTo assign the Perfect E boundaryTo assign the Perfect E boundary

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Perfect EHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Perfect EHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Perfect EHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Perfect E

2. Perfect E Boundary window

1. Name: PerfE_FeedPerfE_FeedPerfE_FeedPerfE_Feed

2. Infinite Ground Plane: UncheckedUncheckedUncheckedUnchecked

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Create GroundCreate GroundCreate GroundCreate Ground

To create the ground:To create the ground:To create the ground:To create the ground:

1. Select the menu item Draw > RectangleDraw > RectangleDraw > RectangleDraw > Rectangle

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the rectangle position

X: ----7.07.07.07.0, Y: ----4.54.54.54.5, Z: 0.160.160.160.16, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the rectangle:

dX: 12.012.012.012.0, dY: 9.09.09.09.0, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: GroundGroundGroundGround

3. Change the ColorColorColorColor to RedRedRedRed

4. Change the TransparencyTransparencyTransparencyTransparency to 0.80.80.80.8

5. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

Assign a Perfect E boundary to the GroundAssign a Perfect E boundary to the GroundAssign a Perfect E boundary to the GroundAssign a Perfect E boundary to the Ground

To select the ground:To select the ground:To select the ground:To select the ground:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: GroundGroundGroundGround

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

To assign the Perfect E boundaryTo assign the Perfect E boundaryTo assign the Perfect E boundaryTo assign the Perfect E boundary

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Perfect EHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Perfect EHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Perfect EHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Perfect E

2. Perfect E Boundary window

1. Name: PerfE_GroundPerfE_GroundPerfE_GroundPerfE_Ground

2. Infinite Ground Plane: UncheckedUncheckedUncheckedUnchecked

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Create Slot Cut OutCreate Slot Cut OutCreate Slot Cut OutCreate Slot Cut Out

To create the cut out:To create the cut out:To create the cut out:To create the cut out:

1. Select the menu item Draw > RectangleDraw > RectangleDraw > RectangleDraw > Rectangle

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the rectangle position

X: ----0.07750.07750.07750.0775, Y: ----0.70.70.70.7, Z: 0.160.160.160.16, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the rectangle:

dX: 0.1550.1550.1550.155, dY: 1.41.41.41.4, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: SlotSlotSlotSlot

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View

Complete the GroundComplete the GroundComplete the GroundComplete the Ground

To select the objects ground & slotTo select the objects ground & slotTo select the objects ground & slotTo select the objects ground & slot

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: Ground, SlotGround, SlotGround, SlotGround, Slot

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

To perform the boolean subtraction:To perform the boolean subtraction:To perform the boolean subtraction:To perform the boolean subtraction:

1. Select the menu item Modeler > Boolean > Subtract Modeler > Boolean > Subtract Modeler > Boolean > Subtract Modeler > Boolean > Subtract

2. Subtract Window

Blank Parts: GroundGroundGroundGround

Tool Parts: SlotSlotSlotSlot

Clone tool objects before subtract: UncheckedUncheckedUncheckedUnchecked

Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Create PatchCreate PatchCreate PatchCreate Patch

To create the patch:To create the patch:To create the patch:To create the patch:

1. Select the menu item Draw > RectangleDraw > RectangleDraw > RectangleDraw > Rectangle

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the rectangle position

X: ----2.02.02.02.0, Y: ----1.51.51.51.5, Z: 0.320.320.320.32, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the rectangle:

dX: 4.04.04.04.0, dY: 3.03.03.03.0, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: PatchPatchPatchPatch

3. Change the ColorColorColorColor to OrangeOrangeOrangeOrange

4. Change the TransparencyTransparencyTransparencyTransparency to 0.40.40.40.4

5. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

Assign a Perfect E boundary to the TraceAssign a Perfect E boundary to the TraceAssign a Perfect E boundary to the TraceAssign a Perfect E boundary to the Trace

To select the patch:To select the patch:To select the patch:To select the patch:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: PatchPatchPatchPatch

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

To assign the Perfect E boundaryTo assign the Perfect E boundaryTo assign the Perfect E boundaryTo assign the Perfect E boundary

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Perfect EHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Perfect EHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Perfect EHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Perfect E

2. Perfect E Boundary window

1. Name: PerfE_PatchPerfE_PatchPerfE_PatchPerfE_Patch

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Set Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default MaterialTo set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:

1. Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose vacuum vacuum vacuum vacuum

Create AirCreate AirCreate AirCreate AirTo create the air:To create the air:To create the air:To create the air:

1. Select the menu item Draw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > Box

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box position

X: ----7.07.07.07.0, Y: ----4.54.54.54.5, Z: ----2.02.02.02.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the box

dX: 12.012.012.012.0, dY: 9.09.09.09.0, dZ: 4.324.324.324.32, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: AirAirAirAir

3. Change the ColorColorColorColor to BlackBlackBlackBlack

4. Change Display Wireframe Display Wireframe Display Wireframe Display Wireframe to CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

5. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View

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Create Radiation BoundaryCreate Radiation BoundaryCreate Radiation BoundaryCreate Radiation Boundary

Picking the faces:Picking the faces:Picking the faces:Picking the faces:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: AirAirAirAir

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

To create a radiation boundaryTo create a radiation boundaryTo create a radiation boundaryTo create a radiation boundary

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Boundaries > Assign > RadiationHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > RadiationHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > RadiationHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Radiation

2. Radiation Boundary window

1. Name: Rad1Rad1Rad1Rad1

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Create a Radiation SetupCreate a Radiation SetupCreate a Radiation SetupCreate a Radiation Setup

To define the radiation setupTo define the radiation setupTo define the radiation setupTo define the radiation setup

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Radiation > Insert Far Field Setup > Infinite HFSS > Radiation > Insert Far Field Setup > Infinite HFSS > Radiation > Insert Far Field Setup > Infinite HFSS > Radiation > Insert Far Field Setup > Infinite SphereSphereSphereSphere

2. Far Field Radiation Sphere Setup dialog

1. Select the Infinite SphereInfinite SphereInfinite SphereInfinite Sphere Tab

1. Name: ff_2dff_2dff_2dff_2d

2. Phi: (Start: 0, 0, 0, 0, Stop: 90, 90, 90, 90, Step Size: 90)90)90)90)

3. Theta: (Start: ----180, 180, 180, 180, Stop: 180, 180, 180, 180, Step Size: 2)2)2)2)

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Example – Slot Coupled Patch Antenna

Add Length Based Mesh Operation to the Radiation BoundaryAdd Length Based Mesh Operation to the Radiation BoundaryAdd Length Based Mesh Operation to the Radiation BoundaryAdd Length Based Mesh Operation to the Radiation Boundary

Far fields are calculated by integrating the fields on the radiaFar fields are calculated by integrating the fields on the radiaFar fields are calculated by integrating the fields on the radiaFar fields are calculated by integrating the fields on the radiation surface. To tion surface. To tion surface. To tion surface. To obtain accurate far fields for antenna problems, the integrationobtain accurate far fields for antenna problems, the integrationobtain accurate far fields for antenna problems, the integrationobtain accurate far fields for antenna problems, the integration surface should be surface should be surface should be surface should be

forced to have a forced to have a forced to have a forced to have a λλλλ/6 to /6 to /6 to /6 to λλλλ/8 maximum tetrahedra length./8 maximum tetrahedra length./8 maximum tetrahedra length./8 maximum tetrahedra length.

To create a length based seed on the radiation boundary:To create a length based seed on the radiation boundary:To create a length based seed on the radiation boundary:To create a length based seed on the radiation boundary:

1. Select the AirAirAirAir object by left clicking it in the drawing window

2. While the Air Air Air Air object is selected, move the mouse to the project tree and

right click on Mesh OperationsMesh OperationsMesh OperationsMesh Operations > > > > Assign Assign Assign Assign > > > > On Selection On Selection On Selection On Selection > > > > Length BasedLength BasedLength BasedLength Based

3. Name: LengthOnRadiationLengthOnRadiationLengthOnRadiationLengthOnRadiation

4. Maximum Length of Elements: 2cm 2cm 2cm 2cm (this is about λλλλ/6 /6 /6 /6 at 2.3GHz2.3GHz2.3GHz2.3GHz)

5. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Set Grid PlaneSet Grid PlaneSet Grid PlaneSet Grid Plane

To set the grid plane:To set the grid plane:To set the grid plane:To set the grid plane:

1. Select the menu item Modeler > Grid Plane > YZModeler > Grid Plane > YZModeler > Grid Plane > YZModeler > Grid Plane > YZ

Create SourceCreate SourceCreate SourceCreate Source

To create source:To create source:To create source:To create source:

1. Select the menu item Draw > RectangleDraw > RectangleDraw > RectangleDraw > Rectangle

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box position

X: ----5.05.05.05.0, Y: ----0.24750.24750.24750.2475, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the base rectangle:

dX: 0.00.00.00.0, dY: 0.4950.4950.4950.495, dZ: 0.160.160.160.16, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: SourceSourceSourceSource

3. Change the ColorColorColorColor to Bright GreenBright GreenBright GreenBright Green

4. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

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Assign ExcitationAssign ExcitationAssign ExcitationAssign Excitation

To select the object Source:To select the object Source:To select the object Source:To select the object Source:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: SourceSourceSourceSource

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

NoteNoteNoteNote: You can also select the object from the Model

Tree

To assign lumped port excitationTo assign lumped port excitationTo assign lumped port excitationTo assign lumped port excitation

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Excitations > Assign > Lumped PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Lumped PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Lumped PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Lumped Port

2. Place Feed Feed Feed Feed in the Conducting ObjectConducting ObjectConducting ObjectConducting Object list and GroundGroundGroundGround in the Reference Reference Reference Reference

Conductor Conductor Conductor Conductor list

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Rename the Lumped Port and TerminalRename the Lumped Port and TerminalRename the Lumped Port and TerminalRename the Lumped Port and Terminal

1. Double click on LumpPort1LumpPort1LumpPort1LumpPort1 under ExcitationsExcitationsExcitationsExcitations in the project tree.

2. Rename the port to p1p1p1p1

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

4. Double click on the terminal named Feed_T1Feed_T1Feed_T1Feed_T1

5. Rename the terminal to T1T1T1T1

6. Click the OK OK OK OK button

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Analysis Setup

Creating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis SetupTo create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupSetupSetupSetup

2. Solution Setup Window:

1. Click the GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneral tab::::

Solution Frequency: 2.25 GHz: 2.25 GHz: 2.25 GHz: 2.25 GHz

Maximum Number of Passes: 20202020

Maximum Delta S: 0.020.020.020.02

2. Click the OptionsOptionsOptionsOptions tab:

Enable Iterative Solver: CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Adding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency SweepTo add a frequency sweep:To add a frequency sweep:To add a frequency sweep:To add a frequency sweep:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Frequency HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Frequency HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Frequency HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Frequency SweepSweepSweepSweep

1. Select Solution Setup: Setup1 Setup1 Setup1 Setup1

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

2. Edit Sweep Window:

1. Sweep Type: Fast: Fast: Fast: Fast

2. Frequency Setup Type: Linear Count: Linear Count: Linear Count: Linear Count

Start: 1.0GHz1.0GHz1.0GHz1.0GHz

Stop: 3.5GHz: 3.5GHz: 3.5GHz: 3.5GHz

Count: 201: 201: 201: 201

Save Fields: CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Save ProjectSave ProjectSave ProjectSave Project

To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:

1. In an Ansoft HFSS window, select the menu item File > Save AsFile > Save AsFile > Save AsFile > Save As.

2. From the Save As Save As Save As Save As window, type the Filename: hfss_slotpatchhfss_slotpatchhfss_slotpatchhfss_slotpatch

3. Click the SaveSaveSaveSave button

Model ValidationModel ValidationModel ValidationModel Validation

To validate the model:To validate the model:To validate the model:To validate the model:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation Check

2. Click the Close Close Close Close button

Note:Note:Note:Note: To view any errors or warning messages, use the Message

Manager.

AnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyze

To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analyze AllHFSS > Analyze AllHFSS > Analyze AllHFSS > Analyze All

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Solution DataSolution DataSolution DataSolution Data

To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution Data

To view the Profile:To view the Profile:To view the Profile:To view the Profile:

1. Click the ProfileProfileProfileProfile Tab.

To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:

1. Click the ConvergenceConvergenceConvergenceConvergence Tab

Note: Note: Note: Note: The default view is for convergence is TableTableTableTable. Select

the PlotPlotPlotPlot radio button to view a graphical representations of

the convergence data.

To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:

1. Click the Matrix DataMatrix DataMatrix DataMatrix Data Tab

Note: Note: Note: Note: To view a real-time update of the Matrix Data, set the

Simulation to Setup1, Last AdaptiveSetup1, Last AdaptiveSetup1, Last AdaptiveSetup1, Last Adaptive

To view the Mesh Statistics:To view the Mesh Statistics:To view the Mesh Statistics:To view the Mesh Statistics:

1. Click the Mesh StatisticsMesh StatisticsMesh StatisticsMesh Statistics Tab.

2. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

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Example – Slot Coupled Patch Antenna

Create Reports

Create Terminal SCreate Terminal SCreate Terminal SCreate Terminal S----Parameter Plot Parameter Plot Parameter Plot Parameter Plot ---- MagnitudeMagnitudeMagnitudeMagnitude

To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data Report > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular Plot

2. Traces Window::::

1. Solution: Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1

2. Domain: SweepSweepSweepSweep

3. Category: Terminal S ParameterTerminal S ParameterTerminal S ParameterTerminal S Parameter

4. Quantity: St(T1,T1), St(T1,T1), St(T1,T1), St(T1,T1),

5. Function: dBdBdBdB

6. Click the New ReportNew ReportNew ReportNew Report button

7. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

3. Add a minimum marker to the trace

1. Select the trace by left clicking on it

2. Go to Report2D Report2D Report2D Report2D > > > > Marker Marker Marker Marker > > > > Add MinimumAdd MinimumAdd MinimumAdd Minimum

1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50Freq [GHz]

-12.00

-10.00

-8.00

-6.00

-4.00

-2.00

0.00

dB(S

t(p

1,p

1))

Ansoft Corporation HFSSModel1XY Plot 1

m1

Curve Info

dB(St(p1,p1))Setup1 : Sweep1

Name X Y

m1 2.2875 -10.1263

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Far Field Overlays

Create Far Field OverlayCreate Far Field OverlayCreate Far Field OverlayCreate Far Field Overlay

To create a 2D polar far field plot :To create a 2D polar far field plot :To create a 2D polar far field plot :To create a 2D polar far field plot :

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Far Fields Report > HFSS > Results > Create Far Fields Report > HFSS > Results > Create Far Fields Report > HFSS > Results > Create Far Fields Report > Radiation PatternRadiation PatternRadiation PatternRadiation Pattern

2. Traces Window::::

1. Solution: Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1

2. Geometry: ff_2dff_2dff_2dff_2d

3. In the FamiliesFamiliesFamiliesFamilies tab, change the frequency to 2.2875GHz2.2875GHz2.2875GHz2.2875GHz

4. In the Trace tabTrace tabTrace tabTrace tab

1. Category: GainGainGainGain

2. Quantity: GainPhi, GainThetaGainPhi, GainThetaGainPhi, GainThetaGainPhi, GainTheta

3. Function: dBdBdBdB

5. Click the New ReportNew ReportNew ReportNew Report button

6. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

-60.00

-40.00

-20.00

0.00

90

60

30

0

-30

-60

-90

-120

-150

-180

150

120

Ansoft Corporation HFSSModel1Radiation Pattern 1Curve Info

dB(GainPhi)Setup1 : Sweep1Freq='2.2875GHz' Phi='0deg'

dB(GainPhi)Setup1 : Sweep1Freq='2.2875GHz' Phi='90deg'

dB(GainTheta)Setup1 : Sweep1Freq='2.2875GHz' Phi='0deg'

dB(GainTheta)Setup1 : Sweep1Freq='2.2875GHz' Phi='90deg'

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Example – Waveguide Array Example

The Waveguide ArrayThis example is intended to show you how to create, simulate, and analyze a

Waveguide array antenna using the Ansoft HFSS Design Environment

A WavePort will be used for the waveguide feed excitation

A Floquet Port will be used for the phased array’s free space excitation and termination

Master/Slave boundary conditions will be used to create the array’s unit cell

Reference:

[1] N. Amitay, V. Galindo and C. Wu, “Theory and Analysis of Phased Array Antennas”, Wiley-Interscience, 1972, ISBN 0-471-02553-4, section5.2.1.

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Design ReviewInstead of modeling the entire array, we will make use of the master/slave

boundaries and only model a unit cell.

A Floquet Port will be used to excite and terminate the model from free space.

This port works in conjunction with the Master/Slave boundaries to enforce the

array’s periodicity and allow for a changing scan angle.

Ansoft HFSS Design EnvironmentThe following features of the Ansoft HFSS Design Environment are used to create this passive device model

3D Solid Modeling

Primitives: Box

Boundaries/Excitations

Ports: Wave Ports, Floquet Ports

Boundaries: Master/Slave

Analysis

Sweep: Interpolating

Results

Cartesian plotting

Optimetrics

Parametric sweep

Example – Waveguide Array Example

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Example – Waveguide Array Example

Launching Ansoft HFSSTo access Ansoft HFSS, click the Microsoft Start button, select Programs, and

select the Ansoft > HFSS 11 program group. Click HFSS 11

Setting Tool OptionsTo set the tool options:

Note: In order to follow the steps outlined in this example, verify that the

following tool options are set :

Select the menu item Tools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS Options

HFSS Options Window:

Click the GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneral tab

Use Wizards for data entry when creating new boundaries:

CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

Duplicate boundaries with geometry: CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

Click the OKOKOKOK button

Select the menu item Tools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler Options.

3D Modeler Options Window:

Click the OperationOperationOperationOperation tab

Automatically cover closed polylines: CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

Click the DrawingDrawingDrawingDrawing tab

Edit properties of new primitives: CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Example – Waveguide Array Example

Opening a New ProjectTo open a new project:

When Ansoft HFSS opens it should automatically open a new project.

Set Solution TypeTo set the solution type:

Select the menu item HFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution Type

Solution Type Window:

Choose Driven ModalDriven ModalDriven ModalDriven Modal

Click the OKOKOKOK button

Creating the 3D Model

Set Model UnitsTo set the units:

Select the menu item Modeler > UnitsModeler > UnitsModeler > UnitsModeler > Units

Set Model Units:

Select Units: inininin

Click the OKOKOKOK button

Set Default MaterialTo set the default material:

Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, make sure that vacuumvacuumvacuumvacuum is the

default material

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Example – Waveguide Array Example

Create WaveguideTo create the waveguide:

Select the menu item Draw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > Box

Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box position

X: ----12.2812.2812.2812.28, Y: ----12.2812.2812.2812.28, Z: ----55555555, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the box

dX: 24.5624.5624.5624.56, dY: 24.56: 24.56: 24.56: 24.56, dZ: 55555555, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:

Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the Properties window.

For the Value of NameNameNameName type: waveguidewaveguidewaveguidewaveguide

Click on the Value of TransparentTransparentTransparentTransparent and change the Value to 0.80.80.80.8

Click the OKOKOKOK button to accept the transparency changes

Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:

Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active View View > Fit All > Active View View > Fit All > Active View View > Fit All > Active View or press the CTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+D

keys

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Example – Waveguide Array Example

Create AirboxTo create the airbox:

Select the menu item Draw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > Box

Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box position

X: ----13.24613.24613.24613.246, Y: ----13.24613.24613.24613.246, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the box

dX: 26.49226.49226.49226.492, dY: 26.49226.49226.49226.492, dZ: 55.055.055.055.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:

Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the Properties window.

For the Value of NameNameNameName type: AirboxAirboxAirboxAirbox

Click on the Value of TransparentTransparentTransparentTransparent and change the Value to 0.80.80.80.8

Click the OKOKOKOK button to accept the transparency changes

Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:

Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View or press the CTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+D

keys

To deselect all object:

Select the menu item Edit > Deselect AllEdit > Deselect AllEdit > Deselect AllEdit > Deselect All

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Example – Waveguide Array Example

Create First Master BoundaryTo select the Master boundary face

Select the menu item Edit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > Faces

Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

Select Face dialog: Select the object AirboxAirboxAirboxAirbox from the left column

SelectSelectSelectSelect different FaceIDsFaceIDsFaceIDsFaceIDs until the side face located on the

positive xpositive xpositive xpositive x----axis axis axis axis of the AirboxAirboxAirboxAirbox is highlighted.

Click the OKOKOKOK button

To create the Master Boundary

Select the menu item HFSS > Boundaries > Assign > MasterHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > MasterHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > MasterHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Master

Complete Master Boundary dialog window

Name: Master1Master1Master1Master1

Coordinate System: U VectorU VectorU VectorU Vector: Click the UndefinedUndefinedUndefinedUndefined pulldown and

selectselectselectselect New VectorNew VectorNew VectorNew Vector.

Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the start position

X:13.24613.24613.24613.246, Y: ----13.24613.24613.24613.246, Z:0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the stop position of the

vector

dX: 0000, dY: 26.49226.49226.49226.492, dZ: 0000, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

For the V vectorV vectorV vectorV vector, check the Reverse Direction: Reverse Direction: Reverse Direction: Reverse Direction: CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Create Second Master BoundaryTo select the Master boundary face

Select the menu item Edit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > Faces

Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

Select Face dialog: Select the object AirboxAirboxAirboxAirbox from the left column

SelectSelectSelectSelect different FaceIDFaceIDFaceIDFaceIDs until the side face located on the

positive ypositive ypositive ypositive y----axis axis axis axis of the AirboxAirboxAirboxAirbox is highlighted.

Click the OKOKOKOK button

To create the Master Boundary

Select the menu item HFSS > Boundaries > Assign > MasterHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > MasterHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > MasterHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Master

Complete Master Boundary dialog window

Name: Master2Master2Master2Master2

Coordinate System: U VectoU VectoU VectoU Vector: click the UndefinedUndefinedUndefinedUndefined pulldown and

select New Vectorselect New Vectorselect New Vectorselect New Vector.

Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the start position

X:13.24613.24613.24613.246, Y: 13.24613.24613.24613.246, Z:0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the stop position of the

vector

dX: ----26.49226.49226.49226.492, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

For the V vectorV vectorV vectorV vector, check the Reverse Direction: Reverse Direction: Reverse Direction: Reverse Direction: CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Example – Waveguide Array Example

Create First Slave BoundaryTo select the Slave boundary face

Select the menu item Edit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > Faces

Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

Select Face dialog: Select the object AirboxAirboxAirboxAirbox from the left column

SelectSelectSelectSelect different FaceIDFaceIDFaceIDFaceIDs until the side face located on the

negative xnegative xnegative xnegative x----axis axis axis axis of the AirboxAirboxAirboxAirbox is highlighted.

Click the OKOKOKOK button

To create the Slave Boundary

Select the menu item HFSS > Boundaries > Assign > SlaveHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > SlaveHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > SlaveHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Slave

Complete General Data Tab

Name: Slave1Slave1Slave1Slave1

Master Boundary: click on UndefinedUndefinedUndefinedUndefined pulldown and select: Master1Master1Master1Master1

Coordinate System: U VectoU VectoU VectoU Vector: click the UndefinedUndefinedUndefinedUndefined pulldown and

select New Vectorselect New Vectorselect New Vectorselect New Vector.

Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the start position

X: ----13.24613.24613.24613.246, Y: ----13.24613.24613.24613.246, Z:0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the stop position of the

vector

dX: 0.00.00.00.0, dY: 26.49226.49226.49226.492, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

Click the NextNextNextNext button

Continued on next page

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Example – Waveguide Array Example

To create the Slave Boundary (Continued)

Complete Phase Delay Tab

Make sure that Use Scan Angles To Calculate Phase DelayUse Scan Angles To Calculate Phase DelayUse Scan Angles To Calculate Phase DelayUse Scan Angles To Calculate Phase Delay is checked

For PhiPhiPhiPhi, enter a variable name phi_scanphi_scanphi_scanphi_scan

For ThetaThetaThetaTheta, enter a variable name theta_scantheta_scantheta_scantheta_scan

Click the FinishFinishFinishFinish button

For the Add VariableAdd VariableAdd VariableAdd Variable dialog corresponding to phi_scanphi_scanphi_scanphi_scan,

Enter 90deg90deg90deg90deg

Click the OK OK OK OK button

For the Add VariableAdd VariableAdd VariableAdd Variable dialog corresponding to theta_scantheta_scantheta_scantheta_scan,

Enter 0deg0deg0deg0deg

Click the OKOKOKOK button

Create Second Slave BoundaryTo select the Slave boundary face

Select the menu item Edit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > Faces

Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

Select Face dialog: Select the object AirboxAirboxAirboxAirbox from the left column

SelectSelectSelectSelect different FaceIDFaceIDFaceIDFaceIDs until the side face located on the negative negative negative negative yyyy----axis axis axis axis of the AirboxAirboxAirboxAirbox is highlighted.

Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Example – Waveguide Array Example

Create Second Slave Boundary (continued)To create Slave boundary

Select the menu item HFSS > Boundaries > Assign > SlaveHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > SlaveHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > SlaveHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Slave

Complete General Data Tab

Name: Slave2Slave2Slave2Slave2

Master Boundary: click on UndefinedUndefinedUndefinedUndefined pulldown and select: Master2Master2Master2Master2

Coordinate System: U VectorU VectorU VectorU Vector: click the UndefinedUndefinedUndefinedUndefined pulldown and

select New Vector.New Vector.New Vector.New Vector.

Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the start position

X: 13.24613.24613.24613.246, Y: : : : ----13.24613.24613.24613.246, Z: 0.0, Press the Enter key

Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the stop position of the

vector

dX: ----26.49226.49226.49226.492, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the Enter key

Click the NextNextNextNext button

Complete Phase Delay Tab

Make sure that Use Scan Angles To Calculate Phase DelayUse Scan Angles To Calculate Phase DelayUse Scan Angles To Calculate Phase DelayUse Scan Angles To Calculate Phase Delay is

checked

For PhiPhiPhiPhi, enter a variable name phi_scanphi_scanphi_scanphi_scan

For ThetaThetaThetaTheta, enter a variable name theta_scantheta_scantheta_scantheta_scan

Click the FinishFinishFinishFinish button

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Example – Waveguide Array Example

Create WavePortTo select the Waveport face

Select the menu item Edit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > Faces

Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

Select the object waveguidewaveguidewaveguidewaveguide from the left column

SelectSelectSelectSelect different FaceIDFaceIDFaceIDFaceIDs until the bottom bottom bottom bottom face of the

waveguidewaveguidewaveguidewaveguide is highlighted.

Click the OKOKOKOK button

To create WavePort:

Select the menu item HFSS > Excitation > Assign > WavePortHFSS > Excitation > Assign > WavePortHFSS > Excitation > Assign > WavePortHFSS > Excitation > Assign > WavePort

Complete the General Tab

Name: p1p1p1p1

Click NextNextNextNext

Complete the Modes Tab

Number of Modes: 2222

Mode 1Mode 1Mode 1Mode 1: click on the NoneNoneNoneNone pulldown located under the Integration Integration Integration Integration

Line Column Line Column Line Column Line Column and select New LineNew LineNew LineNew Line

Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the start position

X: ----12.2812.2812.2812.28, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: ----55.055.055.055.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the stop position of the

vector

dX: 24.5624.5624.5624.56, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

Continued on next page

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Example – Waveguide Array Example

To create WavePort (continued):

Complete Mode Tab (continued)

Mode 2: click on the NoneNoneNoneNone pulldown located under the Integration Integration Integration Integration Line Column Line Column Line Column Line Column and select New LineNew LineNew LineNew Line

Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the start position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: ----12.2812.2812.2812.28, Z: ----55555555, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the stop position of the vector

dX:0.00.00.00.0, dY: 24.5624.5624.5624.56, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

Polarize E Field: CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

Checking Polarize E Field will cause HFSS to use the analytical waveguide mode solutions to properly polarize the

electric field in the port. The analytical solution is only

invoked for canonical waveguide structures like rectangular

waveguide, circular waveguide and coaxial waveguide. For

all other port geometries HFSS will enforce the polarization with out the analytical solution. HFSS still performs a

numerical solution of the port’s modes, but will orient the field

polarizations through its knowledge of the analytical solution.

Click the NextNextNextNext button

Complete the Post Processing Tab

Click FinishFinishFinishFinish

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Example – Waveguide Array Example

Create FloquetPortTo select the FloquetPort face

Select the menu item Edit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > Faces

Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

Select the object AirboxAirboxAirboxAirbox from the left column

SelectSelectSelectSelect different FaceIDFaceIDFaceIDFaceIDs until the toptoptoptop face of the AirBoxAirBoxAirBoxAirBox is

highlighted.

Click the OKOKOKOK button

To create FloquetPort:

Select the menu item HFSS > Excitation > Assign > Floquet PortHFSS > Excitation > Assign > Floquet PortHFSS > Excitation > Assign > Floquet PortHFSS > Excitation > Assign > Floquet Port

Complete the General Tab

Name: FP1FP1FP1FP1

A Direction Lattice Coordinate: clickclickclickclick on the Undefined Undefined Undefined Undefined pulldown

located and select New VectorNew VectorNew VectorNew Vector

Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the start position

X: ----13.24613.24613.24613.246, Y: ----13.24613.24613.24613.246, Z: 55555555, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the stop position of the

vector

dX: 26.49226.49226.49226.492, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

B Direction Lattice Coordinate: clickclickclickclick on the UndefinedUndefinedUndefinedUndefined pulldown

located and select New VectorNew VectorNew VectorNew Vector

Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the start position

X: ----13.24613.24613.24613.246, Y: ----13.24613.24613.24613.246, Z: 55555555, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the stop position of the

vector

dX:0.00.00.00.0, dY: 26.49226.49226.49226.492, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

Click Next Next Next Next

Continued on next page

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Example – Waveguide Array Example

To create FloquetPort (continued):

Complete Phase Delay Tab

Make sure that Use Scan Angles To Calculate Phase DelayUse Scan Angles To Calculate Phase DelayUse Scan Angles To Calculate Phase DelayUse Scan Angles To Calculate Phase Delay is checked

For PhiPhiPhiPhi, enter a variable name phi_scanphi_scanphi_scanphi_scan

For ThetaThetaThetaTheta, enter a variable name theta_scantheta_scantheta_scantheta_scan

Click the NextNextNextNext button

Click the Modes Calculator Modes Calculator Modes Calculator Modes Calculator button

Complete the Modes Setup Tab

Number of Modes: 10101010

Frequency: 299.79 MHz299.79 MHz299.79 MHz299.79 MHz

Make sure that Use Scan Angles To Calculate Phase DelayUse Scan Angles To Calculate Phase DelayUse Scan Angles To Calculate Phase DelayUse Scan Angles To Calculate Phase Delay is

checked

Phi: 90 deg90 deg90 deg90 deg

Theta: 90 deg90 deg90 deg90 deg

Click the OKOKOKOK button

•HFSS has a Modes Calculator to help determine the number of modes that should

be included in the Floquet Port. Any mode that is not defined in the Modes Setup Tab will be short circuited at the port and reflected back toward the array. For

accurate results all modes that have a significant amount of energy at the port

must be included in the Modes Setup Tab.

• The Floquet Mode calculator is going to request the number of modes that should

be evaluated, a frequency and a scan angle to calculate each mode’s attenuation constant. The modes with the least attenuation are going to occur at the highest

simulation frequency and at locations in the scan volume that are close to grating

lobes. Therefore, we are going to set these conditions in the Modes Calculator to

determine the attenuation in dB/length for each mode. We will then restrict the number of modes to only include the modes with a significant contribution to the

array’s performance

•HFSS has a Modes Calculator to help determine the number of modes that should

be included in the Floquet Port. Any mode that is not defined in the Modes Setup Tab will be short circuited at the port and reflected back toward the array. For

accurate results all modes that have a significant amount of energy at the port

must be included in the Modes Setup Tab.

• The Floquet Mode calculator is going to request the number of modes that should

be evaluated, a frequency and a scan angle to calculate each mode’s attenuation constant. The modes with the least attenuation are going to occur at the highest

simulation frequency and at locations in the scan volume that are close to grating

lobes. Therefore, we are going to set these conditions in the Modes Calculator to

determine the attenuation in dB/length for each mode. We will then restrict the number of modes to only include the modes with a significant contribution to the

array’s performance

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•Notice that the first 4 modes have an attenuation of 0.00 dB/length. This indicates that they

are propagating modes. The TE00 and TM00 modes correspond to the main beams of the x

and y polarized patterns. respectively. The TE0-1 and TM0-1 modes correspond to the

grating lobes of x and y polarized patterns.

•Modes 5 through 10 have attenuation of 1.67 dB/length or 2.06 dB/length depending the

mode. The length portion of this attenuation is calculated in the model’s unit (inches for this

example). To calculate a mode’s total attenuation from the array to the Floquet Port, the attenuation value displayed in the Modes Setup Tab needs to be multiplied by the distance

between the array face and the Floquet Port.

•For this example this distance is 55in. Therefore the TE-1-1 mode experiences 1.67*55 = 91.85dB of attenuation as it propagates from the array face to the Floquet Port.

•Likewise the TE10 mode experience 2.06*55 = 113.3dB of attenuation across this same

distance.

•It therefore is safe to only include the first 4 modes in the Floquet Port definition.

•Notice that the first 4 modes have an attenuation of 0.00 dB/length. This indicates that they

are propagating modes. The TE00 and TM00 modes correspond to the main beams of the x

and y polarized patterns. respectively. The TE0-1 and TM0-1 modes correspond to the

grating lobes of x and y polarized patterns.

•Modes 5 through 10 have attenuation of 1.67 dB/length or 2.06 dB/length depending the

mode. The length portion of this attenuation is calculated in the model’s unit (inches for this

example). To calculate a mode’s total attenuation from the array to the Floquet Port, the attenuation value displayed in the Modes Setup Tab needs to be multiplied by the distance

between the array face and the Floquet Port.

•For this example this distance is 55in. Therefore the TE-1-1 mode experiences 1.67*55 = 91.85dB of attenuation as it propagates from the array face to the Floquet Port.

•Likewise the TE10 mode experience 2.06*55 = 113.3dB of attenuation across this same

distance.

•It therefore is safe to only include the first 4 modes in the Floquet Port definition.

Example – Waveguide Array Example

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Example – Waveguide Array Example

To create FloquetPort (continued):

Change the Number of ModesNumber of ModesNumber of ModesNumber of Modes: 4444

Click the NextNextNextNext button

Complete the 3D Refinement Tab

Click the NextNextNextNext button

Complete the Post Processing Tab

Click the FinishFinishFinishFinish button

•For this example we only included the modes that propagate at the highest simulated

frequency for the largest scan angle in the plane corresponding the closest grating lobe. Although these modes are propagating for this instance, they may not be

propagating for other cases where the frequency is lower or the scan angle as

extreme. The cases where any of these modes are heavily attenuated can cause an

unusually dense mesh concentrated at the port. This will significantly decrease the

simulation efficiency and in many phased array cases there is more interest in terminating these modes than exciting them. To improve the simulation’s efficiency

HFSS allows you to determine which Floquet Modes are excited for the purposes of

refining the mesh during the adaptive meshing process. Which modes affect the

adaptive meshing process is controlled by checking the box under the Affects

Refinement column on the 3D Refinement Tab. This exercise is only interested in exciting the problem from the waveguide side. Therefore none of the Floquet Modes

are going to be excited in the adaptive mesh refinement

•For this example we only included the modes that propagate at the highest simulated

frequency for the largest scan angle in the plane corresponding the closest grating lobe. Although these modes are propagating for this instance, they may not be

propagating for other cases where the frequency is lower or the scan angle as

extreme. The cases where any of these modes are heavily attenuated can cause an

unusually dense mesh concentrated at the port. This will significantly decrease the

simulation efficiency and in many phased array cases there is more interest in terminating these modes than exciting them. To improve the simulation’s efficiency

HFSS allows you to determine which Floquet Modes are excited for the purposes of

refining the mesh during the adaptive meshing process. Which modes affect the

adaptive meshing process is controlled by checking the box under the Affects

Refinement column on the 3D Refinement Tab. This exercise is only interested in exciting the problem from the waveguide side. Therefore none of the Floquet Modes

are going to be excited in the adaptive mesh refinement

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Example – Waveguide Array Example

Creating an Analysis SetupTo create an analysis setup:

Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup

Solution Setup Window:

Click the GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneral tab:

Solution Frequency: 299.79 MHz299.79 MHz299.79 MHz299.79 MHz

Maximum Number of Passes: 6666

Maximum Delta S: 0.020.020.020.02

Click the OptionsOptionsOptionsOptions tab:

Minimum Number of Passes: 5555

Click the OKOKOKOK button

Creating a Frequency Sweep:To create an analysis setup:

Select the menu item HFSS> Analysis Setup > Add Frequency SweepHFSS> Analysis Setup > Add Frequency SweepHFSS> Analysis Setup > Add Frequency SweepHFSS> Analysis Setup > Add Frequency Sweep

Choose Setup1Setup1Setup1Setup1 from pop-up window and click the OKOKOKOK button

Edit Sweep Window

Sweep Type: InterpolatingInterpolatingInterpolatingInterpolating

Frequency Setup Type: LinearStepLinearStepLinearStepLinearStep

Start: 200MHz200MHz200MHz200MHz

Stop: 300MHz300MHz300MHz300MHz

Step: 0.1MHz0.1MHz0.1MHz0.1MHz

Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Example – Waveguide Array Example

Save ProjectTo save the project:

1. In an Ansoft HFSS window, select the menu item File > Save AsFile > Save AsFile > Save AsFile > Save As.

2. From the Save As Save As Save As Save As window, type the Filename: hfss_arrayhfss_arrayhfss_arrayhfss_array

3. Click the SaveSaveSaveSave button

Analyze

Model ValidationTo validate the model:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation Check

2. Click the Close Close Close Close button

Note:Note:Note:Note: To view any errors or warning messages, use the Message Manager.

AnalyzeTo start the solution process:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analyze AllHFSS > Analyze AllHFSS > Analyze AllHFSS > Analyze All

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Example – Waveguide Array Example

Solution DataTo view the Solution Data:

Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution Data

To view the Profile:

Click the ProfileProfileProfileProfile Tab.

To view the Convergence:

Click the ConvergenceConvergenceConvergenceConvergence Tab

NoteNoteNoteNote: The default view for convergence is Table. Select the

Plot radio button to view a graphical representations of the convergence data.

To view the Matrix Data:

Click the Matrix Data Matrix Data Matrix Data Matrix Data Tab

NoteNoteNoteNote: To view a real-time update of the Matrix Data, set the

Simulation to Setup1, Last Adaptive during solution.

Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button when done viewing or simulation

complete.

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Example – Waveguide Array Example

Create Floquet Mode Plot vs FrequencyTo create a Rectangular plot :

Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data Report > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular Plot

New Report – New Traces Window:

Solution: Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1

Category: SSSS----ParameterParameterParameterParameter

Quantity: S(FP1:3,P1:1), S(FP1:4,P1:1), S(P1:1,P1:1)S(FP1:3,P1:1), S(FP1:4,P1:1), S(P1:1,P1:1)S(FP1:3,P1:1), S(FP1:4,P1:1), S(P1:1,P1:1)S(FP1:3,P1:1), S(FP1:4,P1:1), S(P1:1,P1:1)

Function: dBdBdBdB

Click the New Report New Report New Report New Report button

Click the Close button

•This plot shows how the X-Polarized Waveguide mode couples into the TE00 and TM00

modes at boresight as frequency is swept from 200MHz to 300MHz.

•Notice that just above 240MHz the return loss spikes to 0dB and the coupling to both the TE00

and TM00 modes show a sharp discontinuity. This is caused by the TE10 waveguide mode

transitioning out from being cutoff.

•This plot shows how the X-Polarized Waveguide mode couples into the TE00 and TM00

modes at boresight as frequency is swept from 200MHz to 300MHz.

•Notice that just above 240MHz the return loss spikes to 0dB and the coupling to both the TE00

and TM00 modes show a sharp discontinuity. This is caused by the TE10 waveguide mode

transitioning out from being cutoff.

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Example – Waveguide Array Example

Optimetrics SetupFor this array design, we want to see the effect of scan angle on the input match

of the antenna. To do this, we must sweep the scan angle with a parametric

sweep.

Add a Second Solution SetupCreate an analysis setup:

Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup

Solution Setup Window:

Click the General tab:

Setup Name: Setup2Setup2Setup2Setup2

Solution Frequency: 299.79 MHz299.79 MHz299.79 MHz299.79 MHz

Maximum Number of Passes: 6666

Maximum Delta S: 0.020.020.020.02

Click the Options tab:

Minimum Number of Passes: 2222

Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Example – Waveguide Array Example

Add a Parametric SweepTo create a parametric setup

Select the menu item HFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Add ParametricHFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Add ParametricHFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Add ParametricHFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Add Parametric

Setup Sweep Analysis Window:

Click the Sweep Definitions tab:

Click the AddAddAddAdd button

Add/Edit Sweep Dialog

Select Variable: theta_scan theta_scan theta_scan theta_scan

Select Linear StepLinear StepLinear StepLinear Step

Start: 0deg0deg0deg0deg

Stop: 90deg90deg90deg90deg

Step: 10deg10deg10deg10deg

Click the Add >>Add >>Add >>Add >> button

Click the OKOKOKOK button

Click the OKOKOKOK button

Click the General General General General tab:

Uncheck Setup1 IncludeSetup1 IncludeSetup1 IncludeSetup1 Include

Click the OptionsOptionsOptionsOptions tab:

Check Save Fields and MeshesSave Fields and MeshesSave Fields and MeshesSave Fields and Meshes

Check Copy geometrically equivalent meshesCopy geometrically equivalent meshesCopy geometrically equivalent meshesCopy geometrically equivalent meshes

Click OKOKOKOK to accept the Parametric Sweep settings

Note: The plots shown for the parametric sweep contain

an additional sweep for theta_scan to improve the plot

resolution:

•Type: Linear Step

•Start: 27.1deg

•Stop: 27.9deg

•Step: 0.1deg

Note: The plots shown for the parametric sweep contain

an additional sweep for theta_scan to improve the plot

resolution:

•Type: Linear Step

•Start: 27.1deg

•Stop: 27.9deg

•Step: 0.1deg

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Example – Waveguide Array Example

Save ProjectTo save the project:

In an Ansoft HFSS window, select the menu item File > SaveFile > SaveFile > SaveFile > Save

Analyze Parametric SweepTo start the solution process:

Expand the Project Tree to display the items listed under Optimetrics

Right-click the mouse on ParametricSetup1 ParametricSetup1 ParametricSetup1 ParametricSetup1 and choose Analyze Analyze Analyze Analyze

Optimetrics ResultsTo view the Optimetrics Results:

Select the menu item HFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Optimetrics ResultsHFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Optimetrics ResultsHFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Optimetrics ResultsHFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Optimetrics Results

Select the Profile Tab to view the solution progress for each setup.

Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button when you are finished viewing the results

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Example – Waveguide Array Example

Create Propagation Constant PlotTo create a report:

Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data Report > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular Plot

Traces Window:

Solution: Setup2: LastAdaptiveSetup2: LastAdaptiveSetup2: LastAdaptiveSetup2: LastAdaptive

XXXX: Switch to theta_scantheta_scantheta_scantheta_scan

Category: GammaGammaGammaGamma

Quantity: Select All QuantitiesSelect All QuantitiesSelect All QuantitiesSelect All Quantities

Function: ImImImIm

Click the New Report New Report New Report New Report button

Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

•Notice that Floquet Modes 1 and 2 do not start propagating until the array is scanned to 29deg.

These mode are the TE0-1 and TM0-1 modes respectively and represent the grating lobes

associated with the E-phi and E-theta patterns respectively. The main beams (TE00 and

TM00) are the 3rd and 4th Floquet Modes. These modes propagate to the edge of real space.

•Notice that Floquet Modes 1 and 2 do not start propagating until the array is scanned to 29deg.

These mode are the TE0-1 and TM0-1 modes respectively and represent the grating lobes

associated with the E-phi and E-theta patterns respectively. The main beams (TE00 and

TM00) are the 3rd and 4th Floquet Modes. These modes propagate to the edge of real space.

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Example – Waveguide Array Example

Create S-Parameter PlotTo create a report:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data Report > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular Plot

2. Traces Window::::

1. Solution: Setup2: LastAdaptiveSetup2: LastAdaptiveSetup2: LastAdaptiveSetup2: LastAdaptive

2. X: Switch to theta_scantheta_scantheta_scantheta_scan

3. Category: S ParameterS ParameterS ParameterS Parameter

4. Quantity: S(FP1:2,p1:2), S(FP1:4,p1:2), S(p1:2,p1:2)S(FP1:2,p1:2), S(FP1:4,p1:2), S(p1:2,p1:2)S(FP1:2,p1:2), S(FP1:4,p1:2), S(p1:2,p1:2)S(FP1:2,p1:2), S(FP1:4,p1:2), S(p1:2,p1:2)

5. Function: magmagmagmag

6. Click the New ReportNew ReportNew ReportNew Report button

7. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

•Notice the transmission for the 1st Floquet Mode is not significant until just below 30deg scan.

This mode corresponds to the TM0-1 mode which doesn’t propagate until 29deg scan. At this

same scan angle a scan blindness is observed in the return loss and the transmission for the

4th Floquet Mode (TM00) drops sharply.

•Notice the transmission for the 1st Floquet Mode is not significant until just below 30deg scan.

This mode corresponds to the TM0-1 mode which doesn’t propagate until 29deg scan. At this

same scan angle a scan blindness is observed in the return loss and the transmission for the

4th Floquet Mode (TM00) drops sharply.

0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00theta_scan [deg]

0.00

0.10

0.20

0.30

0.40

0.50

0.60

0.70

0.80

0.90

1.00

Y1

Ansoft Corporation HFSSDesign1XY Plot 5Curve Info

mag(S(FP1:2,p1:1))Setup2 : LastAdaptiveFreq='0.29979GHz'

mag(S(FP1:4,p1:1))Setup2 : LastAdaptiveFreq='0.29979GHz'

mag(S(p1:1,p1:1))Setup2 : LastAdaptiveFreq='0.29979GHz'

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Example – Waveguide Array Example

Create Active Element PatternTo create a report:

Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data Report > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular Plot

Traces Window:

Solution: Setup2: LastAdaptiveSetup2: LastAdaptiveSetup2: LastAdaptiveSetup2: LastAdaptive

X: Switch to theta_scantheta_scantheta_scantheta_scan

Y:

10*log(4*pi*701.8/39.361^2*mag(S(p1:2,FP1:4))^2*cos(theta_scan))10*log(4*pi*701.8/39.361^2*mag(S(p1:2,FP1:4))^2*cos(theta_scan))10*log(4*pi*701.8/39.361^2*mag(S(p1:2,FP1:4))^2*cos(theta_scan))10*log(4*pi*701.8/39.361^2*mag(S(p1:2,FP1:4))^2*cos(theta_scan))

701.8 is the unit cell area in square inches

39.361inches is the wavelength in free space

Click the New Report New Report New Report New Report button

Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

Double click on the Y-axis of the plot

Click the Scale tab:

Specify Min: CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

Min: ----60606060

Spacing: 10101010

0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00theta_scan [deg]

-60.00

-50.00

-40.00

-30.00

-20.00

-10.00

0.00

10.00

20.00

10*l

og(4

*pi*

701.

8/39

.361

^2*m

ag(S

(p1:

1,F

P1:

4))^

2*co

s(th

eta_

scan

))

Ansoft Corporation HFSSDesign1XY Plot 6Curve Info

10*log(4*pi*701.8/39.361^2*mag(S(p1:1,FP1:4))^2*cos(theta_scan))Setup2 : LastAdaptiveFreq='0.29979GHz'

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Example – Magic T

The Magic TThis example is intended to show you how to create, simulate, and analyze a

Magic T, which is a commonly used microwave device, using the Ansoft HFSS

Design Environment.

Nominal Design:Nominal Design:Nominal Design:Nominal Design:

Waveguide:Waveguide:Waveguide:Waveguide:

Width = 50.0 mmWidth = 50.0 mmWidth = 50.0 mmWidth = 50.0 mm

Height = 20.0 mm Height = 20.0 mm Height = 20.0 mm Height = 20.0 mm

Length =Length =Length =Length = 75.0 mm75.0 mm75.0 mm75.0 mm

Port1

Port2

Port3 Port4

Width

Length

Height

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Ansoft HFSS Design Environment

The following features of the Ansoft HFSS Design Environment are used to create this passive device model

3D Solid Modeling

Primitives: BoxBoxBoxBox

Boolean Operations: Unite, DuplicateUnite, DuplicateUnite, DuplicateUnite, Duplicate

Excitations

Ports: Wave PortsWave PortsWave PortsWave Ports

Analysis

Sweep: Interpolating Frequency: Interpolating Frequency: Interpolating Frequency: Interpolating Frequency

Results

Cartesian plottingCartesian plottingCartesian plottingCartesian plotting

Fields

3D Field Plots, Animations3D Field Plots, Animations3D Field Plots, Animations3D Field Plots, Animations

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Example – Magic T

Getting Started

Launching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSS

1. To access Ansoft HFSS, click the Microsoft StartStartStartStart button, select ProgramsProgramsProgramsPrograms, and select

the Ansoft, HFSS 11Ansoft, HFSS 11Ansoft, HFSS 11Ansoft, HFSS 11 program group. Click HFSS 11HFSS 11HFSS 11HFSS 11.

Setting Tool OptionsSetting Tool OptionsSetting Tool OptionsSetting Tool Options

To set the tool options:To set the tool options:To set the tool options:To set the tool options:

Note: Note: Note: Note: In order to follow the steps outlined in this example, verify that the following tool options are set : : : :

1. Select the menu item Tools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS Options

2. HFSS Options Window:

1. Click the GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneral tab

Use Wizards for data entry when creating new boundaries: : : :

CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

Duplicate boundaries with geometry: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

3. Select the menu item Tools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler Options.

4. 3D Modeler Options Window:

1. Click the OperationOperationOperationOperation tab

Automatically cover closed polylines: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

2. Click the DrawingDrawingDrawingDrawing tab

Edit property of new primitives: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Opening a New ProjectOpening a New ProjectOpening a New ProjectOpening a New Project

By default, when HFSS first starts up, a new project will be opeBy default, when HFSS first starts up, a new project will be opeBy default, when HFSS first starts up, a new project will be opeBy default, when HFSS first starts up, a new project will be opened. ned. ned. ned.

If you have been working in HFSS and need to open a new project:If you have been working in HFSS and need to open a new project:If you have been working in HFSS and need to open a new project:If you have been working in HFSS and need to open a new project:

1. In an Ansoft HFSS window, click the On the Standard toolbar, or select

the menu item File > NewFile > NewFile > NewFile > New.

2. Expand the folder and review the sub-folders in the Project Manager

Set Solution TypeSet Solution TypeSet Solution TypeSet Solution Type

To set the solution type:To set the solution type:To set the solution type:To set the solution type:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution Type

2. Solution Type Window:

1. Choose Driven ModalDriven ModalDriven ModalDriven Modal

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Creating the 3D Model

Set Model UnitsSet Model UnitsSet Model UnitsSet Model Units

To set the units:To set the units:To set the units:To set the units:

1. Select the menu item Modeler > UnitsModeler > UnitsModeler > UnitsModeler > Units

2. Set Model Units:

1. Select Units: mmmmmmmm

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Set Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default Material

To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:

1. Using the 3D Modeler Materials picklist in the toolbar, choose vacuumvacuumvacuumvacuum

Create Top ArmCreate Top ArmCreate Top ArmCreate Top Arm

To create arm 1:To create arm 1:To create arm 1:To create arm 1:

1. Select the menu item Draw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > Box

2.2.2.2. Press the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fiePress the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fiePress the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fiePress the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fieldsldsldslds

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box position

X: ----25.025.025.025.0, Y: ----10.010.010.010.0, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the base

rectangle:

dX: 50.050.050.050.0, dY: 20.020.020.020.0, dZ: 75.0, 75.0, 75.0, 75.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: ArmArmArmArm

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . . Or press the CTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+D key

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Create Wave Port Excitation 1Create Wave Port Excitation 1Create Wave Port Excitation 1Create Wave Port Excitation 1

Picking the port face:Picking the port face:Picking the port face:Picking the port face:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > Faces

2. Graphically select (click on) the top face of the arm at Z=75mm

To assign wave port excitationTo assign wave port excitationTo assign wave port excitationTo assign wave port excitation

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave Port

2. Wave Port : General

1. Name: p1p1p1p1

2. Click the NextNextNextNext button

3. Wave Port : Modes

1. Click the NextNextNextNext button

4. Wave Port : Post Processing

1. Click the FinishFinishFinishFinish button

Top face

Wave Port Face

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Set Object Selection Set Object Selection Set Object Selection Set Object Selection

Set select to objectsSet select to objectsSet select to objectsSet select to objects

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > ObjectsEdit > Select > ObjectsEdit > Select > ObjectsEdit > Select > Objects

Create Arm 2Create Arm 2Create Arm 2Create Arm 2

To create arm 2:To create arm 2:To create arm 2:To create arm 2:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select All VisibleEdit > Select All VisibleEdit > Select All VisibleEdit > Select All Visible. . . . Or press the CTRL+ACTRL+ACTRL+ACTRL+A key.

2. Select the menu item, Edit > Duplicate > Around AxisEdit > Duplicate > Around AxisEdit > Duplicate > Around AxisEdit > Duplicate > Around Axis.

1. Axis: XXXX

2. Angle: 90909090

3. Total Number: 2222

4. Click the OK OK OK OK button

5. Click OK in the Properties dialog

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . . Or press the CTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+D key

Create Arm 3 & 4Create Arm 3 & 4Create Arm 3 & 4Create Arm 3 & 4

To select the object Arm_1:To select the object Arm_1:To select the object Arm_1:To select the object Arm_1:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: Arm_1Arm_1Arm_1Arm_1

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

To create arm 3 & 4:To create arm 3 & 4:To create arm 3 & 4:To create arm 3 & 4:

1. Select the menu item, Edit > Duplicate > Around AxisEdit > Duplicate > Around AxisEdit > Duplicate > Around AxisEdit > Duplicate > Around Axis.

1. Axis: ZZZZ

2. Angle: 90909090

3. Total Number: 3333

4. Click the OK OK OK OK button

5. Click OK in the Properties dialog

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . . Or press the CTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+D key

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Group the ArmsGroup the ArmsGroup the ArmsGroup the Arms

To group the arms:To group the arms:To group the arms:To group the arms:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Deselect All. Edit > Deselect All. Edit > Deselect All. Edit > Deselect All. Or press the CTRL+SHIFT+A CTRL+SHIFT+A CTRL+SHIFT+A CTRL+SHIFT+A key

2. Select the menu item Edit > Select All VisibleEdit > Select All VisibleEdit > Select All VisibleEdit > Select All Visible. . . . Or press the CTRL+ACTRL+ACTRL+ACTRL+A key.

3. Select the menu item Modeler > Boolean > UniteModeler > Boolean > UniteModeler > Boolean > UniteModeler > Boolean > Unite

4. Select the menu item Edit > Deselect All. Edit > Deselect All. Edit > Deselect All. Edit > Deselect All. Or press the CTRL+SHIFT+A CTRL+SHIFT+A CTRL+SHIFT+A CTRL+SHIFT+A

key

Boundary DisplayBoundary DisplayBoundary DisplayBoundary Display

To verify the boundary setup:To verify the boundary setup:To verify the boundary setup:To verify the boundary setup:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Boundary DisplayHFSS > Boundary DisplayHFSS > Boundary DisplayHFSS > Boundary Display (Solver View)(Solver View)(Solver View)(Solver View)

2. From the Solver View of Boundaries, toggle the Visibility check box for the

boundaries you wish to display.

Note:Note:Note:Note: The background (Perfect Conductor) is displayed as the outerouterouterouterboundary.

Note:Note:Note:Note: The Perfect Conductors are displayed as the smetalsmetalsmetalsmetal boundary.

Note:Note:Note:Note: Select the menu item, View > Active View VisibilityView > Active View VisibilityView > Active View VisibilityView > Active View Visibility to hide all

of the geometry objects. This makes it easier to see the boundary conditions.

3. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button when you are finished

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Analysis Setup

Creating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis Setup

To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup

2. Solution Setup Window:

1. Click the GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneral tab::::

Solution Frequency: 4.0GHz: 4.0GHz: 4.0GHz: 4.0GHz

Maximum Number of Passes: 5555

Maximum Delta S per Pass: 0.020.020.020.02

2. Click the Options Tab

1. Minimum Converged Passes: 3333

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Adding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency Sweep

To add a frequency sweep:To add a frequency sweep:To add a frequency sweep:To add a frequency sweep:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Frequency SweepHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Frequency SweepHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Frequency SweepHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Frequency Sweep

1. Select Solution Setup: Setup1 Setup1 Setup1 Setup1

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

2. Edit Sweep Window:

1. Sweep Type: Interpolating: Interpolating: Interpolating: Interpolating

2. Frequency Setup Type: Linear Count: Linear Count: Linear Count: Linear Count

Start: 3.4GHz3.4GHz3.4GHz3.4GHz

Stop: 4.0GHz: 4.0GHz: 4.0GHz: 4.0GHz

Count: 1001: 1001: 1001: 1001

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Save ProjectSave ProjectSave ProjectSave Project

To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:

1. In an Ansoft HFSS window, select the menu item File > Save AsFile > Save AsFile > Save AsFile > Save As.

2. From the Save As Save As Save As Save As window, type the Filename: hfss_magic_thfss_magic_thfss_magic_thfss_magic_t

3. Click the SaveSaveSaveSave button

Analyze

Model ValidationModel ValidationModel ValidationModel Validation

To validate the model:To validate the model:To validate the model:To validate the model:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation Check

2. Click the Close Close Close Close button

Note:Note:Note:Note: To view any errors or warning messages, use the Message

Manager.

AnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyze

To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analyze AllHFSS > Analyze AllHFSS > Analyze AllHFSS > Analyze All

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Solution DataSolution DataSolution DataSolution Data

To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution Data

To view the Profile:To view the Profile:To view the Profile:To view the Profile:

1. Click the ProfileProfileProfileProfile Tab.

To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:

1. Click the ConvergenceConvergenceConvergenceConvergence Tab

Note: Note: Note: Note: The default view is for convergence is TableTableTableTable. Select

the PlotPlotPlotPlot radio button to view a graphical representations of

the convergence data.

To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:

1. Click the Matrix DataMatrix DataMatrix DataMatrix Data Tab

Note: Note: Note: Note: To view a real-time update of the Matrix Data during

analysis, open this dialog and set the Simulation to Setup1, Setup1, Setup1, Setup1,

Last AdaptiveLast AdaptiveLast AdaptiveLast Adaptive

2. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

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Create Reports

Create Modal SCreate Modal SCreate Modal SCreate Modal S----Parameter Plot vs. Adaptive PassParameter Plot vs. Adaptive PassParameter Plot vs. Adaptive PassParameter Plot vs. Adaptive Pass

Note: Note: Note: Note: If this report is created prior or during the solution process, a real-time

update of the results are displayed

To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data Report > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular Plot

2. Report Dialog::::

1. Solution: Setup1: Setup1: Setup1: Setup1: AdaptivePassAdaptivePassAdaptivePassAdaptivePass

2. Click the Trace Trace Trace Trace tab

1. X: PassPassPassPass

2. Category: S ParameterS ParameterS ParameterS Parameter

3. Quantity: S(p1,p1), S(p1,p2), S(p1,p3), S(p1,p4) S(p1,p1), S(p1,p2), S(p1,p3), S(p1,p4) S(p1,p1), S(p1,p2), S(p1,p3), S(p1,p4) S(p1,p1), S(p1,p2), S(p1,p3), S(p1,p4) (Note: Hold

down the Ctrl key to select multiple Quantities)

4. Function: dBdBdBdB

3. Click the New Report New Report New Report New Report button

4. Click the Close Close Close Close button

1 .0 0 1 .5 0 2 .0 0 2 .5 0 3 .0 0 3 .5 0 4 .0 0P a s s

- 7 0 .0 0

- 6 0 .0 0

- 5 0 .0 0

- 4 0 .0 0

- 3 0 .0 0

- 2 0 .0 0

- 1 0 .0 0

0 .0 0

Y1

A n s o f t C o r p o r a tio n H F S S D e s ig n 1X Y P lo t 2

C u rve In fo

d B (S (p 1 , p 1 ))S e t u p 1 : A d a p t ive P a s sF re q = '4 G H z '

d B (S (p 1 , p 2 ))S e t u p 1 : A d a p t ive P a s sF re q = '4 G H z '

d B (S (p 1 , p 3 ))S e t u p 1 : A d a p t ive P a s sF re q = '4 G H z '

d B (S (p 1 , p 4 ))

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Create Modal SCreate Modal SCreate Modal SCreate Modal S----Parameter Plot vs. FreqParameter Plot vs. FreqParameter Plot vs. FreqParameter Plot vs. Freq

Note: Note: Note: Note: If this report is created prior or during the solution process, a real-time

update of the results are displayed

To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data Report > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular Plot

2. Report Dialog::::

1. Solution: Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1

2.2.2.2. Domain: SweepDomain: SweepDomain: SweepDomain: Sweep

3. Click the Trace Trace Trace Trace tab

1. X: FreqFreqFreqFreq

2. Category: S ParameterS ParameterS ParameterS Parameter

3. Quantity: S(p1,p1), S(p1,p2), S(p1,p3), S(p1,p4) S(p1,p1), S(p1,p2), S(p1,p3), S(p1,p4) S(p1,p1), S(p1,p2), S(p1,p3), S(p1,p4) S(p1,p1), S(p1,p2), S(p1,p3), S(p1,p4) (Hold down

the Ctrl key to select multiple Quantities)

4. Function: dBdBdBdB

4. Click the New Report New Report New Report New Report button

5. Click the Close Close Close Close button

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Create Field OverlayCreate Field OverlayCreate Field OverlayCreate Field Overlay

To select an object:To select an object:To select an object:To select an object:

1. Select menu item Windows > hfss_magic_TWindows > hfss_magic_TWindows > hfss_magic_TWindows > hfss_magic_T----HFSSDesign1HFSSDesign1HFSSDesign1HFSSDesign1----ModelerModelerModelerModeler

2. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

3. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: ArmArmArmArm

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

4. Select the menu Edit > PropertiesEdit > PropertiesEdit > PropertiesEdit > Properties

1. Select Attribute Tab

2. Click on the Transparency button

3. Set Transparency to aprox .75

4. Click OKOKOKOK button

5. Click OKOKOKOK button to exit properties window

5. Press CtrlCtrlCtrlCtrl----AAAA to ensure waveguide is selected.

6. Select the menu item HFSS > Fields > Plot Fields > E > HFSS > Fields > Plot Fields > E > HFSS > Fields > Plot Fields > E > HFSS > Fields > Plot Fields > E > Mag_EMag_EMag_EMag_E

7. Create Field Plot Window

1. Solution: Setup1 : Setup1 : Setup1 : Setup1 : LastAdaptiveLastAdaptiveLastAdaptiveLastAdaptive

2. Quantity: Mag_EMag_EMag_EMag_E

3. In Volume: All ObjectsAll ObjectsAll ObjectsAll Objects

4. Click the DoneDoneDoneDone button

Field AnimationsField AnimationsField AnimationsField Animations

To Animate a Magnitude field plot:To Animate a Magnitude field plot:To Animate a Magnitude field plot:To Animate a Magnitude field plot:

1. Select the menu item View > AnimateView > AnimateView > AnimateView > Animate

2. In the Swept VariableSwept VariableSwept VariableSwept Variable tab, accept the defaults settings:

1. Swept variable: PhasePhasePhasePhase

2. Start: 0deg0deg0deg0deg

3. Stop: 180deg180deg180deg180deg

4. Steps: 9999

3. Click OKOKOKOK

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Example – Coaxial Connector

The Coaxial ConnectorThis example is intended to show you how to create, simulate, and analyze a

coaxial connector, using the Ansoft HFSS Design Environment.

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Ansoft HFSS Design EnvironmentThe following features of the Ansoft HFSS Design Environment are used to

create this passive device model

3D Solid Modeling

Primitives: Cylinders, Cylinders, Cylinders, Cylinders, PolylinesPolylinesPolylinesPolylines, Circles, Circles, Circles, Circles

Boolean Operations: Unite, Subtract, and SweepUnite, Subtract, and SweepUnite, Subtract, and SweepUnite, Subtract, and Sweep

Boundaries/Excitations

Ports: Wave Ports and Terminal LinesWave Ports and Terminal LinesWave Ports and Terminal LinesWave Ports and Terminal Lines

Analysis

Sweep: Fast Frequency: Fast Frequency: Fast Frequency: Fast Frequency

Results

Cartesian plottingCartesian plottingCartesian plottingCartesian plotting

Field Overlays:

3D Field Plots, Animations, Cut3D Field Plots, Animations, Cut3D Field Plots, Animations, Cut3D Field Plots, Animations, Cut----PlanesPlanesPlanesPlanes

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Getting Started

Launching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSS

1. To access Ansoft HFSS, click the Microsoft StartStartStartStart button, select ProgramsProgramsProgramsPrograms, and select

the Ansoft, HFSS 11Ansoft, HFSS 11Ansoft, HFSS 11Ansoft, HFSS 11 program group. Click HFSS 11HFSS 11HFSS 11HFSS 11.

Setting Tool OptionsSetting Tool OptionsSetting Tool OptionsSetting Tool Options

To set the tool options:To set the tool options:To set the tool options:To set the tool options:

Note: Note: Note: Note: In order to follow the steps outlined in this example, verify that the following tool options are set : : : :

1. Select the menu item Tools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS Options

2. HFSS Options Window:

1. Click the GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneral tab

Use Wizards for data entry when creating new boundaries: : : :

CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

Duplicate boundaries with geometry: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

3. Select the menu item Tools > Options > 3D Modeler OptionsTools > Options > 3D Modeler OptionsTools > Options > 3D Modeler OptionsTools > Options > 3D Modeler Options.

4. 3D Modeler Options Window:

1. Click the OperationOperationOperationOperation tab

Automatically cover closed polylines: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

2. Click the DrawingDrawingDrawingDrawing tab

Edit property of new primitives: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Opening a New ProjectOpening a New ProjectOpening a New ProjectOpening a New Project

By default, when HFSS first starts up, a new project will be opeBy default, when HFSS first starts up, a new project will be opeBy default, when HFSS first starts up, a new project will be opeBy default, when HFSS first starts up, a new project will be opened. ned. ned. ned.

If you have been working in HFSS and need to open a new project:If you have been working in HFSS and need to open a new project:If you have been working in HFSS and need to open a new project:If you have been working in HFSS and need to open a new project:

1. In an Ansoft HFSS window, click the On the Standard toolbar, or select

the menu item File > NewFile > NewFile > NewFile > New.

2. Expand the folder and review the sub-folders in the Project Manager

Set Solution TypeSet Solution TypeSet Solution TypeSet Solution Type

To set the solution type:To set the solution type:To set the solution type:To set the solution type:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution Type

2. Solution Type Window:

1. Choose Driven TerminalDriven TerminalDriven TerminalDriven Terminal

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Example – Coaxial Connector

Creating the 3D Model

Set Model UnitsSet Model UnitsSet Model UnitsSet Model Units

To set the units:To set the units:To set the units:To set the units:

1. Select the menu item Modeler > UnitsModeler > UnitsModeler > UnitsModeler > Units

2. Set Model Units:

1. Select Units: cmcmcmcm

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Set Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default Material

To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:

1. Using the Modeler Materials toolbar, choose SelectSelectSelectSelect

2. Select Definition Window:

1. Type pecpecpecpec in the Search by NameSearch by NameSearch by NameSearch by Name field

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Example – Coaxial Connector

Create the Conductor 1Create the Conductor 1Create the Conductor 1Create the Conductor 1

To create the conductorTo create the conductorTo create the conductorTo create the conductor

1. Select the menu item Draw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > Cylinder

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the cylinder position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius:

dX: 0.1520.1520.1520.152, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the height:

dX: 0.00.00.00.0, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 1.4481.4481.4481.448, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: Conductor1Conductor1Conductor1Conductor1

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . . Or press the CTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+D key

Create Offset Coordinate SystemCreate Offset Coordinate SystemCreate Offset Coordinate SystemCreate Offset Coordinate System

To create an offset Coordinate System:To create an offset Coordinate System:To create an offset Coordinate System:To create an offset Coordinate System:

1. Select the menu item Modeler > Coordinate System > Create > Modeler > Coordinate System > Create > Modeler > Coordinate System > Create > Modeler > Coordinate System > Create > Relative CS > OffsetRelative CS > OffsetRelative CS > OffsetRelative CS > Offset

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the origin

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 1.448, 1.448, 1.448, 1.448, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

Create a SectionCreate a SectionCreate a SectionCreate a Section

To section the conductorTo section the conductorTo section the conductorTo section the conductor

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select All VisibleEdit > Select All VisibleEdit > Select All VisibleEdit > Select All Visible. . . . Or press the CTRL+ACTRL+ACTRL+ACTRL+A key.

2. Select the menu item Modeler > Surface > SectionModeler > Surface > SectionModeler > Surface > SectionModeler > Surface > Section

3. Section Window

Section Plane: XYXYXYXY

Click the OK OK OK OK button

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Example – Coaxial Connector

Rename the SectionRename the SectionRename the SectionRename the Section

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > ListHFSS > ListHFSS > ListHFSS > List

2. From the ModelModelModelModel tab, select the object named Conductor1_Section1Conductor1_Section1Conductor1_Section1Conductor1_Section1

3. Click the Properties Properties Properties Properties button in the bottom

1. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: BendBendBendBend

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

4. Click the DoneDoneDoneDone button

Set Grid PlaneSet Grid PlaneSet Grid PlaneSet Grid Plane

To set the grid plane:To set the grid plane:To set the grid plane:To set the grid plane:

1. Select the menu item Modeler > Grid Plane > YZModeler > Grid Plane > YZModeler > Grid Plane > YZModeler > Grid Plane > YZ

Create Conductor BendCreate Conductor BendCreate Conductor BendCreate Conductor Bend

To create the bend:To create the bend:To create the bend:To create the bend:

1. Select the menu item Draw > Arc > Center PointDraw > Arc > Center PointDraw > Arc > Center PointDraw > Arc > Center Point

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the vertex point:

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.40.40.40.4, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radial point:

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the sweep arc length:

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.40.40.40.4, Z: 0.40.40.40.4, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

5. Using the mouse, right-click and select DoneDoneDoneDone

6. Click the OKOKOKOK button when the Properties dialog appears

Sweep Bend:Sweep Bend:Sweep Bend:Sweep Bend:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: Bend, Polyline1Bend, Polyline1Bend, Polyline1Bend, Polyline1

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

3. Select the menu item Draw > Sweep > Along PathDraw > Sweep > Along PathDraw > Sweep > Along PathDraw > Sweep > Along Path

4. Sweep along path Window

Angle of twist: 0000

Draft Angle: 0000

Draft Type: RoundRoundRoundRound

Click the OK OK OK OK button

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Example – Coaxial Connector

Set Grid PlaneSet Grid PlaneSet Grid PlaneSet Grid Plane

To set the grid plane:To set the grid plane:To set the grid plane:To set the grid plane:

1. Select the menu item Modeler > Grid Plane > XZModeler > Grid Plane > XZModeler > Grid Plane > XZModeler > Grid Plane > XZ

Create Offset Coordinate SystemCreate Offset Coordinate SystemCreate Offset Coordinate SystemCreate Offset Coordinate System

To create an offset Coordinate System:To create an offset Coordinate System:To create an offset Coordinate System:To create an offset Coordinate System:

1. Select the menu item Modeler > Coordinate System > Create > Modeler > Coordinate System > Create > Modeler > Coordinate System > Create > Modeler > Coordinate System > Create > Relative CS > OffsetRelative CS > OffsetRelative CS > OffsetRelative CS > Offset

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the origin

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.40.40.40.4, Z: 0.4, 0.4, 0.4, 0.4, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

Create the Conductor 2Create the Conductor 2Create the Conductor 2Create the Conductor 2

To create the conductorTo create the conductorTo create the conductorTo create the conductor

1. Select the menu item Draw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > Cylinder

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the cylinder position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius:

dX: 0.1520.1520.1520.152, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the height:

dX: 0.00.00.00.0, dY: 0.4360.4360.4360.436, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: Conductor2Conductor2Conductor2Conductor2

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

Create Offset Coordinate SystemCreate Offset Coordinate SystemCreate Offset Coordinate SystemCreate Offset Coordinate System

To create an offset Coordinate System:To create an offset Coordinate System:To create an offset Coordinate System:To create an offset Coordinate System:

1. Select the menu item Modeler > Coordinate System >Modeler > Coordinate System >Modeler > Coordinate System >Modeler > Coordinate System >Create > Relative CS > OffsetCreate > Relative CS > OffsetCreate > Relative CS > OffsetCreate > Relative CS > Offset

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the origin

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.4360.4360.4360.436, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

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Example – Coaxial Connector

Create the Conductor 3Create the Conductor 3Create the Conductor 3Create the Conductor 3

To create the conductorTo create the conductorTo create the conductorTo create the conductor

1. Select the menu item Draw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > Cylinder

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the cylinder position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius:

dX: 0.2250.2250.2250.225, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the height:

dX: 0.00.00.00.0, dY: 1.31.31.31.3, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: Conductor3Conductor3Conductor3Conductor3

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

Group the ConductorsGroup the ConductorsGroup the ConductorsGroup the Conductors

Select the menu item Edit > Deselect All Edit > Deselect All Edit > Deselect All Edit > Deselect All

To group the conductors:To group the conductors:To group the conductors:To group the conductors:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select All VisibleEdit > Select All VisibleEdit > Select All VisibleEdit > Select All Visible. . . . Or press the CTRL+ACTRL+ACTRL+ACTRL+A key.

2. Select the menu item, 3D Modeler > Boolean > Unite3D Modeler > Boolean > Unite3D Modeler > Boolean > Unite3D Modeler > Boolean > Unite

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

Set Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default Material

To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:

1. Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose vacuum vacuum vacuum vacuum

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Example – Coaxial Connector

Create the Female EndCreate the Female EndCreate the Female EndCreate the Female End

To create the female end:To create the female end:To create the female end:To create the female end:

1. Select the menu item Draw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > Cylinder

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the cylinder position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius:

dX: 0.5110.5110.5110.511, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the height:

dX: 0.00.00.00.0, dY: 1.31.31.31.3, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: FemaleFemaleFemaleFemale

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

Create the Female BendCreate the Female BendCreate the Female BendCreate the Female Bend

To create the bend:To create the bend:To create the bend:To create the bend:

1. Select the menu item Draw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > Cylinder

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the cylinder position

X: 0.0, Y: 0.0, Z: 0.0, X: 0.0, Y: 0.0, Z: 0.0, X: 0.0, Y: 0.0, Z: 0.0, X: 0.0, Y: 0.0, Z: 0.0, Press the Enter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius:

dXdXdXdX: 0.351, : 0.351, : 0.351, : 0.351, dYdYdYdY: 0.0, : 0.0, : 0.0, : 0.0, dZdZdZdZ: 0.0, : 0.0, : 0.0, : 0.0, Press the Enter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the height:

dXdXdXdX: 0.0, : 0.0, : 0.0, : 0.0, dYdYdYdY: : : : ----1.236, 1.236, 1.236, 1.236, dZdZdZdZ: 0.0, : 0.0, : 0.0, : 0.0, Press the Enter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: FemaleBendFemaleBendFemaleBendFemaleBend

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

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Example – Coaxial Connector

Set Working Coordinate SystemSet Working Coordinate SystemSet Working Coordinate SystemSet Working Coordinate System

To set the working coordinate system:To set the working coordinate system:To set the working coordinate system:To set the working coordinate system:

1. Select the menu item Modeler > Coordinate System > Set Working CSModeler > Coordinate System > Set Working CSModeler > Coordinate System > Set Working CSModeler > Coordinate System > Set Working CS

2. Select Coordinate System Window,

1. From the list, select the CS: GlobalGlobalGlobalGlobal

2. Click the SelectSelectSelectSelect button

Set Grid PlaneSet Grid PlaneSet Grid PlaneSet Grid Plane

To set the grid plane:To set the grid plane:To set the grid plane:To set the grid plane:

1. Select the menu item Modeler > Grid Plane > XYModeler > Grid Plane > XYModeler > Grid Plane > XYModeler > Grid Plane > XY

Create the Male EndCreate the Male EndCreate the Male EndCreate the Male End

To create the male end:To create the male end:To create the male end:To create the male end:

1. Select the menu item Draw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > Cylinder

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the cylinder position

X: 0.0, Y: 0.0, Z: 0.0, X: 0.0, Y: 0.0, Z: 0.0, X: 0.0, Y: 0.0, Z: 0.0, X: 0.0, Y: 0.0, Z: 0.0, Press the Enter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius:

dXdXdXdX: 0.351, : 0.351, : 0.351, : 0.351, dYdYdYdY: 0.0, : 0.0, : 0.0, : 0.0, dZdZdZdZ: 0.0, : 0.0, : 0.0, : 0.0, Press the Enter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the height:

dXdXdXdX: 0.0, : 0.0, : 0.0, : 0.0, dYdYdYdY: 0.0, : 0.0, : 0.0, : 0.0, dZdZdZdZ: 2.348, : 2.348, : 2.348, : 2.348, Press the Enter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: MaleMaleMaleMale

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

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Example – Coaxial Connector

Group the Vacuum ObjectsGroup the Vacuum ObjectsGroup the Vacuum ObjectsGroup the Vacuum Objects

To unite the objects Female, To unite the objects Female, To unite the objects Female, To unite the objects Female, FemaleBendFemaleBendFemaleBendFemaleBend and Male:and Male:and Male:and Male:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Deselect AllEdit > Deselect AllEdit > Deselect AllEdit > Deselect All

2. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

3. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: Female, Female, Female, Female, FemaleBendFemaleBendFemaleBendFemaleBend, Male, Male, Male, Male

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

4. Select the menu item, Modeler > Boolean > UniteModeler > Boolean > UniteModeler > Boolean > UniteModeler > Boolean > Unite

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

Add New MaterialAdd New MaterialAdd New MaterialAdd New Material

To add a new material:To add a new material:To add a new material:To add a new material:

1. Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose SelectSelectSelectSelect

2. From the Select Definition window, click the Add MaterialAdd MaterialAdd MaterialAdd Material button

3. View/Edit Material Window:

1. For the Material NameMaterial NameMaterial NameMaterial Name type: My_RingMy_RingMy_RingMy_Ring

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of Relative PermittivityRelative PermittivityRelative PermittivityRelative Permittivity type: 3333

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

4. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Example – Coaxial Connector

Create the RingCreate the RingCreate the RingCreate the Ring

To create the ring:To create the ring:To create the ring:To create the ring:

1. Select the menu item Draw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > Cylinder

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the cylinder position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.7360.7360.7360.736, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius:

dX: 0.5110.5110.5110.511, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the height:

dX: 0.00.00.00.0, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.2360.2360.2360.236, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: RingRingRingRing

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

Complete the RingComplete the RingComplete the RingComplete the Ring

To select the objects Ring and Male:To select the objects Ring and Male:To select the objects Ring and Male:To select the objects Ring and Male:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: Ring, FemaleRing, FemaleRing, FemaleRing, Female

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

To complete the ring:To complete the ring:To complete the ring:To complete the ring:

1. Select the menu item 3D Modeler > Boolean > Subtract 3D Modeler > Boolean > Subtract 3D Modeler > Boolean > Subtract 3D Modeler > Boolean > Subtract

2. Subtract Window

Blank Parts: RingRingRingRing

Tool Parts: FemaleFemaleFemaleFemale

Clone tool objects before subtract: CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Example – Coaxial Connector

Add New MaterialAdd New MaterialAdd New MaterialAdd New Material

To add a new material:To add a new material:To add a new material:To add a new material:

1. Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose SelectSelectSelectSelect

2. From the Select Definition window, click the Add MaterialAdd MaterialAdd MaterialAdd Material button

3. View/Edit Material Window:

1. For the Material NameMaterial NameMaterial NameMaterial Name type: My_TeflonMy_TeflonMy_TeflonMy_Teflon

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of Relative PermittivityRelative PermittivityRelative PermittivityRelative Permittivity type: 2.12.12.12.1

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

4. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Create the Male TeflonCreate the Male TeflonCreate the Male TeflonCreate the Male Teflon

To create the To create the To create the To create the teflonteflonteflonteflon::::

1. Select the menu item Draw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > Cylinder

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the cylinder position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.460.460.460.46, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius:

dX: 0.5110.5110.5110.511, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the height:

dX: 0.00.00.00.0, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.7880.7880.7880.788, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: MaleTeflonMaleTeflonMaleTeflonMaleTeflon

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View....

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Inventory #002704

Example – Coaxial Connector

Create Wave Port Excitation 1Create Wave Port Excitation 1Create Wave Port Excitation 1Create Wave Port Excitation 1

Note: Note: Note: Note: To simplify the instructions, a 2D object will be created to represent the port. This is not a requirement for defining ports. Graphical face selection can

be used as an alternative.

To create a circle that represents the port:To create a circle that represents the port:To create a circle that represents the port:To create a circle that represents the port:

1. Select the menu item Draw > CircleDraw > CircleDraw > CircleDraw > Circle

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the center position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius of the circle:

dX: 0.3510.3510.3510.351, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: p1p1p1p1

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To select the object p1:To select the object p1:To select the object p1:To select the object p1:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: p1p1p1p1

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

NoteNoteNoteNote: You can also select the object from the Model Tree

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Example – Coaxial Connector

Create Wave Port Excitation 1 (Continued)Create Wave Port Excitation 1 (Continued)Create Wave Port Excitation 1 (Continued)Create Wave Port Excitation 1 (Continued)

To assign wave port excitationTo assign wave port excitationTo assign wave port excitationTo assign wave port excitation

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave Port

2. Reference Conductors for Terminals window

1. Conducting Objects: Conductor1Conductor1Conductor1Conductor1

2. Reference Conductors: blankblankblankblank

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

3. Rename port and terminal names

1. Highlight WavePort1 under the project tree, right click mouse, and

click rename, type p1p1p1p1, and press EnterEnterEnterEnter key

2. Same steps apply to Conductor1_T1, and rename it to T1T1T1T1

Set Working Coordinate SystemSet Working Coordinate SystemSet Working Coordinate SystemSet Working Coordinate System

To set the working coordinate system:To set the working coordinate system:To set the working coordinate system:To set the working coordinate system:

1. Select the menu item Modeler > Coordinate System > Set Working CSModeler > Coordinate System > Set Working CSModeler > Coordinate System > Set Working CSModeler > Coordinate System > Set Working CS

2. Select Coordinate System Window,

1. From the list, select the CS: RelativeCS3RelativeCS3RelativeCS3RelativeCS3

2. Click the SelectSelectSelectSelect button

Set Grid PlaneSet Grid PlaneSet Grid PlaneSet Grid Plane

To set the grid plane:To set the grid plane:To set the grid plane:To set the grid plane:

1. Select the menu item Modeler > Grid Plane > XZModeler > Grid Plane > XZModeler > Grid Plane > XZModeler > Grid Plane > XZ

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Create Wave Port Excitation 2Create Wave Port Excitation 2Create Wave Port Excitation 2Create Wave Port Excitation 2

Note: Note: Note: Note: To simplify the instructions, a 2D object will be created to represent the port. This is not a requirement for defining ports. Graphical face selection can

be used as an alternative.

To create a circle that represents the port:To create a circle that represents the port:To create a circle that represents the port:To create a circle that represents the port:

1. Select the menu item Draw > CircleDraw > CircleDraw > CircleDraw > Circle

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the center position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 1.31.31.31.3, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius of the circle:

dX: 0.5110.5110.5110.511, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: p2p2p2p2

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To select the object p2:To select the object p2:To select the object p2:To select the object p2:

1. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: p2p2p2p2

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

To assign wave port excitationTo assign wave port excitationTo assign wave port excitationTo assign wave port excitation

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave Port

2. Reference Conductors for Terminals window

1. Conducting Objects: Conductor1Conductor1Conductor1Conductor1

2. Reference Conductors: blankblankblankblank

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

3. Rename port and terminal names

1. Highlight WavePort1 under the project tree, right click mouse, and click rename, type p2p2p2p2, and press EnterEnterEnterEnter key

2. Same steps apply to Conductor1_T2, and rename it to T2T2T2T2

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Create the Female TeflonCreate the Female TeflonCreate the Female TeflonCreate the Female Teflon

To create the Teflon:To create the Teflon:To create the Teflon:To create the Teflon:

1. Select the menu item Draw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > Cylinder

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the cylinder position

X: 0.0, Y: 0.0, Z: 0.0, X: 0.0, Y: 0.0, Z: 0.0, X: 0.0, Y: 0.0, Z: 0.0, X: 0.0, Y: 0.0, Z: 0.0, Press the Enter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius:

dXdXdXdX: 0.511, : 0.511, : 0.511, : 0.511, dYdYdYdY: 0.0, : 0.0, : 0.0, : 0.0, dZdZdZdZ: 0.0, : 0.0, : 0.0, : 0.0, Press the Enter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the height:

dXdXdXdX: 0.0, : 0.0, : 0.0, : 0.0, dYdYdYdY: : : : ----0.236, 0.236, 0.236, 0.236, dZdZdZdZ: 0.0, : 0.0, : 0.0, : 0.0, Press the Enter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: FemaleTeflonFemaleTeflonFemaleTeflonFemaleTeflon

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View....

Complete the Vacuum ObjectComplete the Vacuum ObjectComplete the Vacuum ObjectComplete the Vacuum Object

To select the objects Female, To select the objects Female, To select the objects Female, To select the objects Female, MaleTeflonMaleTeflonMaleTeflonMaleTeflon, , , , FemaleTeflonFemaleTeflonFemaleTeflonFemaleTeflon

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: Female, Female, Female, Female, MaleTeflonMaleTeflonMaleTeflonMaleTeflon, , , , FemaleTeflonFemaleTeflonFemaleTeflonFemaleTeflon

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

To complete the To complete the To complete the To complete the vacummvacummvacummvacumm objects:objects:objects:objects:

1. Select the menu item Modeler > Boolean > Subtract Modeler > Boolean > Subtract Modeler > Boolean > Subtract Modeler > Boolean > Subtract

2. Subtract Window

Blank Parts: FemaleFemaleFemaleFemale

Tool Parts: MaleTeflonMaleTeflonMaleTeflonMaleTeflon, , , , FemaleTeflonFemaleTeflonFemaleTeflonFemaleTeflon

Clone tool objects before subtract: CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Complete the ModelComplete the ModelComplete the ModelComplete the Model

To complete the model:To complete the model:To complete the model:To complete the model:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: Conductor1, Female, Conductor1, Female, Conductor1, Female, Conductor1, Female, MaleTeflonMaleTeflonMaleTeflonMaleTeflon, , , ,

FemaleTeflonFemaleTeflonFemaleTeflonFemaleTeflon

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

3. Select the menu item Modeler > Boolean > Subtract Modeler > Boolean > Subtract Modeler > Boolean > Subtract Modeler > Boolean > Subtract

4. Subtract Window

Blank Parts: Female, Female, Female, Female, FemaleTeflonFemaleTeflonFemaleTeflonFemaleTeflon, , , , MaleTeflonMaleTeflonMaleTeflonMaleTeflon

Tool Parts: Conductor1Conductor1Conductor1Conductor1

Clone tool objects before subtract: CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

Click the OKOKOKOK button

Boundary DisplayBoundary DisplayBoundary DisplayBoundary Display

To verify the boundary setup:To verify the boundary setup:To verify the boundary setup:To verify the boundary setup:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Boundary DisplayHFSS > Boundary DisplayHFSS > Boundary DisplayHFSS > Boundary Display (Solver View)(Solver View)(Solver View)(Solver View)

2. From the Solver View of Boundaries, toggle the Visibility check box for the boundaries you wish to display.

Note:Note:Note:Note: The background (Perfect Conductor) is displayed as the outerouterouterouter

boundary.

Note:Note:Note:Note: The Perfect Conductors are displayed as the smetalsmetalsmetalsmetal boundary.

Note:Note:Note:Note: Select the menu item, View > VisibilityView > VisibilityView > VisibilityView > Visibility to hide all of the

geometry objects. This makes it easier to see the boundary

3. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button when you are finished

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Analysis Setup

Creating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis Setup

To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup

2. Solution Setup Window:

1. Click the GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneral tab::::

Solution Frequency: 8.1GHz: 8.1GHz: 8.1GHz: 8.1GHz

Maximum Number of Passes: 10101010

Maximum Delta S: 0.020.020.020.02

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

3. Click the OptionsOptionsOptionsOptions tab::::

Minimum Converged Passes: 2222

4. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Adding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency Sweep

To add a frequency sweep:To add a frequency sweep:To add a frequency sweep:To add a frequency sweep:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add SweepHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add SweepHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add SweepHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Sweep

1. Select Solution Setup: Setup1 Setup1 Setup1 Setup1

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

2. Edit Sweep Window:

1. Sweep Type: Fast: Fast: Fast: Fast

2. Frequency Setup Type: Linear Count: Linear Count: Linear Count: Linear Count

Start: 0.1GHz0.1GHz0.1GHz0.1GHz

Stop: 8.1GHz: 8.1GHz: 8.1GHz: 8.1GHz

Count: 801: 801: 801: 801

Save Fields: CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Save ProjectSave ProjectSave ProjectSave Project

To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:

1. In an Ansoft HFSS window, select the menu item File > Save AsFile > Save AsFile > Save AsFile > Save As.

2. From the Save As Save As Save As Save As window, type the Filename: hfss_coaxhfss_coaxhfss_coaxhfss_coax

3. Click the SaveSaveSaveSave button

Analyze

Model ValidationModel ValidationModel ValidationModel Validation

To validate the model:To validate the model:To validate the model:To validate the model:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation Check

2. Click the Close Close Close Close button

Note:Note:Note:Note: To view any errors or warning messages, use the Message Manager.

AnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyze

To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > AnalyzeHFSS > AnalyzeHFSS > AnalyzeHFSS > Analyze

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Solution DataSolution DataSolution DataSolution Data

To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution Data

To view the Profile:To view the Profile:To view the Profile:To view the Profile:

1. Click the ProfileProfileProfileProfile Tab.

To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:

1. Click the ConvergenceConvergenceConvergenceConvergence Tab

Note: Note: Note: Note: The default view is for convergence is TableTableTableTable. Select

the PlotPlotPlotPlot radio button to view a graphical representations of

the convergence data.

To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:

1. Click the Matrix DataMatrix DataMatrix DataMatrix Data Tab

Note: Note: Note: Note: To view a real-time update of the Matrix Data, set the

Simulation to Setup1, Last AdaptiveSetup1, Last AdaptiveSetup1, Last AdaptiveSetup1, Last Adaptive

2. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

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Create Reports

Create Terminal SCreate Terminal SCreate Terminal SCreate Terminal S----Parameter Plot vs. Adaptive PassParameter Plot vs. Adaptive PassParameter Plot vs. Adaptive PassParameter Plot vs. Adaptive Pass

Note: Note: Note: Note: If this report is created prior to or during the solution process, a real-time update of the results are displayed

To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Terminal HFSS > Results > Create Terminal HFSS > Results > Create Terminal HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data Report > Rectangular PlotSolution Data Report > Rectangular PlotSolution Data Report > Rectangular PlotSolution Data Report > Rectangular Plot

2. Traces Window::::

1. Solution: Setup1: AdaptiveSetup1: AdaptiveSetup1: AdaptiveSetup1: Adaptive

2. Click the X X X X tab

1. X: Pass: Pass: Pass: Pass

3. Click the YYYY tab

1. Category: Terminal S ParameterTerminal S ParameterTerminal S ParameterTerminal S Parameter

2. Quantity: St(T1,T1), St(T1,T2), St(T1,T1), St(T1,T2), St(T1,T1), St(T1,T2), St(T1,T1), St(T1,T2),

3. Function: dBdBdBdB

4. Click the New ReportNew ReportNew ReportNew Report button

4. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

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Create Terminal SCreate Terminal SCreate Terminal SCreate Terminal S----Parameter Plot Parameter Plot Parameter Plot Parameter Plot ---- MagnitudeMagnitudeMagnitudeMagnitude

To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Terminal HFSS > Results > Create Terminal HFSS > Results > Create Terminal HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data Report > Rectangular PlotSolution Data Report > Rectangular PlotSolution Data Report > Rectangular PlotSolution Data Report > Rectangular Plot

2. Traces Window::::

1. Solution: Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1

2. Click the X X X X tab

1. X: Freq: Freq: Freq: Freq

3. Click the YYYY tab

1. Category: Terminal S ParameterTerminal S ParameterTerminal S ParameterTerminal S Parameter

2. Quantity: St(T1,T1), St(T1,T2), St(T1,T1), St(T1,T2), St(T1,T1), St(T1,T2), St(T1,T1), St(T1,T2),

3. Function: dBdBdBdB

4. Click the New ReportNew ReportNew ReportNew Report button

4. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

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Create Terminal SCreate Terminal SCreate Terminal SCreate Terminal S----Parameter Plot Parameter Plot Parameter Plot Parameter Plot ---- PhasePhasePhasePhase

To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Terminal HFSS > Results > Create Terminal HFSS > Results > Create Terminal HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data Report > Rectangular PlotSolution Data Report > Rectangular PlotSolution Data Report > Rectangular PlotSolution Data Report > Rectangular Plot

2. Traces Window::::

1. Solution: Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1

2. Click the X X X X tab

1. X: Freq: Freq: Freq: Freq

3. Click the YYYY tab

1. Category: Terminal S ParameterTerminal S ParameterTerminal S ParameterTerminal S Parameter

2. Quantity: St(T1,T1), St(T1,T2), St(T1,T1), St(T1,T2), St(T1,T1), St(T1,T2), St(T1,T1), St(T1,T2),

3. Function: ang_degang_degang_degang_deg

4. Click the New ReportNew ReportNew ReportNew Report button

4. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

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Field OverlaysSelect the menu item Window > Window > Window > Window > hfss_coaxhfss_coaxhfss_coaxhfss_coax –––– HFSSDesign1 HFSSDesign1 HFSSDesign1 HFSSDesign1 ---- ModelerModelerModelerModeler

Create Field OverlayCreate Field OverlayCreate Field OverlayCreate Field Overlay

To create a field plot:To create a field plot:To create a field plot:To create a field plot:

1. Select the Global YZ Plane

1. Using the Model Tree, expand PlanesPlanesPlanesPlanes

2. Select Global:YZGlobal:YZGlobal:YZGlobal:YZ

2. Select the menu item HFSS > Fields > Plot Fields > E > HFSS > Fields > Plot Fields > E > HFSS > Fields > Plot Fields > E > HFSS > Fields > Plot Fields > E > Mag_EMag_EMag_EMag_E

3. Create Field Plot Window

1. Solution: Setup1 : Setup1 : Setup1 : Setup1 : LastAdaptiveLastAdaptiveLastAdaptiveLastAdaptive

2. Quantity: Mag_EMag_EMag_EMag_E

3. In Volume: All ObjectsAll ObjectsAll ObjectsAll Objects

4. Click the DoneDoneDoneDone button

To modify a Magnitude field plot:To modify a Magnitude field plot:To modify a Magnitude field plot:To modify a Magnitude field plot:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Fields > Modify Plot AttributesHFSS > Fields > Modify Plot AttributesHFSS > Fields > Modify Plot AttributesHFSS > Fields > Modify Plot Attributes

2. Select Plot Folder Window:

1. Select: E FieldE FieldE FieldE Field

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

3. E-Field Window:

1. Click the Scale Scale Scale Scale tab

1. Select Use LimitsUse LimitsUse LimitsUse Limits

2. Min: 1.01.01.01.0

3. Max: 1000.01000.01000.01000.0

4. Scale: LogLogLogLog

2. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

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Edit SourcesEdit SourcesEdit SourcesEdit Sources

To Modify a Terminal excitation:To Modify a Terminal excitation:To Modify a Terminal excitation:To Modify a Terminal excitation:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Fields > Edit SourcesHFSS > Fields > Edit SourcesHFSS > Fields > Edit SourcesHFSS > Fields > Edit Sources

2. Select T2T2T2T2 from the Edit Sources window

Check the TerminatedTerminatedTerminatedTerminated box

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To Select the Electric Field plot:To Select the Electric Field plot:To Select the Electric Field plot:To Select the Electric Field plot:

1. Expand the Project tree

2. Expand the Field OverlaysField OverlaysField OverlaysField Overlays

3. Click on the E FieldE FieldE FieldE Field or Mag_E1Mag_E1Mag_E1Mag_E1 to display the field plot

Field AnimationsField AnimationsField AnimationsField Animations

To Animate a Magnitude field plot:To Animate a Magnitude field plot:To Animate a Magnitude field plot:To Animate a Magnitude field plot:

1. Select the menu item View > AnimateView > AnimateView > AnimateView > Animate

2. In the Swept VariableSwept VariableSwept VariableSwept Variable tab, accept defaults settings:

1. Swept variable: PhasePhasePhasePhase

2. Start: 0deg0deg0deg0deg

3. Stop: 180deg180deg180deg180deg

4. Steps: 9999

5. Click: OKOKOKOK

3. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

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The 180° Ring HybridThis example is intended to show you how to create, simulate, and analyze a ring

hybrid, using Ansoft HFSS.

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Getting Started

Launching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSS

1. To access Ansoft HFSS, click the Microsoft StartStartStartStart button, select ProgramsProgramsProgramsPrograms, and

select the Ansoft, HFSS 11Ansoft, HFSS 11Ansoft, HFSS 11Ansoft, HFSS 11 program group. Click HFSS 11HFSS 11HFSS 11HFSS 11.

Setting Tool OptionsSetting Tool OptionsSetting Tool OptionsSetting Tool Options

To set the tool options:To set the tool options:To set the tool options:To set the tool options:

Note: Note: Note: Note: In order to follow the steps outlined in this example, verify that the following tool options are set : : : :

1. Select the menu item Tools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS Options

2. HFSS Options Window:

1. Click the GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneral tab

Use Wizards for data entry when creating new boundaries: : : :

CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

Duplicate boundaries with geometry: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

Auto-assign terminals on ports: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

3. Select the menu item Tools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler Options.

4. Modeler Options Window:

1. Click the OperationOperationOperationOperation tab

Automatically cover closed polylines: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

2. Click the DrawingDrawingDrawingDrawing tab

Edit property of new primitives: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Opening a New ProjectOpening a New ProjectOpening a New ProjectOpening a New Project

To open a new project:To open a new project:To open a new project:To open a new project:

1. In an Ansoft HFSS window, click the On the Standard toolbar, or select

the menu item File > NewFile > NewFile > NewFile > New.

2. From the ProjectProjectProjectProject menu, select Insert HFSS DesignInsert HFSS DesignInsert HFSS DesignInsert HFSS Design....

Set Solution TypeSet Solution TypeSet Solution TypeSet Solution Type

To set the solution type:To set the solution type:To set the solution type:To set the solution type:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution Type

2. Solution Type Window:

1. Choose Driven TerminalDriven TerminalDriven TerminalDriven Terminal

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Creating the 3D Model

Set Model UnitsSet Model UnitsSet Model UnitsSet Model Units

To set the units:To set the units:To set the units:To set the units:

1. Select the menu item Modeler > UnitsModeler > UnitsModeler > UnitsModeler > Units

2. Set Model Units:

1. Select Units: mmmmmmmm

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Set Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default Material

To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:

1. Using the Modeler Materials picklist in the toolbar, choose SelectSelectSelectSelect

2. Select Definition Window:

1. Click the Add MaterialAdd MaterialAdd MaterialAdd Material button

2. View/Edit Material Window:

1. For the Material NameMaterial NameMaterial NameMaterial Name type: My_SubMy_SubMy_SubMy_Sub

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of Relative PermittivityRelative PermittivityRelative PermittivityRelative Permittivity type: 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33

3. For the ValueValueValueValue of Dielectric Loss TangentDielectric Loss TangentDielectric Loss TangentDielectric Loss Tangent type: 4.29e4.29e4.29e4.29e----4 4 4 4

4. Click the OKOKOKOK button

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Create SubstrateCreate SubstrateCreate SubstrateCreate Substrate

To create the substrate:To create the substrate:To create the substrate:To create the substrate:

1. Select the menu item Draw > Regular PolyhedronDraw > Regular PolyhedronDraw > Regular PolyhedronDraw > Regular Polyhedron

2. Press the TabTabTabTab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fields

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the center position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: ----1.1431.1431.1431.143, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius:

dX: 22.345mm/cos(30*pi/180),22.345mm/cos(30*pi/180),22.345mm/cos(30*pi/180),22.345mm/cos(30*pi/180), dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

5. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the height

dX: 0.00.00.00.0 dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 2.2862.2862.2862.286, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

6. Segment Number Window

Number of Segments: 6666

Click the OKOKOKOK button

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: SubstrateSubstrateSubstrateSubstrate

To change the transparency of the substrate object:To change the transparency of the substrate object:To change the transparency of the substrate object:To change the transparency of the substrate object:

1. Click the button labeled 0000 next to the TransparentTransparentTransparentTransparent attribute.

2. Change the value to 0.80.80.80.8

3. Click OKOKOKOK to dismiss the Transparency

4. Click OKOKOKOK

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

Or press the CTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+D key

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Create Trace Create Trace Create Trace Create Trace

To create the trace:To create the trace:To create the trace:To create the trace:

1. Select the menu item Draw > RectangleDraw > RectangleDraw > RectangleDraw > Rectangle

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the rectangle position

X: ----0.891540.891540.891540.89154, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the rectangle:

dX: 1.783081.783081.783081.78308, dY: 22.34522.34522.34522.345, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: TraceTraceTraceTrace

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

Assign a Perfect E boundary to the TraceAssign a Perfect E boundary to the TraceAssign a Perfect E boundary to the TraceAssign a Perfect E boundary to the Trace

To select the trace:To select the trace:To select the trace:To select the trace:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: TraceTraceTraceTrace

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

To assign the Perfect E boundaryTo assign the Perfect E boundaryTo assign the Perfect E boundaryTo assign the Perfect E boundary

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Perfect EHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Perfect EHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Perfect EHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Perfect E

2. Perfect E Boundary window

1. Name: PerfE_TracePerfE_TracePerfE_TracePerfE_Trace

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Create Wave Port Excitation 1Create Wave Port Excitation 1Create Wave Port Excitation 1Create Wave Port Excitation 1

Note: Note: Note: Note: This structure requires 4 ports with 1 terminal lines per port. We could use face selection to select the ends of the substrate that represent the port, define

terminal lines, assign excitation, and repeat for port2-4. Since we can duplicate

port definitions, it is more efficient to define a rectangle with the appropriate port

definition and copy it to the location of ports 2-4. The second method is

described here:

To set grid planeTo set grid planeTo set grid planeTo set grid plane

1. Select the menu item Modeler > Grid Plane > XZModeler > Grid Plane > XZModeler > Grid Plane > XZModeler > Grid Plane > XZ

To set the viewTo set the viewTo set the viewTo set the view

Select the menu item View > Modify Attributes > OrientationView > Modify Attributes > OrientationView > Modify Attributes > OrientationView > Modify Attributes > Orientation

Select Viewing Direction form the List Window

1. From the list select the view name: RightRightRightRight

2. Click the ApplyApplyApplyApply button

3. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

To create the rectangle graphically:To create the rectangle graphically:To create the rectangle graphically:To create the rectangle graphically:

1. Select the menu item Draw > RectangleDraw > RectangleDraw > RectangleDraw > Rectangle

2. Using the mouse, position the active position indicator such that it snaps to

the vertex of the lower left corner of the substrate face. The shape of the active position indicator will change to a square when it snaps to the vertex

3. Click the left mouse button to select this point as the start position.

4. Continued on next page…

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Create Wave Port Excitation 1 (Continued)Create Wave Port Excitation 1 (Continued)Create Wave Port Excitation 1 (Continued)Create Wave Port Excitation 1 (Continued)

4. Using the mouse, position the active position indicator such that it snaps to the vertex of the upper right corner of the substrate face. The shape of the

active position indicator will change to a square when it snaps to the vertex

5. Click the left mouse button to set the opposite corner of the rectangle.

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: PortPortPortPort

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

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Create Wave Port Excitation 1 (Continued)Create Wave Port Excitation 1 (Continued)Create Wave Port Excitation 1 (Continued)Create Wave Port Excitation 1 (Continued)

To assign wave port excitationTo assign wave port excitationTo assign wave port excitationTo assign wave port excitation

To select the trace:To select the trace:To select the trace:To select the trace:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: PortPortPortPort

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

3. Select the menu item HFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave Port

4. Reference Conductors Dialog

1. Conducting Objects: Trace

2. Reference Conductors: <Empty>

5. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Trace ObjectWave Port Face

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Create the remaining Traces and Wave PortsCreate the remaining Traces and Wave PortsCreate the remaining Traces and Wave PortsCreate the remaining Traces and Wave Ports

To select objects:To select objects:To select objects:To select objects:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: Trace, PortTrace, PortTrace, PortTrace, Port

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

To duplicate the objects:To duplicate the objects:To duplicate the objects:To duplicate the objects:

1. Select the menu item, Edit > Duplicate > Around AxisEdit > Duplicate > Around AxisEdit > Duplicate > Around AxisEdit > Duplicate > Around Axis

2. Duplicate Around Axis Window

1. Axis: ZZZZ

2. Angle: 60deg60deg60deg60deg

3. Total Number: 4444

4. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Create Outer RingCreate Outer RingCreate Outer RingCreate Outer Ring

To set grid planeTo set grid planeTo set grid planeTo set grid plane

1. Select the menu item Modeler > Grid Plane > XYModeler > Grid Plane > XYModeler > Grid Plane > XYModeler > Grid Plane > XY

To create the ring:To create the ring:To create the ring:To create the ring:

1. Select the menu item Draw > CircleDraw > CircleDraw > CircleDraw > Circle

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius:

dX: 11.79511.79511.79511.795, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: OuterOuterOuterOuter

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit DrawingView > Fit DrawingView > Fit DrawingView > Fit Drawing....

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Group the ConductorsGroup the ConductorsGroup the ConductorsGroup the Conductors

To group the conductors:To group the conductors:To group the conductors:To group the conductors:

1. Deselect all objects by selecting the menu item Edit > Deselect AllEdit > Deselect AllEdit > Deselect AllEdit > Deselect All

2. Using the model tree, while holding down the CtrlCtrlCtrlCtrl key, select the following

objects in this order: Trace, Trace_1, Trace_2, Trace_3, OuterTrace, Trace_1, Trace_2, Trace_3, OuterTrace, Trace_1, Trace_2, Trace_3, OuterTrace, Trace_1, Trace_2, Trace_3, Outer

1. The Trace object needs to be selected first as the Boolean operations are order dependent, and the Perfect E boundary should

propagate to the other objects.

3. Select the menu item, Modeler > Boolean > UniteModeler > Boolean > UniteModeler > Boolean > UniteModeler > Boolean > Unite

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit DrawingView > Fit DrawingView > Fit DrawingView > Fit Drawing....

Create Inner RingCreate Inner RingCreate Inner RingCreate Inner Ring

To create the ring:To create the ring:To create the ring:To create the ring:

1. Select the menu item Draw > CircleDraw > CircleDraw > CircleDraw > Circle

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius:

dX: 10.79510.79510.79510.795, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: InnerInnerInnerInner

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Select objects:Select objects:Select objects:Select objects:

1. Deselect all objects by selecting the menu item Edit > Deselect AllEdit > Deselect AllEdit > Deselect AllEdit > Deselect All

2. Using the model tree, while holding down the CtrlCtrlCtrlCtrl key, select the following objects in this order: Trace, InnerTrace, InnerTrace, InnerTrace, Inner

3. Select the menu item, Modeler > Boolean > SubtractModeler > Boolean > SubtractModeler > Boolean > SubtractModeler > Boolean > Subtract

4. Subtract Window

1. Blank Parts: TraceTraceTraceTrace

2. Tool Parts: InnerInnerInnerInner

3. Clone tool objects before subtracting: : : : UncheckedUncheckedUncheckedUnchecked

4. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit DrawingView > Fit DrawingView > Fit DrawingView > Fit Drawing.... Or press the CTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+D key

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Analysis Setup

Creating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis Setup

To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup

2. Solution Setup Window:

1. Click the GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneral tab::::

Solution Frequency: 4.0 GHz: 4.0 GHz: 4.0 GHz: 4.0 GHz

Maximum Number of Passes: 20202020

Maximum Delta S: 0.010.010.010.01

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Adding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency Sweep

To add a frequency sweep:To add a frequency sweep:To add a frequency sweep:To add a frequency sweep:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Frequency SweepHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Frequency SweepHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Frequency SweepHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Frequency Sweep

1. Select Solution Setup: Setup1 Setup1 Setup1 Setup1

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

2. Edit Sweep Window:

1. Sweep Type: Fast: Fast: Fast: Fast

2. Frequency Setup Type: Linear Step: Linear Step: Linear Step: Linear Step

Start: 2.0 GHz2.0 GHz2.0 GHz2.0 GHz

Stop: 7.0 GHz: 7.0 GHz: 7.0 GHz: 7.0 GHz

Step: 0.05 GHz: 0.05 GHz: 0.05 GHz: 0.05 GHz

Save Fields: CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Create Reports

Create Terminal SCreate Terminal SCreate Terminal SCreate Terminal S----Parameter Plot vs. Adaptive PassParameter Plot vs. Adaptive PassParameter Plot vs. Adaptive PassParameter Plot vs. Adaptive Pass

Note: Note: Note: Note: If this report is created prior or during the solution process, a real-time

update of the results are displayed

To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data Report > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular Plot

2. Traces Window::::

1. Solution: Setup1: AdaptivePassSetup1: AdaptivePassSetup1: AdaptivePassSetup1: AdaptivePass

2. Click the Trace Trace Trace Trace tab

1. X: PassPassPassPass

2. Category: Terminal S ParameterTerminal S ParameterTerminal S ParameterTerminal S Parameter

3. Quantity: St(Trace_T1,Trace_T1), St(Trace_T1,Trace_T2), St(Trace_T1,Trace_T1), St(Trace_T1,Trace_T2), St(Trace_T1,Trace_T1), St(Trace_T1,Trace_T2), St(Trace_T1,Trace_T1), St(Trace_T1,Trace_T2),

St(Trace_T1,Trace_T3), St(Trace_T1,Trace_T4)St(Trace_T1,Trace_T3), St(Trace_T1,Trace_T4)St(Trace_T1,Trace_T3), St(Trace_T1,Trace_T4)St(Trace_T1,Trace_T3), St(Trace_T1,Trace_T4) (hold down

the CtrlCtrlCtrlCtrl key to select multiple quantities)

4. Function: dBdBdBdB

3. Click the New Report New Report New Report New Report button

4. Click the Close Close Close Close button

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Create Terminal SCreate Terminal SCreate Terminal SCreate Terminal S----Parameter Plot Parameter Plot Parameter Plot Parameter Plot ---- MagnitudeMagnitudeMagnitudeMagnitude

To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data Report > Rectangular Plot Report > Rectangular Plot Report > Rectangular Plot Report > Rectangular Plot

2. Traces Window::::

1. Solution: Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1

2. Domain: SweepSweepSweepSweep

3. Click the TraceTraceTraceTrace tab

1. X: FreqFreqFreqFreq

2. Category: Terminal S ParameterTerminal S ParameterTerminal S ParameterTerminal S Parameter

3. Quantity: St(Trace_T1,Trace_T1), St(Trace_T1,Trace_T2), St(Trace_T1,Trace_T1), St(Trace_T1,Trace_T2), St(Trace_T1,Trace_T1), St(Trace_T1,Trace_T2), St(Trace_T1,Trace_T1), St(Trace_T1,Trace_T2),

St(Trace_T1,Trace_T3), St(Trace_T1,Trace_T4) St(Trace_T1,Trace_T3), St(Trace_T1,Trace_T4) St(Trace_T1,Trace_T3), St(Trace_T1,Trace_T4) St(Trace_T1,Trace_T3), St(Trace_T1,Trace_T4) (hold down

the CtrlCtrlCtrlCtrl key to select multiple quantities)

4. Function: dBdBdBdB

4. Click the New ReportNew ReportNew ReportNew Report button

5. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

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Save ProjectSave ProjectSave ProjectSave Project

To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:

1. In an Ansoft HFSS window, select the menu item File > Save AsFile > Save AsFile > Save AsFile > Save As.

2. From the Save As Save As Save As Save As window, type the Filename: hfss_ringhybridhfss_ringhybridhfss_ringhybridhfss_ringhybrid

3. Click the SaveSaveSaveSave button

Analyze

Model ValidationModel ValidationModel ValidationModel Validation

To validate the model:To validate the model:To validate the model:To validate the model:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation Check

2. Click the Close Close Close Close button

Note:Note:Note:Note: To view any errors or warning messages, use the Message Manager.

AnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyze

To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analyze AllHFSS > Analyze AllHFSS > Analyze AllHFSS > Analyze All

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Solution DataSolution DataSolution DataSolution Data

To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution Data

To view the Profile:To view the Profile:To view the Profile:To view the Profile:

1. Click the ProfileProfileProfileProfile Tab.

To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:

1. Click the ConvergenceConvergenceConvergenceConvergence Tab

Note: Note: Note: Note: The default view is for convergence is TableTableTableTable. Select

the PlotPlotPlotPlot radio button to view a graphical representations of

the convergence data.

To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:

1. Click the Matrix DataMatrix DataMatrix DataMatrix Data Tab

Note: Note: Note: Note: To view a real-time update of the Matrix Data, set the

Simulation to Setup1, Last AdaptiveSetup1, Last AdaptiveSetup1, Last AdaptiveSetup1, Last Adaptive

2. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

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Terminal STerminal STerminal STerminal S----Parameter Plot vs. Adaptive PassParameter Plot vs. Adaptive PassParameter Plot vs. Adaptive PassParameter Plot vs. Adaptive Pass

Terminal STerminal STerminal STerminal S----Parameter Plot Parameter Plot Parameter Plot Parameter Plot ---- MagnitudeMagnitudeMagnitudeMagnitude

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Example – Coax Stub Resonator

The Coaxial Stub ResonatorThis example is intended to show you how to create, simulate, and optimize a

coaxial stub resonator, using the Ansoft HFSS Design Environment.

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Ansoft HFSS Design EnvironmentThe following features of the Ansoft HFSS Design Environment are used to

create this passive device model:

3D Solid Modeling

Primitives: CylindersCylindersCylindersCylinders

Boolean: UniteUniteUniteUnite

Duplicate: Around AxisAround AxisAround AxisAround Axis

Boundaries/Excitations

Excitations: Wave PortsWave PortsWave PortsWave Ports

Analysis

Sweep: Fast FrequencyFast FrequencyFast FrequencyFast Frequency

Optimization

ParametricsParametricsParametricsParametrics Setup Setup Setup Setup

OptimetricsOptimetricsOptimetricsOptimetrics SetupSetupSetupSetup

Results

Data: Tabular Tabular Tabular Tabular

Plotting: CartesianCartesianCartesianCartesian

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Getting Started

Launching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSS

1. To access Ansoft HFSS, click the Microsoft StartStartStartStart button, select ProgramsProgramsProgramsPrograms, and select

the Ansoft, HFSS 11 Ansoft, HFSS 11 Ansoft, HFSS 11 Ansoft, HFSS 11 program group. Click HFSS 11HFSS 11HFSS 11HFSS 11.

Setting Tool OptionsSetting Tool OptionsSetting Tool OptionsSetting Tool Options

To set the tool options:To set the tool options:To set the tool options:To set the tool options:

Note: Note: Note: Note: In order to follow the steps outlined in this example, verify that the following tool options are set : : : :

1. Select the menu item Tools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS Options

2. HFSS Options Window:

1. Click the GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneral tab

Use Wizards for data entry when creating new boundaries: : : :

CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

Duplicate boundaries with geometry: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

3. Select the menu item Tools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler Options.

4. Modeler Options Window:

1. Click the OperationOperationOperationOperation tab

Automatically cover closed polylines: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

2. Click the DrawingDrawingDrawingDrawing tab

Edit property of new primitives: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Set Solution TypeSet Solution TypeSet Solution TypeSet Solution Type

To set the solution type:To set the solution type:To set the solution type:To set the solution type:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution Type

2. Solution Type Window:

1. Choose Driven TerminalDriven TerminalDriven TerminalDriven Terminal

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Creating the 3D Model

Set Model UnitsSet Model UnitsSet Model UnitsSet Model Units

To set the units:To set the units:To set the units:To set the units:

1. Select the menu item Modeler > UnitsModeler > UnitsModeler > UnitsModeler > Units

2. Set Model Units:

1. Select Units: mmmmmmmm

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Set Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default Material

To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:

1. Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose SelectSelectSelectSelect

2. Select Definition Window:

1. Type pecpecpecpec in the Search by NameSearch by NameSearch by NameSearch by Name field

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Set Grid PlaneSet Grid PlaneSet Grid PlaneSet Grid Plane

To set the grid plane:To set the grid plane:To set the grid plane:To set the grid plane:

1. Select the menu item Modeler > Grid Plane > XZModeler > Grid Plane > XZModeler > Grid Plane > XZModeler > Grid Plane > XZ

Create the Conductor 1Create the Conductor 1Create the Conductor 1Create the Conductor 1

To create the conductorTo create the conductorTo create the conductorTo create the conductor

1. Select the menu item Draw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > Cylinder

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the cylinder position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius:

dX: 0.860.860.860.86, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the height:

dX: 0.00.00.00.0, dY: ----6.06.06.06.0, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: ConductorConductorConductorConductor

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . . Or press the CTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+D key

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Create the StubCreate the StubCreate the StubCreate the Stub

To create the stubTo create the stubTo create the stubTo create the stub

1. Select the menu item Draw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > Cylinder

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the cylinder position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius:

dX: 0.860.860.860.86, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the height:

dX: 0.00.00.00.0, dY: 4.754.754.754.75, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To parameterize the object:To parameterize the object:To parameterize the object:To parameterize the object:

1. Select the CommandCommandCommandCommand tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window

2. For HeightHeightHeightHeight, type: LLLL, Click the TabTabTabTab key to accept

Add Variable LLLL: 4.75mm4.75mm4.75mm4.75mm, Click the OKOKOKOK button

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: StubStubStubStub

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View....

Set Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default Material

To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:

1. Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose vacuumvacuumvacuumvacuum

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Create the BodyCreate the BodyCreate the BodyCreate the Body

To create the bodyTo create the bodyTo create the bodyTo create the body

1. Select the menu item Draw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > Cylinder

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the cylinder position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius:

dX: 2.02.02.02.0, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the height:

dX: 0.00.00.00.0, dY: ----6.06.06.06.0, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: BodyBodyBodyBody

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Create Wave Port Excitation 1Create Wave Port Excitation 1Create Wave Port Excitation 1Create Wave Port Excitation 1

To select surface for Wave Port 1To select surface for Wave Port 1To select surface for Wave Port 1To select surface for Wave Port 1

1. Press the FFFF key on keyboard ( Select Faces mode)

2. Click on the end surface of BodyBodyBodyBody as shown

To assign reference conductors for TerminalsTo assign reference conductors for TerminalsTo assign reference conductors for TerminalsTo assign reference conductors for Terminals

1. Select the menu item HFSS>Excitations>Assign>Wave PortHFSS>Excitations>Assign>Wave PortHFSS>Excitations>Assign>Wave PortHFSS>Excitations>Assign>Wave Port

2. In the pop up Reference Conductors for Terminals Reference Conductors for Terminals Reference Conductors for Terminals Reference Conductors for Terminals window, leave Conductor Conductor Conductor Conductor in Conducting Objects. Conducting Objects. Conducting Objects. Conducting Objects. Click OKOKOKOK

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Create Port 2 ArmCreate Port 2 ArmCreate Port 2 ArmCreate Port 2 Arm

To select the objects Conductor & BodyTo select the objects Conductor & BodyTo select the objects Conductor & BodyTo select the objects Conductor & Body

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > ObjectsEdit > Select > ObjectsEdit > Select > ObjectsEdit > Select > Objects

2. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

3. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: Body, ConductorBody, ConductorBody, ConductorBody, Conductor

Note:Note:Note:Note: Use the Ctrl + Left mouse button to select multiple objects

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

To create the port 2 arm:To create the port 2 arm:To create the port 2 arm:To create the port 2 arm:

1. Select the menu item, Edit > Duplicate > Around AxisEdit > Duplicate > Around AxisEdit > Duplicate > Around AxisEdit > Duplicate > Around Axis.

1. Axis: XXXX

2. Angle: -90909090

3. Total Number: 2222

4. Click the OK OK OK OK button

5. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

Create Stub BodyCreate Stub BodyCreate Stub BodyCreate Stub Body

To set the tool options:To set the tool options:To set the tool options:To set the tool options:

1. Select the menu item Tools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS Options

2. HFSS Options Window:

1. Click the GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneral tab

Duplicate boundaries with geometry: : : : UncheckedUncheckedUncheckedUnchecked

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To select the objects Body:To select the objects Body:To select the objects Body:To select the objects Body:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: BodyBodyBodyBody

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

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To create the stub body:To create the stub body:To create the stub body:To create the stub body:

1. Select the menu Select the menu item, Edit > Duplicate > Around AxisEdit > Duplicate > Around AxisEdit > Duplicate > Around AxisEdit > Duplicate > Around Axis.

1. Axis: XXXX

2. Angle: 180180180180

3. Total Number: 2222

4. Click the OK OK OK OK button

5. Click the OK OK OK OK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

Group the Body ObjectsGroup the Body ObjectsGroup the Body ObjectsGroup the Body Objects

To select the objects Body, Body_1, Body_2:To select the objects Body, Body_1, Body_2:To select the objects Body, Body_1, Body_2:To select the objects Body, Body_1, Body_2:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: Body, Body_1, Body_2Body, Body_1, Body_2Body, Body_1, Body_2Body, Body_1, Body_2

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

3. Select the menu item, Modeler > Boolean > UniteModeler > Boolean > UniteModeler > Boolean > UniteModeler > Boolean > Unite

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

Group the Conductor & Stub ObjectsGroup the Conductor & Stub ObjectsGroup the Conductor & Stub ObjectsGroup the Conductor & Stub Objects

To select the objects Conductor, Conductor_1, Stub:To select the objects Conductor, Conductor_1, Stub:To select the objects Conductor, Conductor_1, Stub:To select the objects Conductor, Conductor_1, Stub:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: Conductor, Conductor_1, StubConductor, Conductor_1, StubConductor, Conductor_1, StubConductor, Conductor_1, Stub

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

3. Select the menu item, Modeler > Boolean > UniteModeler > Boolean > UniteModeler > Boolean > UniteModeler > Boolean > Unite

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

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Boundary DisplayBoundary DisplayBoundary DisplayBoundary Display

To verify the boundary setup:To verify the boundary setup:To verify the boundary setup:To verify the boundary setup:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Boundary DisplayHFSS > Boundary DisplayHFSS > Boundary DisplayHFSS > Boundary Display (Solver View)(Solver View)(Solver View)(Solver View)

2. From the Solver View of Boundaries, toggle the Visibility check box for the

boundaries you wish to display.

Note:Note:Note:Note: The background (Perfect Conductor) is displayed as the outerouterouterouterboundary.

Note:Note:Note:Note: The Perfect Conductors are displayed as the smetalsmetalsmetalsmetal boundary.

Note:Note:Note:Note: Select the menu item, View > VisibilityView > VisibilityView > VisibilityView > Visibility to hide all of the

geometry objects. This makes it easier to see the boundary

3. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button when you are finished

Mesh OperationsMesh OperationsMesh OperationsMesh Operations

To select the object BodyTo select the object BodyTo select the object BodyTo select the object Body

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: BodyBodyBodyBody

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

To create a mesh operation:To create a mesh operation:To create a mesh operation:To create a mesh operation:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Mesh Operations > Assign > Inside HFSS > Mesh Operations > Assign > Inside HFSS > Mesh Operations > Assign > Inside HFSS > Mesh Operations > Assign > Inside Selection > Length basedSelection > Length basedSelection > Length basedSelection > Length based

2. Element Length Based Refinement Window:

1. Name: Body_Mesh: Body_Mesh: Body_Mesh: Body_Mesh

2. Restrict Length of Elements: : : : UncheckedUncheckedUncheckedUnchecked

3. Restrict the Number of Elements: CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

1. Maximum Number of Elements: 2000200020002000

4. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Analysis Setup

Creating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis Setup

To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup

2. Solution Setup Window:

1. Click the GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneral tab::::

Solution Frequency: 13.0 GHz: 13.0 GHz: 13.0 GHz: 13.0 GHz

Maximum Number of Passes: 10101010

Maximum Delta S: 0.020.020.020.02

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Adding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency Sweep

To add a frequency sweep:To add a frequency sweep:To add a frequency sweep:To add a frequency sweep:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add SweepHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add SweepHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add SweepHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Sweep

1. Select Solution Setup: Setup1 Setup1 Setup1 Setup1

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

2. Edit Sweep Window:

1. Sweep Type: Fast: Fast: Fast: Fast

2. Frequency Setup Type: Linear Step: Linear Step: Linear Step: Linear Step

Start: 5.0 GHz5.0 GHz5.0 GHz5.0 GHz

Stop: 20.0 GHz: 20.0 GHz: 20.0 GHz: 20.0 GHz

Step: 0.01 GHz: 0.01 GHz: 0.01 GHz: 0.01 GHz

Save Fields: CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Save ProjectSave ProjectSave ProjectSave Project

To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:

1. In an Ansoft HFSS window, select the menu item File > Save AsFile > Save AsFile > Save AsFile > Save As.

2. From the Save As Save As Save As Save As window, type the Filename: hfss_stub_resonatorhfss_stub_resonatorhfss_stub_resonatorhfss_stub_resonator

3. Click the SaveSaveSaveSave button

Analyze

Model ValidationModel ValidationModel ValidationModel Validation

To validate the model:To validate the model:To validate the model:To validate the model:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation Check

2. Click the Close Close Close Close button

Note:Note:Note:Note: To view any errors or warning messages, use the Message Manager.

AnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyze

To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analyze allHFSS > Analyze allHFSS > Analyze allHFSS > Analyze all

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Solution DataSolution DataSolution DataSolution Data

To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution Data

To view the Profile:To view the Profile:To view the Profile:To view the Profile:

1. Click the ProfileProfileProfileProfile Tab.

To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:

1. Click the ConvergenceConvergenceConvergenceConvergence Tab

Note: Note: Note: Note: The default view is for convergence is TableTableTableTable. Select

the PlotPlotPlotPlot radio button to view a graphical representations of

the convergence data.

To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:

1. Click the Matrix DataMatrix DataMatrix DataMatrix Data Tab

Note: Note: Note: Note: To view a real-time update of the Matrix Data, set the

Simulation to Setup1, Last AdaptiveSetup1, Last AdaptiveSetup1, Last AdaptiveSetup1, Last Adaptive

2. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

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Create Terminal SCreate Terminal SCreate Terminal SCreate Terminal S----Parameter Plot Parameter Plot Parameter Plot Parameter Plot ---- MagnitudeMagnitudeMagnitudeMagnitude

To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data Report> Rectangular PlotReport> Rectangular PlotReport> Rectangular PlotReport> Rectangular Plot

2. Traces Window::::

1. Solution: Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1

2. Domain: SweepSweepSweepSweep

3. Click the TraceTraceTraceTrace tab

1. Category: Terminal S ParameterTerminal S ParameterTerminal S ParameterTerminal S Parameter

2. Quantity: St(Conductor_T1,Conductor_T1), St(Conductor_T1,Conductor_T1), St(Conductor_T1,Conductor_T1), St(Conductor_T1,Conductor_T1), St(Conductor_T1,Conductor_T2)St(Conductor_T1,Conductor_T2)St(Conductor_T1,Conductor_T2)St(Conductor_T1,Conductor_T2)

3. Function: dBdBdBdB

4. Click the New ReportNew ReportNew ReportNew Report button

4. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

Data MarkersData MarkersData MarkersData Markers

Mark All TracesMark All TracesMark All TracesMark All Traces

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select AllEdit > Select AllEdit > Select AllEdit > Select All

2. Select the menu item Report 2D > Marker > Add MinimumReport 2D > Marker > Add MinimumReport 2D > Marker > Add MinimumReport 2D > Marker > Add Minimum

3. When you are finished, select the menu item Report 2D > Marker > Clear Report 2D > Marker > Clear Report 2D > Marker > Clear Report 2D > Marker > Clear All All All All to remove the marker.

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Optimetrics Setup – Parametric SweepDuring the design of a microwave device, it is common practice to develop

design trends based on swept parameters. Ansoft HFSS with Optimetrics

Parametric Sweep can automatically create these design curves.

Add a Parametric SweepAdd a Parametric SweepAdd a Parametric SweepAdd a Parametric Sweep

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Add ParametricHFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Add ParametricHFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Add ParametricHFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Add Parametric

2. Setup Sweep AnalysisSweep AnalysisSweep AnalysisSweep Analysis Window:

1. Click the Sweep DefinitionsSweep DefinitionsSweep DefinitionsSweep Definitions tab::::

1. Click the AddAddAddAdd button

2. Add/Edit Sweep Dialog

1. Select Variable: LLLL

2. Select Linear CountLinear CountLinear CountLinear Count

3. Start: 4.0mm4.0mm4.0mm4.0mm

4. Stop: 5.5mm5.5mm5.5mm5.5mm

5. Count: 5555

6. Click the AddAddAddAdd button

7. Click the OKOKOKOK button

2. Click the OptionsOptionsOptionsOptions tab::::

1. Save Fields and Mesh: CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Analyze Parametric SweepAnalyze Parametric SweepAnalyze Parametric SweepAnalyze Parametric Sweep

To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:

1. Expand the Project Tree to display the items listed under OptimetricsOptimetricsOptimetricsOptimetrics

2. Right-click the mouse on ParametricSetup1 ParametricSetup1 ParametricSetup1 ParametricSetup1 and choose Analyze Analyze Analyze Analyze

Optimetrics ResultsOptimetrics ResultsOptimetrics ResultsOptimetrics Results

To view the Optimetrics Results:To view the Optimetrics Results:To view the Optimetrics Results:To view the Optimetrics Results:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Optimetrics ResultsHFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Optimetrics ResultsHFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Optimetrics ResultsHFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Optimetrics Results

2. Select the ProfileProfileProfileProfile Tab to view the solution progress for each setup.

3. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button when you are finished viewing the results

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Create Terminal SCreate Terminal SCreate Terminal SCreate Terminal S----Parameter Plot Parameter Plot Parameter Plot Parameter Plot –––– S12 at each LS12 at each LS12 at each LS12 at each L

To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data Report> Rectangular PlotReport> Rectangular PlotReport> Rectangular PlotReport> Rectangular Plot

2. Traces Window::::

1. Solution: Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1

2. Domain: SweepSweepSweepSweep

3. Click the Families Families Families Families tab

1. Sweeps: Variable LLLL will Value AllAllAllAll

4. Click the TraceTraceTraceTrace tab

1. Primary Sweep: Freq: AllFreq: AllFreq: AllFreq: All

2. Category: Terminal S ParameterTerminal S ParameterTerminal S ParameterTerminal S Parameter

3. Quantity: St(Conductor_T1,Conductor_T2)St(Conductor_T1,Conductor_T2)St(Conductor_T1,Conductor_T2)St(Conductor_T1,Conductor_T2)

4. Function: dBdBdBdB

5. Click the New ReportNew ReportNew ReportNew Report button

5. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

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Optimetrics Setup – OptimizationThe Parametric Sweep was useful for generating design curves. For this simple

design with only a single variable we could use the design curves to make

educated guesses at performance targets that are not contained in the

Parametric Sweep. Ansoft HFSS and Optimetrics with Optimization takes the

guess work out of achieving performance targets. To demonstrate this we will target a minimum S12 at 13GHz. Since this device has a very high Q, we will

consider anything <= -40dB at 13GHz to be a minimum. From the Parametric

Sweep, we can see that the search range can be limited to the range 4.7-5.1mm.

Since we are only interested in obtaining an optimum solution for 13GHz, we will

add an additional Solution Setup that does not include the frequency sweep. This will reduce the amount of simulation time required to achieve the

performance goal.

Add an Analysis SetupAdd an Analysis SetupAdd an Analysis SetupAdd an Analysis Setup

To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup

2. Solution Setup Window:

1. Click the GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneral tab::::

Solution Frequency: 13.0 GHz: 13.0 GHz: 13.0 GHz: 13.0 GHz

Maximum Number of Passes: 10101010

Maximum Delta S per Pass: 0.020.020.020.02

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Define Optimization Design VariablesDefine Optimization Design VariablesDefine Optimization Design VariablesDefine Optimization Design Variables

To Define Optimization Design VariableTo Define Optimization Design VariableTo Define Optimization Design VariableTo Define Optimization Design Variable

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Design PropertiesHFSS > Design PropertiesHFSS > Design PropertiesHFSS > Design Properties

2. Click the Optimization Optimization Optimization Optimization radio button::::

1. Name: LLLL

2. Include: CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

3. Min: 4.0 mm 4.0 mm 4.0 mm 4.0 mm

4. Max: 5.5 mm5.5 mm5.5 mm5.5 mm

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Add Optimization SetupAdd Optimization SetupAdd Optimization SetupAdd Optimization Setup

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Add OptimizationHFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Add OptimizationHFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Add OptimizationHFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Add Optimization

2. Setup Optimization Window:

1. Click the GoalsGoalsGoalsGoals tab:

2. Optimizer: QuasiQuasiQuasiQuasi----NewtonNewtonNewtonNewton

3. Max. No. of Iterations: 10101010

4. Click the Setup CalculationsSetup CalculationsSetup CalculationsSetup Calculations button

5. Setup Output Variables dialog:

1. Category: Terminal S ParameterTerminal S ParameterTerminal S ParameterTerminal S Parameter

2. Quantity: St(Conductor_T1,Conductor_T2)St(Conductor_T1,Conductor_T2)St(Conductor_T1,Conductor_T2)St(Conductor_T1,Conductor_T2)

3. Function: magmagmagmag

4. Click the Add CalculationAdd CalculationAdd CalculationAdd Calculation button

5. Click the DoneDoneDoneDone button

6. From the Solution Column, click on the Setup1:Sweep1 Setup1:Sweep1 Setup1:Sweep1 Setup1:Sweep1 and select Setup2:LastAdaptiveSetup2:LastAdaptiveSetup2:LastAdaptiveSetup2:LastAdaptive from the list of solutions

7. Condition: <=<=<=<=

8. Click on Edit Goal/Weight Edit Goal/Weight Edit Goal/Weight Edit Goal/Weight button

1. Goal Value:0.010.010.010.01

2. Click on Weight Weight Weight Weight tab,

3. Set All Weight to 1, 1, 1, 1,

4. Click on SetSetSetSet button

5. Click OK OK OK OK button

9. Acceptable Cost: 0000

10. Click the VariablesVariablesVariablesVariables tab:

1. Min: 4.7 mm4.7 mm4.7 mm4.7 mm

2. Max: 5.1mm5.1mm5.1mm5.1mm

11. Click the General General General General tab

1. Parametrics Analysis: click on N/AN/AN/AN/A and select Paramatric Paramatric Paramatric Paramatric

Setup1Setup1Setup1Setup1

2. Select Parametric Sweep before OptimizationParametric Sweep before OptimizationParametric Sweep before OptimizationParametric Sweep before Optimization

12. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Analyze OptimizationAnalyze OptimizationAnalyze OptimizationAnalyze Optimization

To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:

1. Expand the Project Tree to display the items listed under OptimetricsOptimetricsOptimetricsOptimetrics

2. Right-click the mouse on OptimizationSetup1 OptimizationSetup1 OptimizationSetup1 OptimizationSetup1 and choose Analyze Analyze Analyze Analyze

Optimetrics ResultsOptimetrics ResultsOptimetrics ResultsOptimetrics Results

To view the Optimetrics Results:To view the Optimetrics Results:To view the Optimetrics Results:To view the Optimetrics Results:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Optimetrics ResultsHFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Optimetrics ResultsHFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Optimetrics ResultsHFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Optimetrics Results

2. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button when you are finished viewing the results

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Create Terminal SCreate Terminal SCreate Terminal SCreate Terminal S----Parameter Plot of Optimum ResultParameter Plot of Optimum ResultParameter Plot of Optimum ResultParameter Plot of Optimum Result

Select the menu HFSS> HFSS> HFSS> HFSS> OptimetricsOptimetricsOptimetricsOptimetrics Analysis > Analysis > Analysis > Analysis > OptimericsOptimericsOptimericsOptimerics ResultsResultsResultsResults

View: select TableTableTableTable

Select the iteration with optimal result: the lowest cost (cost =0)

Click on Apply Apply Apply Apply button

To analyze the optimum designTo analyze the optimum designTo analyze the optimum designTo analyze the optimum design

1. Right click Setup1Setup1Setup1Setup1 under AnalysisAnalysisAnalysisAnalysis in the project tree, and click AnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyze

To view the plotTo view the plotTo view the plotTo view the plot

The existing XY Plot 1XY Plot 1XY Plot 1XY Plot 1 will automatically be updated when the solution

completes.

To change to the XY Plot 1 window, select the menu item Window > XY Window > XY Window > XY Window > XY Plot 1.Plot 1.Plot 1.Plot 1.

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Microstrip Wave PortThis example is intended to show you how wave port size can influence the

results of any simulation using the Ansoft HFSS Version Design Environment.

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Ansoft Design EnvironmentThe following features of the Ansoft HFSS Design Environment are used to

create this passive device model

3D Solid Modeling

Primitives: Boxes, RectangleBoxes, RectangleBoxes, RectangleBoxes, Rectangle

Boolean Operations: Duplicate Along LineDuplicate Along LineDuplicate Along LineDuplicate Along Line

Boundary/Excitation

Ports: Wave Ports and Integration LinesWave Ports and Integration LinesWave Ports and Integration LinesWave Ports and Integration Lines

Analysis

Solution: Ports OnlyPorts OnlyPorts OnlyPorts Only

Sweep: InterpolatingInterpolatingInterpolatingInterpolating

Results

Cartesian plottingCartesian plottingCartesian plottingCartesian plotting

Fields Overlays

Port Field Display Port Field Display Port Field Display Port Field Display

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Getting Started

Launching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSS

1. To access Ansoft HFSS, click the Microsoft StartStartStartStart button, select ProgramsProgramsProgramsPrograms, and

select the Ansoft, HFSS 11Ansoft, HFSS 11Ansoft, HFSS 11Ansoft, HFSS 11 program group. Click HFSS 11HFSS 11HFSS 11HFSS 11.

Setting Tool OptionsSetting Tool OptionsSetting Tool OptionsSetting Tool Options

To set the tool options:To set the tool options:To set the tool options:To set the tool options:

Note: Note: Note: Note: In order to follow the steps outlined in this example, verify that the following tool options are set : : : :

1. Select the menu item Tools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS Options

2. HFSS Options Window:

1. Click the GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneral tab

Use Wizards for data entry when creating new boundaries: : : :

CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

Duplicate boundaries with geometry: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

3. Select the menu item Tools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler Options.

4. 3D Modeler Options Window:

1. Click the OperationOperationOperationOperation tab

Automatically cover closed polylines: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

2. Click the DrawingDrawingDrawingDrawing tab

Edit property of new primitives: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Example – Microstrip Wave Port

Design Review

Generally speaking when we assign a wave port to a microstrip line, or any

quasi-TEM line, we need to include some area around the actual transmission

line. The big question is, “how much area?”

Below you will see the cross section of a simple microstrip line with naming

conventions shown.

As a rule of thumb, we typically create a 2D rectangle to represent the wave port

stimulus for this type of structure. The dimensions of the rectangle are roughly

ten times the width of the transmission line by eight times the height of the

substrate.

REMEMBER: These are only guidelines !!!

The height of the port will be affected by the permittivity of the substrate. The

higher the permittivity, the less the fields will propagate in the air, and the shorter

the port can be made.

~10w

w

h

~8h

The width of the port will affect the port impedance and

propagating modes. The narrower the width (image on

right), the more the fields will couple to the side walls of the port. This effect may not be physical. The wider the

port, the greater chance that a higher frequency

waveguide mode can propagate.

This example will explore this last phenomenon.

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Opening a New ProjectOpening a New ProjectOpening a New ProjectOpening a New Project

To open a new project:To open a new project:To open a new project:To open a new project:

1. In the Ansoft HFSS desktop, a new project is automatically inserted.

2. When a new project is automatically opened, a new HFSS Design is also

automatically inserted into the project.

Set Solution TypeSet Solution TypeSet Solution TypeSet Solution Type

To set the solution type:To set the solution type:To set the solution type:To set the solution type:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution Type

2. Solution Type Window:

1. Choose Driven ModalDriven ModalDriven ModalDriven Modal

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Set Model UnitsSet Model UnitsSet Model UnitsSet Model Units

To set the units:To set the units:To set the units:To set the units:

1. Select the menu item Modeler > UnitsModeler > UnitsModeler > UnitsModeler > Units

2. Set Model Units:

1. Select Units: milmilmilmil

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Add New MaterialAdd New MaterialAdd New MaterialAdd New Material

To add a new material:To add a new material:To add a new material:To add a new material:

1. Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose SelectSelectSelectSelect

2. From the Select Definition window, click the Add MaterialAdd MaterialAdd MaterialAdd Material button

3. View/Edit Material Window:

1. Material Name: My_RogersMy_RogersMy_RogersMy_Rogers

2. Relative Permittivity: 3.38 3.38 3.38 3.38

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

4. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Create SubstrateCreate SubstrateCreate SubstrateCreate Substrate

To create the substrate:To create the substrate:To create the substrate:To create the substrate:

1. Select the menu item Draw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > Box

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: ----400.0400.0400.0400.0, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the box:

dX: 200.0200.0200.0200.0, dY: 800.0800.0800.0800.0, dZ: 8.08.08.08.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: SubstrateSubstrateSubstrateSubstrate

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

Set Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default Material

To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:

1. Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose SelectSelectSelectSelect

2. Select Definition Window:

1. Type pec pec pec pec in the Search by NameSearch by NameSearch by NameSearch by Name field

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Create TraceCreate TraceCreate TraceCreate Trace

To create the trace:To create the trace:To create the trace:To create the trace:

1. Select the menu item Draw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > Box

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: ----9.259.259.259.25, Z: 8.08.08.08.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the box:

dX: 200.0200.0200.0200.0, dY: 18.518.518.518.5, dZ: 1.41.41.41.4, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: TraceTraceTraceTrace

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

Create GroundCreate GroundCreate GroundCreate Ground

To create the ground:To create the ground:To create the ground:To create the ground:

1. Select the menu item Draw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > Box

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: ----400.0400.0400.0400.0, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the box:

dX: 200.0200.0200.0200.0, dY: 800.0800.0800.0800.0, dZ: ----1.41.41.41.4, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: GroundGroundGroundGround

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

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Set Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default Material

To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:

1. Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose vacuumvacuumvacuumvacuum

Create AirCreate AirCreate AirCreate Air

To create the Air:To create the Air:To create the Air:To create the Air:

1. Select the menu item Draw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > Box

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: ----400.0400.0400.0400.0, Z: ----1.41.41.41.4, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the box:

dX: 200.0200.0200.0200.0, dY: 800.0800.0800.0800.0, dZ: 200.0200.0200.0200.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: AirAirAirAir

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

Create Radiation BoundaryCreate Radiation BoundaryCreate Radiation BoundaryCreate Radiation Boundary

To select the object Air:To select the object Air:To select the object Air:To select the object Air:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: AirAirAirAir

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

To create a radiation boundaryTo create a radiation boundaryTo create a radiation boundaryTo create a radiation boundary

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Boundaries > Assign > RadiationHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > RadiationHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > RadiationHFSS > Boundaries > Assign > Radiation

2. Radiation Boundary Window

Name: Rad1Rad1Rad1Rad1

Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Set Grid PlaneSet Grid PlaneSet Grid PlaneSet Grid Plane

To set the grid plane:To set the grid plane:To set the grid plane:To set the grid plane:

1. Select the menu item Modeler > Grid Plane > YZModeler > Grid Plane > YZModeler > Grid Plane > YZModeler > Grid Plane > YZ

Create the Wave PortCreate the Wave PortCreate the Wave PortCreate the Wave Port

To create a rectangle that represents the port:To create a rectangle that represents the port:To create a rectangle that represents the port:To create a rectangle that represents the port:

1. Select the menu item Draw > RectangleDraw > RectangleDraw > RectangleDraw > Rectangle

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the center position

X: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0, Y: : : : ----200.0200.0200.0200.0, Z: 0.0,: 0.0,: 0.0,: 0.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the rectangle:

dX: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0: 0.0, dY: 400.0: 400.0: 400.0: 400.0, dZ: 50: 50: 50: 50.0000, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To parameterize the object:To parameterize the object:To parameterize the object:To parameterize the object:

1. Select the CommandCommandCommandCommand tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window

2. For PositionPositionPositionPosition, type: 0mil, 0mil, 0mil, 0mil, ----Port_Width/2, 0milPort_Width/2, 0milPort_Width/2, 0milPort_Width/2, 0mil, Click the TabTabTabTab key to accept

Add Variable Port_WidthPort_WidthPort_WidthPort_Width: 400mil400mil400mil400mil, Click the OKOKOKOK button

3. For YSizeYSizeYSizeYSize, type: Port_WidthPort_WidthPort_WidthPort_Width, Click the TabTabTabTab key to accept

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: Port1Port1Port1Port1

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Assign the Excitation 1Assign the Excitation 1Assign the Excitation 1Assign the Excitation 1

To select the object p1:To select the object p1:To select the object p1:To select the object p1:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: Port1Port1Port1Port1

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

To assign wave port excitationTo assign wave port excitationTo assign wave port excitationTo assign wave port excitation

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave Port

2. Wave Port : General

1. Name: p1p1p1p1,

2. Click the NextNextNextNext button

3. Wave Port : Modes

1. Number of Modes: 5555

2. For Mode 1111, click the NoneNoneNoneNone in the IntegrationIntegrationIntegrationIntegration LineLineLineLine column and select New LineNew LineNew LineNew Line

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the vector position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, Press the Enter Enter Enter Enter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the vertex

dX: 0.0, dY: 0.0: 0.0, dY: 0.0: 0.0, dY: 0.0: 0.0, dY: 0.0, dZ: 8.0, 8.0, 8.0, 8.0, Press the Enter Enter Enter Enter key

For Mode 1111, click the Zpi Zpi Zpi Zpi column and select ZpvZpvZpvZpv

1. Click the NextNextNextNext button

4. Wave Port : Post Processing

1. Click the NextNextNextNext button

5. Click the FinishFinishFinishFinish button

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Create Wave Port Excitation 2Create Wave Port Excitation 2Create Wave Port Excitation 2Create Wave Port Excitation 2

To select the object Port1:To select the object Port1:To select the object Port1:To select the object Port1:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: Port1Port1Port1Port1

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

To duplicate the port:To duplicate the port:To duplicate the port:To duplicate the port:

1. Select the menu item, Edit > Duplicate > Along LineEdit > Duplicate > Along LineEdit > Duplicate > Along LineEdit > Duplicate > Along Line

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the first point of the duplicate vector

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the second point of the duplicate

vector

dX: 200.0200.0200.0200.0, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.0,0.0,0.0,0.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

4. Duplicate Along Line Windows

1. Total Number: 2222

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

5. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Boundary DisplayBoundary DisplayBoundary DisplayBoundary Display

To verify the boundary setup:To verify the boundary setup:To verify the boundary setup:To verify the boundary setup:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Boundary DisplayHFSS > Boundary DisplayHFSS > Boundary DisplayHFSS > Boundary Display (Solver View)(Solver View)(Solver View)(Solver View)

2. From the Solver View of Boundaries, toggle the Visibility check box for the

boundaries you wish to display.

Note:Note:Note:Note: The background (Perfect Conductor) is displayed as the outerouterouterouterboundary.

Note:Note:Note:Note: The Perfect Conductors are displayed as the smetalsmetalsmetalsmetal boundary.

Note:Note:Note:Note: Select the menu item, View > VisibilityView > VisibilityView > VisibilityView > Visibility to hide all of the

geometry objects. This makes it easier to see the boundary

3. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button when you are finished

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Analysis Setup

Creating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis Setup

To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup

2. Solution Setup Window:

1. Click the GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneral tab::::

Solution Frequency: 20GHz: 20GHz: 20GHz: 20GHz

2. Check Solve Ports Only Solve Ports Only Solve Ports Only Solve Ports Only

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Adding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency Sweep

To add a frequency sweep:To add a frequency sweep:To add a frequency sweep:To add a frequency sweep:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Frequency SweepHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Frequency SweepHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Frequency SweepHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Frequency Sweep

1. Select Solution Setup: Setup1 Setup1 Setup1 Setup1

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

2. Edit Sweep Window:

1. Sweep Type: Interpolating

2. Frequency Setup Type: Linear Count: Linear Count: Linear Count: Linear Count

Start: 0.1GHz0.1GHz0.1GHz0.1GHz

Stop: 50.1GHz: 50.1GHz: 50.1GHz: 50.1GHz

Count: 81: 81: 81: 81

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Save ProjectSave ProjectSave ProjectSave Project

To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:

1. In an Ansoft HFSS window, select the menu item File > Save AsFile > Save AsFile > Save AsFile > Save As.

2. From the Save As Save As Save As Save As window, type the Filename: hfss_waveportshfss_waveportshfss_waveportshfss_waveports

3. Click the SaveSaveSaveSave button

Analyze

Model ValidationModel ValidationModel ValidationModel Validation

To validate the model:To validate the model:To validate the model:To validate the model:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation Check

2. Click the Close Close Close Close button

Note:Note:Note:Note: To view any errors or warning messages, use the Message Manager.

AnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyze

To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analyze AllHFSS > Analyze AllHFSS > Analyze AllHFSS > Analyze All

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Solution DataSolution DataSolution DataSolution Data

To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution Data

To view the Profile:To view the Profile:To view the Profile:To view the Profile:

1. Click the ProfileProfileProfileProfile Tab.

To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:

1. Click the Matrix DataMatrix DataMatrix DataMatrix Data Tab

1. Check the GammaGammaGammaGamma radio button

2. Uncheck the ZoZoZoZo radio button

3. Click the pulldown that displays Sweep1Sweep1Sweep1Sweep1, and change to PortOnlyPortOnlyPortOnlyPortOnly

2. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

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Create Reports

Create Propagation Constant vs. FrequencyCreate Propagation Constant vs. FrequencyCreate Propagation Constant vs. FrequencyCreate Propagation Constant vs. Frequency

To Create a report:To Create a report:To Create a report:To Create a report:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data Report > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular Plot

2. New Traces Window::::

1. Solution: Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1

2. Domain: SweepSweepSweepSweep

3. Category: GammaGammaGammaGamma

4. Quantity: Gamma(p1:1),Gamma(p1:2), Gamma(p1:3), Gamma(p1:1),Gamma(p1:2), Gamma(p1:3), Gamma(p1:1),Gamma(p1:2), Gamma(p1:3), Gamma(p1:1),Gamma(p1:2), Gamma(p1:3),

Gamma(p1:4), Gamma(p1:5)Gamma(p1:4), Gamma(p1:5)Gamma(p1:4), Gamma(p1:5)Gamma(p1:4), Gamma(p1:5)

5. Function: imimimim

6. Click the New ReportNew ReportNew ReportNew Report button

7. Click the Close Close Close Close button

8. See next page for plot and discussion of results

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Create Reports

DiscussionDiscussionDiscussionDiscussion

What does this plot tell us?

Given the physical size of the wave port object that we created, the fundamental

mode (p2:1) is a quasi-TEM mode that propagates from DC on up.

This also shows that higher order modes can propagate (β>0) at a high enough frequency. The second modes starts propagating at ~14 GHz.

Therefore, if we only needed to simulate up to 10 GHz, we wouldn’t need to size

our port any different, however, if we need to simulate up to 50 GHz, then we need to resize our port to eliminate the higher order propagating modes.

The last part of the exercise will explore this.

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Field Pattern PlotsSelect the menu item Window > Window > Window > Window > hfss_waveportshfss_waveportshfss_waveportshfss_waveports –––– HFSSdesign1 HFSSdesign1 HFSSdesign1 HFSSdesign1 ---- ModelerModelerModelerModeler

It might be illuminating to look at the field patterns at the port to discover which

modes are excited.

To display the Mode field patterns in the modeler:To display the Mode field patterns in the modeler:To display the Mode field patterns in the modeler:To display the Mode field patterns in the modeler:

1. From within the project manager, expand the section Port Field DisplayPort Field DisplayPort Field DisplayPort Field Display

2. Expand p1p1p1p1, and select Mode 2Mode 2Mode 2Mode 2

1. The field pattern will be overlaid on the 3D model. From the plot

below, Mode 2 is clearly not a microstrip mode, but a TE10-like

waveguide mode.

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Optimetrics Setup – Parametric Sweep

Add a Parametric SweepAdd a Parametric SweepAdd a Parametric SweepAdd a Parametric Sweep

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Add ParametricHFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Add ParametricHFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Add ParametricHFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Add Parametric

2. Setup Sweep AnalysisSweep AnalysisSweep AnalysisSweep Analysis Window:

1. Click the Sweep DefinitionsSweep DefinitionsSweep DefinitionsSweep Definitions tab::::

1. Click the AddAddAddAdd button

2. Add/Edit Sweep Dialog

1. Variable: Port_Width Port_Width Port_Width Port_Width

2. Select Linear StepLinear StepLinear StepLinear Step

3. Start: 200mil200mil200mil200mil

4. Stop: 600mil600mil600mil600mil

5. Step: 100mil100mil100mil100mil

6. Click the AddAddAddAdd >>>>>>>> button

7. Click the OKOKOKOK button

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Save ProjectSave ProjectSave ProjectSave Project

To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:

1. In an Ansoft HFSS window, select the menu item File > SaveFile > SaveFile > SaveFile > Save.

Analyze

Model ValidationModel ValidationModel ValidationModel Validation

To validate the model:To validate the model:To validate the model:To validate the model:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation Check

2. Click the Close Close Close Close button

Note:Note:Note:Note: To view any errors or warning messages, use the Message

Manager.

AnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyze

To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:

1. Expand the Project Tree to display the items listed under OptimetricsOptimetricsOptimetricsOptimetrics

2. Right-click the mouse on ParametricSetup1 ParametricSetup1 ParametricSetup1 ParametricSetup1 and choose Analyze Analyze Analyze Analyze

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Create Reports

Create Propagation Constant vs. Frequency vs. Port_WidthCreate Propagation Constant vs. Frequency vs. Port_WidthCreate Propagation Constant vs. Frequency vs. Port_WidthCreate Propagation Constant vs. Frequency vs. Port_Width

To Create a report:To Create a report:To Create a report:To Create a report:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data Report > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular Plot

2. Traces Window::::

1. Solution: Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1

2. Domain: SweepSweepSweepSweep

3. Category: GammaGammaGammaGamma

4. Quantity: Gamma(p1:2), Gamma(p1:2), Gamma(p1:2), Gamma(p1:2),

5. Function: imimimim

6. Click the New Report New Report New Report New Report button

7. Click the Close Close Close Close button

8. See next page for plot and discussion of results

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Create Reports

DiscussionDiscussionDiscussionDiscussion

What does this plot tell us?

This shows that as we decrease the width of the port, the frequency at which the

higher order mode starts to propagate increases.

Therefore, by properly sizing the wave port, you can eliminate any higher order

propagating modes if you believe that they do not exist.

You need to use caution if you are simulating very high frequencies, i.e.,

millimeter wavelengths, as you may not be able to make the ports small enough to eliminate these modes. You probably shouldn’t even try as the higher order

modes might represent real world effects.

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Create Reports

Create Propagation Constant vs. Port Width at a fixed frequencyCreate Propagation Constant vs. Port Width at a fixed frequencyCreate Propagation Constant vs. Port Width at a fixed frequencyCreate Propagation Constant vs. Port Width at a fixed frequency

To Create a report:To Create a report:To Create a report:To Create a report:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data Report > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular Plot

2. Traces Window::::

1. Solution: Setup1: PortOnlySetup1: PortOnlySetup1: PortOnlySetup1: PortOnly

2. Domain: SweepSweepSweepSweep

3. X: PortWidthPortWidthPortWidthPortWidth

4. Category: GammaGammaGammaGamma

5. Quantity: Gamma(p1:2), Gamma(p1:2), Gamma(p1:2), Gamma(p1:2),

6. Function: imimimim

7. Click the New Report New Report New Report New Report button

8. Click the Close Close Close Close button

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Example – Ferrite Circulator

The Waveguide CirculatorThis example is intended to show you how to create, simulate, and analyze a

waveguide ferrite circulator, using the Ansoft HFSS Design Environment, and

Ansoft Maxwell Design Environment.

This example will utilize Maxwell to calculate the magnetic field bias in the ferrite

core, and then HFSS will utilize this non-uniform bias distribution to solve the

microwave circulator.

We will start off by creating the ferrite object and electro-magnet in Maxwell, and then adding the circulator objects within HFSS.

Nominal Design:Nominal Design:Nominal Design:Nominal Design:

Waveguide:Waveguide:Waveguide:Waveguide:

Width = 0.9 inWidth = 0.9 inWidth = 0.9 inWidth = 0.9 in

Height = 0.4 in Height = 0.4 in Height = 0.4 in Height = 0.4 in

Length =Length =Length =Length = 2 in2 in2 in2 in

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Ansoft HFSS Design Environment

The following features of the Ansoft HFSS Design Environment are used to create this passive device model

3D Solid Modeling

Primitives: BoxBoxBoxBox

Boolean Operations: Unite, DuplicateUnite, DuplicateUnite, DuplicateUnite, Duplicate

Excitations

Ports: Wave PortsWave PortsWave PortsWave Ports

Analysis

Sweep: Interpolating Frequency: Interpolating Frequency: Interpolating Frequency: Interpolating Frequency

Results

Cartesian plottingCartesian plottingCartesian plottingCartesian plotting

Fields

3D Field Plots, Animations3D Field Plots, Animations3D Field Plots, Animations3D Field Plots, Animations

Ansoft Maxwell Design Environment

The following features of the Ansoft Maxwell Design Environment are used to create this passive device model

3D Solid Modeling

Primitives: BoxBoxBoxBox

Boolean Operations: Unite, Duplicate, SubtractUnite, Duplicate, SubtractUnite, Duplicate, SubtractUnite, Duplicate, Subtract

Excitations

Terminal: CurrentCurrentCurrentCurrent

Analysis

Magnetostatic

Fields

3D Field Plots3D Field Plots3D Field Plots3D Field Plots

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Getting Started

Launching Ansoft MaxwellLaunching Ansoft MaxwellLaunching Ansoft MaxwellLaunching Ansoft Maxwell

1. To access Ansoft Maxwell, click the Microsoft StartStartStartStart button, select ProgramsProgramsProgramsPrograms, and

select the Ansoft, Maxwell 12 Ansoft, Maxwell 12 Ansoft, Maxwell 12 Ansoft, Maxwell 12 program group. Click Maxwell 12Maxwell 12Maxwell 12Maxwell 12.

Opening a New ProjectOpening a New ProjectOpening a New ProjectOpening a New Project

By default, when Maxwell first starts up, a new project will be By default, when Maxwell first starts up, a new project will be By default, when Maxwell first starts up, a new project will be By default, when Maxwell first starts up, a new project will be opened. opened. opened. opened.

If you have been working in Maxwell and need to open a new projeIf you have been working in Maxwell and need to open a new projeIf you have been working in Maxwell and need to open a new projeIf you have been working in Maxwell and need to open a new project: ct: ct: ct:

1. In an Ansoft Maxwell window, click the On the Standard toolbar, or

select the menu item File > NewFile > NewFile > NewFile > New.

2. Expand the folder and review the sub-folders in the Project Manager

Inserting a New DesignInserting a New DesignInserting a New DesignInserting a New Design

We need to insert a new 3D design for the ferrite bias model.

Select Project > Insert Maxwell 3D DesignProject > Insert Maxwell 3D DesignProject > Insert Maxwell 3D DesignProject > Insert Maxwell 3D Design

Set Solution TypeSet Solution TypeSet Solution TypeSet Solution Type

To set the solution type:To set the solution type:To set the solution type:To set the solution type:

1. Select the menu item Maxwell 3D > Solution TypeMaxwell 3D > Solution TypeMaxwell 3D > Solution TypeMaxwell 3D > Solution Type

2. Solution Type Window:

1. Choose MagnetostaticMagnetostaticMagnetostaticMagnetostatic

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Creating the 3D Model

Set Model UnitsSet Model UnitsSet Model UnitsSet Model Units

To set the units:To set the units:To set the units:To set the units:

1. Select the menu item Modeler > UnitsModeler > UnitsModeler > UnitsModeler > Units

2. Set Model Units:

1. Select Units: inininin

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Set Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default Material

To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:

1. Using the 3D Modeler Materials picklist in the toolbar, choose SelectSelectSelectSelect

2. In the material definition dialog, enter steelsteelsteelsteel in the search box, and select

the steel_1010steel_1010steel_1010steel_1010 material from the list.

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Create Magnet CoreCreate Magnet CoreCreate Magnet CoreCreate Magnet Core

To create side1:To create side1:To create side1:To create side1:

1. Select the menu item Draw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > Box

2.2.2.2. Press the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fiePress the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fiePress the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fiePress the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fieldsldsldslds

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box position

X: 0.250.250.250.25, Y: 0.250.250.250.25, Z: 0.250.250.250.25, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the base

rectangle:

dX: ----0.50.50.50.5, dY: 0.50.50.50.5, dZ: -0.5, 0.5, 0.5, 0.5, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: core1_acore1_acore1_acore1_a

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . . Or press the CTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+D key

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Creating the 3D Model (cont’d)

Create Magnet CoreCreate Magnet CoreCreate Magnet CoreCreate Magnet Core

To continue side1:To continue side1:To continue side1:To continue side1:

1. Select the menu item Draw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > Box

2.2.2.2. Press the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fiePress the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fiePress the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fiePress the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fieldsldsldslds

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box position

X: 0.250.250.250.25, Y: 0.750.750.750.75, Z: 0.250.250.250.25, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the base rectangle:

dX: ----0.50.50.50.5, dY: 0.50.50.50.5, dZ: ----1.5, 1.5, 1.5, 1.5, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: core1_bcore1_bcore1_bcore1_b

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . . Or press the CTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+D key

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Creating the 3D Model (cont’d)

Create Magnet CoreCreate Magnet CoreCreate Magnet CoreCreate Magnet Core

To duplicate side1:To duplicate side1:To duplicate side1:To duplicate side1:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select All Visible Edit > Select All Visible Edit > Select All Visible Edit > Select All Visible or simply press Ctrl + ACtrl + ACtrl + ACtrl + A

2. Select Edit > Duplicate > Around AxisEdit > Duplicate > Around AxisEdit > Duplicate > Around AxisEdit > Duplicate > Around Axis

Axis: ZZZZ,

Angle: 180 degrees: 180 degrees: 180 degrees: 180 degrees

Total Number: 2222

Press the OK OK OK OK key

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Creating the 3D Model (cont’d)

Create Magnet CoreCreate Magnet CoreCreate Magnet CoreCreate Magnet Core

To create base:To create base:To create base:To create base:

1. Select the menu item Draw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > Box

2.2.2.2. Press the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fiePress the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fiePress the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fiePress the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fieldsldsldslds

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box position

X: ----0.250.250.250.25, Y: ----0.750.750.750.75, Z: ----1.251.251.251.25 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the base rectangle:

dX: 0.50.50.50.5, dY: 1.51.51.51.5, dZ: 0.5, 0.5, 0.5, 0.5, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: core_basecore_basecore_basecore_base

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . . Or press the CTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+D key

2. Select the menu item Edit > Deselect AllEdit > Deselect AllEdit > Deselect AllEdit > Deselect All

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Creating the 3D Model (cont’d)

Create Magnet CoreCreate Magnet CoreCreate Magnet CoreCreate Magnet Core

To unite objects:To unite objects:To unite objects:To unite objects:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select All Visible Edit > Select All Visible Edit > Select All Visible Edit > Select All Visible or simply press Ctrl + ACtrl + ACtrl + ACtrl + A

2. Select Modeler > Boolean > UniteModeler > Boolean > UniteModeler > Boolean > UniteModeler > Boolean > Unite

Set Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default Material

To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:

1. Using the 3D Modeler Materials picklist in the toolbar, choose SelectSelectSelectSelect

2. In the material definition dialog, enter copper copper copper copper in the search box, and select

the copper copper copper copper material from the list.

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Create CoilCreate CoilCreate CoilCreate Coil

To create coil:To create coil:To create coil:To create coil:

1. Select the menu item Draw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > Box

2.2.2.2. Press the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fiePress the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fiePress the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fiePress the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fieldsldsldslds

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box position

X: 0.30.30.30.3, Y: ----0.3750.3750.3750.375, Z: ----0.70.70.70.7 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the base

rectangle:

dX: ----0.60.60.60.6 dY: 0.750.750.750.75, dZ: ----0.6, 0.6, 0.6, 0.6, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: coilcoilcoilcoil

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . . Or press the CTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+D key

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Creating the 3D Model (cont’d)

Create Coil (contCreate Coil (contCreate Coil (contCreate Coil (cont’’’’d)d)d)d)

To subtract the core from the coilTo subtract the core from the coilTo subtract the core from the coilTo subtract the core from the coil

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select All Visible Edit > Select All Visible Edit > Select All Visible Edit > Select All Visible or simply press Ctrl + ACtrl + ACtrl + ACtrl + A

2. Select the menu item Modeler > Boolean > SubtractModeler > Boolean > SubtractModeler > Boolean > SubtractModeler > Boolean > Subtract

3. The object core1_acore1_acore1_acore1_a should be on the Tool parts Tool parts Tool parts Tool parts side

Select object core1_acore1_acore1_acore1_a from the Blank Parts Blank Parts Blank Parts Blank Parts side, and press the

arrow pointing right

4. The object coil coil coil coil should be on the Blank Parts Blank Parts Blank Parts Blank Parts side

Select object coil coil coil coil from the Tool Parts Tool Parts Tool Parts Tool Parts side, and press the arrow

pointing left

5. Select the option to Clone tool objects before subtractingClone tool objects before subtractingClone tool objects before subtractingClone tool objects before subtracting

6. Before pressing OKOKOKOK, make sure the dialog looks as below:

7. Press the OKOKOKOK button

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Creating the 3D Model (cont’d)

Set Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default Material

To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:

1. Using the 3D Modeler Materials picklist in the toolbar, choose SelectSelectSelectSelect

2. In the material definition dialog, click on the Add Material Add Material Add Material Add Material button

3. Under the Relative Permeability Relative Permeability Relative Permeability Relative Permeability type column, select SimpleSimpleSimpleSimple, and then

choose Nonlinear Nonlinear Nonlinear Nonlinear from the pulldown.

4. Click on the BBBB----H Curve H Curve H Curve H Curve button for the Relative Permeability

5. This opens up a new dialog where values describing the B-H curve for the

ferrite will be entered.

6. Using the fields on the left side of the dialog, enter the following values

H: 0000, B: 0000

H: 150150150150, B: 0.1250.1250.1250.125

H: 160160160160: B: 0.130.130.130.13

H: 10160101601016010160, B: 0.14256640.14256640.14256640.1425664

You can use the TabTabTabTab key and EnterEnterEnterEnter key to cycle through these

values

The units should be:

H: A_per_meter

B: tesla

7. Click OK to accept these changes to the B-H curve

8. Change the material name to TT1-109

9. Click OKOKOKOK to accept this material

10. Click OKOKOKOK to exit material library window

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Creating the 3D Model (cont’d)

Create Terminal objectCreate Terminal objectCreate Terminal objectCreate Terminal object

To create terminal current object:To create terminal current object:To create terminal current object:To create terminal current object:

1. From the Drawing Plane toolbar pulldown, select the XYXYXYXYplane

2. Select the menu item Draw > RectangleDraw > RectangleDraw > RectangleDraw > Rectangle

3.3.3.3. Press the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fiePress the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fiePress the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fiePress the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fieldsldsldslds

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the center of the base

X: 0.250.250.250.25, Y: ----0.3750.3750.3750.375, Z: ----1 1 1 1 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

5. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the size of the rectangle

dX: 0.050.050.050.05, dY: 0.750.750.750.75, dZ: 0 0 0 0 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: terminalterminalterminalterminal

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . . Or press the CTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+D key

Assign the Current biasAssign the Current biasAssign the Current biasAssign the Current bias

To assign the current to the selected object:To assign the current to the selected object:To assign the current to the selected object:To assign the current to the selected object:

1. Select the menu item Maxwell 3D > Excitations > Assign > CurrentMaxwell 3D > Excitations > Assign > CurrentMaxwell 3D > Excitations > Assign > CurrentMaxwell 3D > Excitations > Assign > Current

2. Enter the value bias_currentbias_currentbias_currentbias_current in the entry for current and press EnterEnterEnterEnter

3. This will bring up a dialog requesting the value of the newly created variable, bias_currentbias_currentbias_currentbias_current. Enter 200A200A200A200A for the variable value, including the unit

factor “A”

4. Click OKOKOKOK to accept this value.

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Creating the 3D Model (cont’d)

Create FerriteCreate FerriteCreate FerriteCreate Ferrite

To create ferrite:To create ferrite:To create ferrite:To create ferrite:

1. From the Drawing Plane toolbar pulldown, select the ZXZXZXZX plane

2. Select the menu item Draw > Regular PolyhedronDraw > Regular PolyhedronDraw > Regular PolyhedronDraw > Regular Polyhedron

3.3.3.3. Press the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fiePress the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fiePress the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fiePress the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fieldsldsldslds

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the center of the base

X: 0000, Y: ----0.20.20.20.2, Z: ----0 0 0 0 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

5. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the radius

dX: 0000, dY: 0000, dZ: 0.205 0.205 0.205 0.205 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

6. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter height

dX: 0000, dY: 0.40.40.40.4, dZ: 0, 0, 0, 0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

7. Number of segments: 3333

8. Click OKOKOKOK button

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: ferriteferriteferriteferrite

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

4. Select the menu item Edit > Deselect AllEdit > Deselect AllEdit > Deselect AllEdit > Deselect All

Assigning Boundary ConditionsAssign Insulating Boundary conditionAssign Insulating Boundary conditionAssign Insulating Boundary conditionAssign Insulating Boundary condition

To select faces:To select faces:To select faces:To select faces:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > Faces

2. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

3. From the Object Name Object Name Object Name Object Name side of the dialog, select the coilcoilcoilcoil object

4. From the Face ID Face ID Face ID Face ID side of the dialog, hold the CtrlCtrlCtrlCtrl key and click on only

those face IDs which represent the interior faces of the coil object

1. NOTE: The numbers may be different than those shown below

5. Click OKOKOKOK

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Assigning Boundary Conditions (cont’d)

Assign Insulating Boundary condition (contAssign Insulating Boundary condition (contAssign Insulating Boundary condition (contAssign Insulating Boundary condition (cont’’’’d)d)d)d)To assign boundary form selected faces:To assign boundary form selected faces:To assign boundary form selected faces:To assign boundary form selected faces:

1. Select the menu item Maxwell 3D > Boundaries > Assign > InsulatingMaxwell 3D > Boundaries > Assign > InsulatingMaxwell 3D > Boundaries > Assign > InsulatingMaxwell 3D > Boundaries > Assign > Insulating

2. Click OKOKOKOK

Create airboxSelect the menu item Draw > Region

Type 300300300300 into Padding Percentage box

Click OKOKOKOK button

Setup solutionTo setup solution for analysis:To setup solution for analysis:To setup solution for analysis:To setup solution for analysis:

1. Select the menu item Maxwell 3D > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupMaxwell 3D > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupMaxwell 3D > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupMaxwell 3D > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup

2. Accept all defaults, and click OKOKOKOK

Save ProjectTo save the project:To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:

1. Select the menu item File > SaveFile > SaveFile > SaveFile > Save

2. Enter the name bias_magnetbias_magnetbias_magnetbias_magnet

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Run AnalysisTo run project validation before simulation:To run project validation before simulation:To run project validation before simulation:To run project validation before simulation:

1. Select the menu item Maxwell 3D > Validation CheckMaxwell 3D > Validation CheckMaxwell 3D > Validation CheckMaxwell 3D > Validation Check

2. If all entries come back with a green checkmark, then the project is ready to

analyze.

To run project:To run project:To run project:To run project:

1. Select the menu item Maxwell 3D > Analyze AllMaxwell 3D > Analyze AllMaxwell 3D > Analyze AllMaxwell 3D > Analyze All

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Post-Process Field DataTo create a field overlay plot of the static bias field:To create a field overlay plot of the static bias field:To create a field overlay plot of the static bias field:To create a field overlay plot of the static bias field:

1. From the Model history tree, expand the section marked Planes, Planes, Planes, Planes, and select

the plane marked Global:YZGlobal:YZGlobal:YZGlobal:YZ

2. Select the menu item Maxwell 3D > Fields > Fields > H > Mag HMaxwell 3D > Fields > Fields > H > Mag HMaxwell 3D > Fields > Fields > H > Mag HMaxwell 3D > Fields > Fields > H > Mag H

3. Accept the defaults for the field overlay plot.

4. By zooming into the ferrite object, we can see the magnitude of the static H field is around 7000 A/m.

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Copy ferrite to clipboardTo copy an object to the clipboardTo copy an object to the clipboardTo copy an object to the clipboardTo copy an object to the clipboard

1. We want to use the ferrite object in its exact location in the HFSS project.

To accomplish this, we simply copy the object to the clipboard.

2. Select the menu item Edit > Select > ObjectEdit > Select > ObjectEdit > Select > ObjectEdit > Select > Object

3. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

4. Select the object ferriteferriteferriteferrite

5. Click OKOKOKOK

6. Select the menu item Edit > CopyEdit > CopyEdit > CopyEdit > Copy

Getting Started

Launching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSS

1. To access Ansoft HFSS, click the Microsoft StartStartStartStart button, select ProgramsProgramsProgramsPrograms, and

select the Ansoft, HFSS 11Ansoft, HFSS 11Ansoft, HFSS 11Ansoft, HFSS 11 program group. Click HFSS 11HFSS 11HFSS 11HFSS 11.

Setting Tool OptionsSetting Tool OptionsSetting Tool OptionsSetting Tool Options

To set the tool options:To set the tool options:To set the tool options:To set the tool options:

Note: Note: Note: Note: In order to follow the steps outlined in this example, verify that the

following tool options are set : : : :

1. Select the menu item Tools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS Options

2. HFSS Options Window:

1. Click the GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneral tab

Use Wizards for data entry when creating new boundaries: : : :

CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

Duplicate boundaries with geometry: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

3. Select the menu item Tools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler Options.

4. 3D Modeler Options Window:

1. Click the OperationOperationOperationOperation tab

Automatically cover closed polylines: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

2. Click the DrawingDrawingDrawingDrawing tab

Edit property of new primitives: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Opening a New ProjectOpening a New ProjectOpening a New ProjectOpening a New Project

By default, when HFSS first starts up, a new project will be opeBy default, when HFSS first starts up, a new project will be opeBy default, when HFSS first starts up, a new project will be opeBy default, when HFSS first starts up, a new project will be opened. ned. ned. ned.

If you have been working in HFSS and need to open a new project:If you have been working in HFSS and need to open a new project:If you have been working in HFSS and need to open a new project:If you have been working in HFSS and need to open a new project:

1. In an Ansoft HFSS window, click the On the Standard toolbar, or select

the menu item File > NewFile > NewFile > NewFile > New.

2. Expand the folder and review the sub-folders in the Project Manager

Set Solution TypeSet Solution TypeSet Solution TypeSet Solution Type

To set the solution type:To set the solution type:To set the solution type:To set the solution type:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution Type

2. Solution Type Window:

1. Choose Driven ModalDriven ModalDriven ModalDriven Modal

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Creating the 3D Model

Set Model UnitsSet Model UnitsSet Model UnitsSet Model Units

To set the units:To set the units:To set the units:To set the units:

1. Select the menu item Modeler > UnitsModeler > UnitsModeler > UnitsModeler > Units

2. Set Model Units:

1. Select Units: inininin

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Paste the ferrite object from clipboardPaste the ferrite object from clipboardPaste the ferrite object from clipboardPaste the ferrite object from clipboard

To paste the ferrite object:To paste the ferrite object:To paste the ferrite object:To paste the ferrite object:

1. Select the menu item Edit > PasteEdit > PasteEdit > PasteEdit > Paste

Change the ferrite material propertiesChange the ferrite material propertiesChange the ferrite material propertiesChange the ferrite material properties

To edit the ferrite material propertiesTo edit the ferrite material propertiesTo edit the ferrite material propertiesTo edit the ferrite material properties

1. The ferrite material as imported from Maxwell 3D is not a valid definition for

an HFSS solution.

2. From the Project ManagerProject ManagerProject ManagerProject Manager, expand the section marked DefinitionsDefinitionsDefinitionsDefinitions

3. Expand the section marked MaterialsMaterialsMaterialsMaterials

4. Double-click on the material TT1TT1TT1TT1----109109109109

5. From the material properties dialog, change the values to those shown below

Permittivity: 11.811.811.811.8

Permeability:

Type: SimpleSimpleSimpleSimple

Value: 1111

Magnetic Saturation: 1300 Gauss1300 Gauss1300 Gauss1300 Gauss

Lande G Factor: 1.981.981.981.98

DH: 162 Oe162 Oe162 Oe162 Oe

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Creating the 3D Model

Set Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default Material

To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:

1. Using the 3D Modeler Materials picklist in the toolbar, choose vacuumvacuumvacuumvacuum

Create Top ArmCreate Top ArmCreate Top ArmCreate Top Arm

To create arm 1:To create arm 1:To create arm 1:To create arm 1:

1. Select the menu item Draw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > Box

2.2.2.2. Press the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fiePress the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fiePress the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fiePress the Tab key to move the cursor to the coordinate entry fieldsldsldslds

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box position

X: 0.450.450.450.45 Y: ----0.20.20.20.2, Z: 2222 Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

4. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the base

rectangle:

dX: ----0.90.90.90.9, dY: 0.40.40.40.4, dZ: ----2, 2, 2, 2, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: ArmArmArmArm

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . . Or press the CTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+D key

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Creating the 3D Model (cont’d)

Create Wave Port Excitation 1Create Wave Port Excitation 1Create Wave Port Excitation 1Create Wave Port Excitation 1

Picking the port face:Picking the port face:Picking the port face:Picking the port face:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > Faces

2. Graphically select (click on) the top face of the arm at Z=2in

To assign wave port excitationTo assign wave port excitationTo assign wave port excitationTo assign wave port excitation

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave Port

2. Wave Port : General

1. Name: p1p1p1p1

2. Click the NextNextNextNext button

3. Wave Port : Modes

1. Click the NextNextNextNext button

4. Wave Port : Post Processing

1. Click the FinishFinishFinishFinish button

Top face

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Creating the 3D Model (cont’d)

Set Object Selection Set Object Selection Set Object Selection Set Object Selection

Set select to objectsSet select to objectsSet select to objectsSet select to objects

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > ObjectsEdit > Select > ObjectsEdit > Select > ObjectsEdit > Select > Objects

Create Arm 2 & 3Create Arm 2 & 3Create Arm 2 & 3Create Arm 2 & 3

To select the object Arm:To select the object Arm:To select the object Arm:To select the object Arm:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: ArmArmArmArm

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

To create arm 3 & 4:To create arm 3 & 4:To create arm 3 & 4:To create arm 3 & 4:

1. Select the menu item, Edit > Duplicate > Around AxisEdit > Duplicate > Around AxisEdit > Duplicate > Around AxisEdit > Duplicate > Around Axis.

1. Axis: YYYY

2. Angle: 120120120120

3. Total Number: 3333

4. Click the OK OK OK OK button

5. Click the OKOKOKOK button to exit property window

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . . Or press the CTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+D key

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Creating the 3D Model (cont’d)

Group the ArmsGroup the ArmsGroup the ArmsGroup the Arms

To group the arms:To group the arms:To group the arms:To group the arms:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. In the field below the object list, you can enter a search term. Enter Arm*Arm*Arm*Arm*

and press EnterEnterEnterEnter

3. Click OKOKOKOK

4. Select the menu item Modeler > Boolean > UniteModeler > Boolean > UniteModeler > Boolean > UniteModeler > Boolean > Unite

Assigning the Excitations

Select the Ferrite objectSelect the Ferrite objectSelect the Ferrite objectSelect the Ferrite object

Set select to objectsSet select to objectsSet select to objectsSet select to objects

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > ObjectsEdit > Select > ObjectsEdit > Select > ObjectsEdit > Select > Objects

2. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

3. Select the object ferriteferriteferriteferrite

4. Click OKOKOKOK

Assign the Magnetic bias to the ferrite objectAssign the Magnetic bias to the ferrite objectAssign the Magnetic bias to the ferrite objectAssign the Magnetic bias to the ferrite object

To assign the magnetic bias:To assign the magnetic bias:To assign the magnetic bias:To assign the magnetic bias:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Excitations > Assign > Magnetic BiasHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Magnetic BiasHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Magnetic BiasHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Magnetic Bias

2. In the excitation setup, select the Non-Uniform radio button

3. Click the Setup LinkSetup LinkSetup LinkSetup Link button

4.4.4.4. GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneral Tab

1. Save Source path relative to: This ProjectThis ProjectThis ProjectThis Project

2. Click on button to browse to location of saved Maxwell project

5.5.5.5. ParametersParametersParametersParameters Tab

1. In the field that is populated under the heading ValueValueValueValue, enter the variable name bias_currentbias_currentbias_currentbias_current., and press EnterEnterEnterEnter

2. Enter a value of 200A for this variable, and click OKOKOKOK.

3. Even though the Parameter shows bias_currentbias_currentbias_currentbias_current, we need to create an HFSS-specific variable that can change the value in the Maxwell project.

6. Click OKOKOKOK

7. Click FinishFinishFinishFinish

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Boundary DisplayBoundary DisplayBoundary DisplayBoundary Display

To verify the boundary setup:To verify the boundary setup:To verify the boundary setup:To verify the boundary setup:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Boundary DisplayHFSS > Boundary DisplayHFSS > Boundary DisplayHFSS > Boundary Display (Solver View)(Solver View)(Solver View)(Solver View)

2. From the Solver View of Boundaries, toggle the Visibility check box for the

boundaries you wish to display.

Note:Note:Note:Note: The background (Perfect Conductor) is displayed as the outerouterouterouter

boundary.

Note:Note:Note:Note: Select the menu item, View > Active View VisibilityView > Active View VisibilityView > Active View VisibilityView > Active View Visibility to hide all

of the geometry objects. This makes it easier to see the boundary

conditions.

3. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button when you are finished

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Analysis Setup

Creating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis Setup

To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup

2. Solution Setup Window:

1. Click the GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneral tab::::

Solution Frequency: 10.3GHz: 10.3GHz: 10.3GHz: 10.3GHz

Maximum Number of Passes: 6666

Maximum Delta S per Pass: 0.020.020.020.02

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Adding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency Sweep

To add a frequency sweep:To add a frequency sweep:To add a frequency sweep:To add a frequency sweep:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Frequency SweepHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Frequency SweepHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Frequency SweepHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Frequency Sweep

1. Select Solution Setup: Setup1 Setup1 Setup1 Setup1

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

2. Edit Sweep Window:

1. Sweep Type: Interpolating: Interpolating: Interpolating: Interpolating

2. Frequency Setup Type: Linear Count: Linear Count: Linear Count: Linear Count

Start: 8GHz8GHz8GHz8GHz

Stop: 12GHz: 12GHz: 12GHz: 12GHz

Count: 401: 401: 401: 401

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Save ProjectSave ProjectSave ProjectSave Project

To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:

1. In an Ansoft HFSS window, select the menu item File > Save AsFile > Save AsFile > Save AsFile > Save As.

2. From the Save As Save As Save As Save As window, type the Filename: ferrite_circulatorferrite_circulatorferrite_circulatorferrite_circulator

3. Click the SaveSaveSaveSave button

Analyze

Model ValidationModel ValidationModel ValidationModel Validation

To validate the model:To validate the model:To validate the model:To validate the model:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation Check

2. Click the Close Close Close Close button

Note:Note:Note:Note: To view any errors or warning messages, use the Message

Manager.

AnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyze

To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analyze AllHFSS > Analyze AllHFSS > Analyze AllHFSS > Analyze All

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Solution DataSolution DataSolution DataSolution Data

To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution Data

To view the Profile:To view the Profile:To view the Profile:To view the Profile:

1. Click the ProfileProfileProfileProfile Tab.

To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:

1. Click the ConvergenceConvergenceConvergenceConvergence Tab

Note: Note: Note: Note: The default view is for convergence is TableTableTableTable. Select

the PlotPlotPlotPlot radio button to view a graphical representations of

the convergence data.

To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:

1. Click the Matrix DataMatrix DataMatrix DataMatrix Data Tab

Note: Note: Note: Note: To view a real-time update of the Matrix Data during

analysis, open this dialog and set the Simulation to Setup1, Setup1, Setup1, Setup1,

Last AdaptiveLast AdaptiveLast AdaptiveLast Adaptive

2. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

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Create Reports

Create Modal SCreate Modal SCreate Modal SCreate Modal S----Parameter Plot vs. Adaptive PassParameter Plot vs. Adaptive PassParameter Plot vs. Adaptive PassParameter Plot vs. Adaptive Pass

Note: Note: Note: Note: If this report is created prior or during the solution process, a real-time

update of the results are displayed

To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data Report > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular Plot

2. Report Dialog::::

1. Solution: Setup1: Setup1: Setup1: Setup1: AdaptivePassAdaptivePassAdaptivePassAdaptivePass

2. Click the Trace Trace Trace Trace tab

1. X: PassPassPassPass

2. Category: S ParameterS ParameterS ParameterS Parameter

3. Quantity: S(p1,p1), S(p1,p2), S(p1,p3) S(p1,p1), S(p1,p2), S(p1,p3) S(p1,p1), S(p1,p2), S(p1,p3) S(p1,p1), S(p1,p2), S(p1,p3) (Note: Hold down the

Ctrl key to select multiple Quantities)

4. Function: dBdBdBdB

3. Click the New Report New Report New Report New Report button

4. Click the Close Close Close Close button

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Create Modal SCreate Modal SCreate Modal SCreate Modal S----Parameter Plot vs. FreqParameter Plot vs. FreqParameter Plot vs. FreqParameter Plot vs. Freq

Note: Note: Note: Note: If this report is created prior or during the solution process, a real-time

update of the results are displayed

To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data Report > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular Plot

2. Report Dialog::::

1. Solution: Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1

2.2.2.2. Domain: SweepDomain: SweepDomain: SweepDomain: Sweep

3. Click the Trace Trace Trace Trace tab

1. X: FreqFreqFreqFreq

2. Category: S ParameterS ParameterS ParameterS Parameter

3. Quantity: S(p1,p1), S(p2,p1), S(p3,p1), S(p1,p1), S(p2,p1), S(p3,p1), S(p1,p1), S(p2,p1), S(p3,p1), S(p1,p1), S(p2,p1), S(p3,p1), (Hold down the Ctrl

key to select multiple Quantities)

4. Function: dBdBdBdB

4. Click the New Report New Report New Report New Report button

5. Click the Close Close Close Close button

3. NOTE: The S21 of the circulator represents the insertion loss of the

through port, while the S31 represents the isolation characteristics.

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Create Field OverlayCreate Field OverlayCreate Field OverlayCreate Field Overlay

Select the menu item Window > Window > Window > Window > ferrite_circulatorferrite_circulatorferrite_circulatorferrite_circulator –––– HFSSDesign1 HFSSDesign1 HFSSDesign1 HFSSDesign1 ---- ModelerModelerModelerModeler

To select an object:To select an object:To select an object:To select an object:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: Arm, ferriteArm, ferriteArm, ferriteArm, ferrite

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

3. Select the menu Edit > PropertiesEdit > PropertiesEdit > PropertiesEdit > Properties

1. Select Attribute Tab

2. Click on the Transparency button

3. Set Transparency to aprox .75

4. Press OKOKOKOK button

4. Press CtrlCtrlCtrlCtrl----AAAA to ensure waveguide is selected.

5. Select the menu item HFSS > Fields > Plot Fields > E > HFSS > Fields > Plot Fields > E > HFSS > Fields > Plot Fields > E > HFSS > Fields > Plot Fields > E > Mag_EMag_EMag_EMag_E

6. Create Field Plot Window

1. Solution: Setup1 : Setup1 : Setup1 : Setup1 : LastAdaptiveLastAdaptiveLastAdaptiveLastAdaptive

2. Quantity: Mag_EMag_EMag_EMag_E

3. In Volume: AllObjectsAllObjectsAllObjectsAllObjects

4. Click the DoneDoneDoneDone button

Field AnimationsField AnimationsField AnimationsField Animations

To Animate a Magnitude field plot:To Animate a Magnitude field plot:To Animate a Magnitude field plot:To Animate a Magnitude field plot:

1. Select the menu item View > AnimateView > AnimateView > AnimateView > Animate

2. In the Swept VariableSwept VariableSwept VariableSwept Variable tab, accept the defaults settings:

1. Swept variable: PhasePhasePhasePhase

2. Start: 0deg0deg0deg0deg

3. Stop: 180deg180deg180deg180deg

4. Steps: 9999

3. Click OKOKOKOK

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Example – Bandpass Filter

Bandpass FilterThis example is intended to show you how to create, simulate, and analyze a bandpass filter using the Ansoft HFSS Design Environment.

The following features of the Ansoft HFSS Design Environment are used to create this passive device model

3D Solid Modeling

Primitives: Cylinders, BoxesCylinders, BoxesCylinders, BoxesCylinders, Boxes

Boolean Operations: Duplicate Around AxisDuplicate Around AxisDuplicate Around AxisDuplicate Around Axis

Boundary/Excitation

Ports: Wave Ports Wave Ports Wave Ports Wave Ports

Analysis

Sweep: Fast FrequencyFast FrequencyFast FrequencyFast Frequency

Results

Cartesian plottingCartesian plottingCartesian plottingCartesian plotting

Fields Overlays

2D & 3D Field Plots2D & 3D Field Plots2D & 3D Field Plots2D & 3D Field Plots

Nominal Design:Nominal Design:Nominal Design:Nominal Design:

FFFFcentercentercentercenter = 1.50 GHz= 1.50 GHz= 1.50 GHz= 1.50 GHz

BW = 1 GHzBW = 1 GHzBW = 1 GHzBW = 1 GHz

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Launching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSS

1. To access Ansoft HFSS, click the Microsoft StartStartStartStart button, select ProgramsProgramsProgramsPrograms, and select the Ansoft, HFSS 11Ansoft, HFSS 11Ansoft, HFSS 11Ansoft, HFSS 11 program group. Click HFSS 11HFSS 11HFSS 11HFSS 11.

Setting Tool OptionsSetting Tool OptionsSetting Tool OptionsSetting Tool Options

Note: Note: Note: Note: In order to follow the steps outlined in this example, verify that the

following tool options are set : : : :

1. Select the menu item Tools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS Options

1. Click the GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneral tab

Use Wizards for data entry when creating new boundaries: : : :

CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

Duplicate boundaries with geometry: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

2. Select the menu item Tools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler Options.

1. Click the OperationOperationOperationOperation tab

Automatically cover closed polylines: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

2. Click the DisplayDisplayDisplayDisplay tab

Default Transparency: “0.4”

3. Click the DrawingDrawingDrawingDrawing tab

Operation Data Entry Mode:: “Dialog"

Edit property of new primitives: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

4. Click the OKOKOKOK button

3. Select the menu item Tools > Options > Field Reporter OptionsTools > Options > Field Reporter OptionsTools > Options > Field Reporter OptionsTools > Options > Field Reporter Options.

1. Group Field Overlays by Type: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

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Opening a New ProjectOpening a New ProjectOpening a New ProjectOpening a New Project

In an Ansoft HFSS window, click On the Standard toolbar, or select the menu item File > NewFile > NewFile > NewFile > New.

From the ProjectProjectProjectProject menu, select Insert HFSS DesignInsert HFSS DesignInsert HFSS DesignInsert HFSS Design....

Set Solution TypeSet Solution TypeSet Solution TypeSet Solution Type

Select the menu item HFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution Type

Solution Type Window:

Choose Driven ModalDriven ModalDriven ModalDriven Modal

Click the OKOKOKOK button

Set Model UnitsSet Model UnitsSet Model UnitsSet Model Units

Select the menu item Modeler > UnitsModeler > UnitsModeler > UnitsModeler > Units

Select Units: inininin

Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Create cavityCreate cavityCreate cavityCreate cavity

Select the menu item Draw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > Box

In CreateBox dialog box edit the Command and Attribute tabs as shown below.

Click the OK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . . Or press CTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+D

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Create coax outer diameterCreate coax outer diameterCreate coax outer diameterCreate coax outer diameter

Select the menu item Draw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > Cylinder

In CreateCylinder dialog edit the Command and Attribute tabs as shown below.

Click the OKOKOKOK button

Fit the View with CTRLCTRLCTRLCTRL----DDDD

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Define new default materialDefine new default materialDefine new default materialDefine new default material

Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose Select

Select Definition Window:

Type pecpecpecpec in the Search by Name field

Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Create coax inner diameterCreate coax inner diameterCreate coax inner diameterCreate coax inner diameter

Select the menu item Draw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > CylinderDraw > Cylinder

In CreateCylinder dialog edit the Command and Attribute tabs as shown below.

Click the OKOKOKOK button

Fit the View with CTRLCTRLCTRLCTRL----DDDD

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Create the coax feed probe with copy/pasteCreate the coax feed probe with copy/pasteCreate the coax feed probe with copy/pasteCreate the coax feed probe with copy/paste

Select the object feedin1 from the model tree.

Type CTRLCTRLCTRLCTRL----C/CTRLC/CTRLC/CTRLC/CTRL----VVVV to create a copy.

In the model tree, double click on the resulting object feedin2.

In the Attribute tab change the name to feedprobe1.

In the model tree expand the feedprobe1 branch.

Double click on the command CreateCylinder

In the Command tab change the Height to “-0.15”.

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Create first resonatorCreate first resonatorCreate first resonatorCreate first resonator

Select the menu item Draw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > Box

In CreateBox dialog edit the Command and Attribute tabs as shown below.

Click the OKOKOKOK button

Fit the View with CTRLCTRLCTRLCTRL----DDDD

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Create second resonatorCreate second resonatorCreate second resonatorCreate second resonator

Select the menu item Draw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > Box

In CreateBox dialog edit the Command and Attribute tabs as shown below.

Click the OKOKOKOK button

Fit the View with CTRLCTRLCTRLCTRL----DDDD

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Create third resonatorCreate third resonatorCreate third resonatorCreate third resonator

Select the menu item Draw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > Box

In CreateBox dialog edit the Command and Attribute tabs as shown below.

Click the OKOKOKOK button

Fit the View with CTRLCTRLCTRLCTRL----DDDD

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Create fourth resonatorCreate fourth resonatorCreate fourth resonatorCreate fourth resonator

Select the menu item Draw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > Box

In CreateBox dialog edit the Command and Attribute tabs as shown below.

Click the OKOKOKOK button

Fit the View with CTRLCTRLCTRLCTRL----DDDD

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Create the Wave portCreate the Wave portCreate the Wave portCreate the Wave port

Picking the port face:Picking the port face:Picking the port face:Picking the port face:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > FacesEdit > Select > Faces

2. Graphically select the end face of the coax line at X=1.75in

To assign the wave port excitation:To assign the wave port excitation:To assign the wave port excitation:To assign the wave port excitation:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave PortHFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave Port

2. Wave Port: General

Name: p1p1p1p1

Click the NextNextNextNext button

3. Wave Port: Modes

Accept the default settings for modes.

Click the NextNextNextNext button

4. Wave Port: Post Processing

Accept the default settings for post processing

Click the FinishFinishFinishFinish button

Note the addition of the port definition to the project tree

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Create remainder of model with Create remainder of model with Create remainder of model with Create remainder of model with ““““DuplicateAroundAxisDuplicateAroundAxisDuplicateAroundAxisDuplicateAroundAxis””””Return Selection mode to Return Selection mode to Return Selection mode to Return Selection mode to ““““ObjectObjectObjectObject””””

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > ObjectEdit > Select > ObjectEdit > Select > ObjectEdit > Select > Object

To select objects to be duplicated:To select objects to be duplicated:To select objects to be duplicated:To select objects to be duplicated:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: feed1, feedpin1, feedprobe1, l1, l2, l3, l4feed1, feedpin1, feedprobe1, l1, l2, l3, l4feed1, feedpin1, feedprobe1, l1, l2, l3, l4feed1, feedpin1, feedprobe1, l1, l2, l3, l4

Note:Note:Note:Note: Use the Ctrl + Left mouse button to select multiple objects

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

To create rest of model:To create rest of model:To create rest of model:To create rest of model:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Duplicate > Around AxisEdit > Duplicate > Around AxisEdit > Duplicate > Around AxisEdit > Duplicate > Around Axis

Axis: ZZZZ

Angle: 180180180180

Total Number: 2222

Click the OKOKOKOK button

Click OKOKOKOK when the Properties window appears

Fit the view with CTRL-D

Note the addition of the “p2” port definition to the project tree.

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Boundary DisplayBoundary DisplayBoundary DisplayBoundary Display

To verify the boundary setup:To verify the boundary setup:To verify the boundary setup:To verify the boundary setup:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Boundary DisplayHFSS > Boundary DisplayHFSS > Boundary DisplayHFSS > Boundary Display (Solver View)(Solver View)(Solver View)(Solver View)

2. From the Solver View of Boundaries, toggle the Visibility check box for the

boundaries you wish to display.

Note:Note:Note:Note: The background (Perfect Conductor) is displayed as the outerouterouterouterboundary.

Note:Note:Note:Note: The Perfect Conductors are displayed as the smetalsmetalsmetalsmetal boundary.

Note:Note:Note:Note: Select the menu item, View > VisibilityView > VisibilityView > VisibilityView > Visibility to hide all of the

geometry objects. This makes it easier to see the boundary

Note:Note:Note:Note: You may need to expand the window size to see all the

boundaries listed below.

3. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button when you are finished

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Setup an HFSS Driven Modal Analysis

Creating a Solution SetupCreating a Solution SetupCreating a Solution SetupCreating a Solution Setup

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > HFSS > Analysis Setup > HFSS > Analysis Setup > HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupAdd Solution SetupAdd Solution SetupAdd Solution Setup…………

2. Solution Setup Window:

1. Click the GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneral tab::::

Solution Frequency: 1.5GHz: 1.5GHz: 1.5GHz: 1.5GHz

Maximum Number of Passes: 15151515

Maximum Delta S per Pass: 0.020.020.020.02

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Adding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency Sweep

1. In the project tree right-click on “setup1” under the Analysis branch

1. Select “Add Frequency Sweep”

2. Edit Sweep Window:

1. Sweep Type Pulldown: Fast: Fast: Fast: Fast

2. Frequency Setup Type: Linear Count: Linear Count: Linear Count: Linear Count

Start: 0.6GHz0.6GHz0.6GHz0.6GHz

Stop: 2.4GHz: 2.4GHz: 2.4GHz: 2.4GHz

Count: 513: 513: 513: 513

Save Fields: CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Save ProjectSave ProjectSave ProjectSave Project

To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:

1. In an Ansoft HFSS window, select the menu item File > Save AsFile > Save AsFile > Save AsFile > Save As.

2. From the Save As Save As Save As Save As window, type the Filename: Filter_bpfFilter_bpfFilter_bpfFilter_bpf

3. Click the SaveSaveSaveSave button

Analyze

Model ValidationModel ValidationModel ValidationModel Validation

To validate the model:To validate the model:To validate the model:To validate the model:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation Check

2. Click the Close Close Close Close button

Note:Note:Note:Note: To view any errors or warning messages, use the Message Manager.

AnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyze

To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analyze AllHFSS > Analyze AllHFSS > Analyze AllHFSS > Analyze All

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Solution DataSolution DataSolution DataSolution Data

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution Data…………

To view the Profile:To view the Profile:To view the Profile:To view the Profile:

1. Click the ProfileProfileProfileProfile Tab.

To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:

1. Click the ConvergenceConvergenceConvergenceConvergence Tab

Note: Note: Note: Note: The default view is for convergence is TableTableTableTable. Select the PlotPlotPlotPlot

radio button to view a graphical representations of the convergence

data. See below.

To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:

1. Click the Matrix DataMatrix DataMatrix DataMatrix Data Tab

Note: Note: Note: Note: To view a real-time update of the Matrix Data, set the

Simulation to Setup1, Last AdaptiveSetup1, Last AdaptiveSetup1, Last AdaptiveSetup1, Last Adaptive

2. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

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Create Reports

Create SCreate SCreate SCreate S----parameter vs. Frequencyparameter vs. Frequencyparameter vs. Frequencyparameter vs. Frequency

To Create a report:To Create a report:To Create a report:To Create a report:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Modal Solution Data Report > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular Plot

2. Edit Report Window::::

1. Solution: Setup1 : Sweep1

2. Domain: Sweep

3. Category: S-parameters

4. Quantity: S(p1,p1) and S(p2,p1)

Note: Note: Note: Note: Use CtrlCtrlCtrlCtrl key for multiple selection

5. Function: dB

6. Click New ReportNew ReportNew ReportNew Report

7. Click CloseCloseCloseClose

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Example – Bandpass Filter

0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00 2.20 2.40Freq [GHz]

-70.00

-60.00

-50.00

-40.00

-30.00

-20.00

-10.00

0.00

Y1

Ansoft Corporation HFSSDesign1XY Plot 1Curve Info

dB(S(p1,p1))Setup1 : Sweep1

dB(S(p2,p1))Setup1 : Sweep1

Note new plot “XY Plot 1” in project tree

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Add a Separate YAdd a Separate YAdd a Separate YAdd a Separate Y----axis and Change Plot Scaleaxis and Change Plot Scaleaxis and Change Plot Scaleaxis and Change Plot ScaleIn the Project tree left-click once on the branch HFSSDesign1 > Results > XY HFSSDesign1 > Results > XY HFSSDesign1 > Results > XY HFSSDesign1 > Results > XY Plot 1 > dB(S(p2,p1))Plot 1 > dB(S(p2,p1))Plot 1 > dB(S(p2,p1))Plot 1 > dB(S(p2,p1)).

In the Properties window in the Y-axis row click on Y1 and change to Y2

Double left click on a number of the resulting Y2 axis to the right side of XY Plot 1

Edit the Scaling tab as shown

Press OKOKOKOK

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Rename PlotRename PlotRename PlotRename PlotIn the Project tree right-click on the branch HFSSDesign1 > Results > XY Plot 1 HFSSDesign1 > Results > XY Plot 1 HFSSDesign1 > Results > XY Plot 1 HFSSDesign1 > Results > XY Plot 1

Select Rename

Change name to S-params

<return>

0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00 2.20 2.40Freq [GHz]

-60.00

-50.00

-40.00

-30.00

-20.00

-10.00

0.00

dB(S

(p1,

p1))

-1.00

-0.90

-0.80

-0.70

-0.60

-0.50

-0.40

-0.30

-0.20

-0.10

0.00

dB(S

(p2,

p1))

Ansoft Corporation HFSSDesign1S-params

Curve Info

dB(S(p1,p1))Setup1 : Sweep1

dB(S(p2,p1))Setup1 : Sweep1

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Field OverlaysField OverlaysField OverlaysField OverlaysSelect the Menu item Window> Window> Window> Window> filter_bpffilter_bpffilter_bpffilter_bpf ---- HFSSDesign1 HFSSDesign1 HFSSDesign1 HFSSDesign1 ---- ModelerModelerModelerModeler

In the Model tree select the branch Planes > Planes > Planes > Planes > Global:XYGlobal:XYGlobal:XYGlobal:XY

Move the mouse pointer into the model window

Right-click and select Plot Fields > E > Plot Fields > E > Plot Fields > E > Plot Fields > E > Mag_EMag_EMag_EMag_E

Click DoneDoneDoneDone

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Rescale and Animate Field OverlayRescale and Animate Field OverlayRescale and Animate Field OverlayRescale and Animate Field Overlay

In the model window right-click on the color scale and select Modify

Edit the Scale tab as shown

Press CloseCloseCloseClose

In the project tree right-click in the branch HFSSDesign1 > Field HFSSDesign1 > Field HFSSDesign1 > Field HFSSDesign1 > Field Overlays > EOverlays > EOverlays > EOverlays > E----field > Mag_E1field > Mag_E1field > Mag_E1field > Mag_E1 and select Animate

Click the OKOKOKOK button.

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Example – LVDS Differential Pair

LVDS Differential PairThis differential pair example is intended to show you how to create, simulate,

and analyze a differential pair using the Ansoft HFSS Design Environment.

Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) technology is used for high-performance backplanes. The LVDS technology is used for multi-point

communications and uses a bus similar to the system shown below. The

following illustrations detail the passive device you will be creating.

LAYER 1 (TOP SIDE)

LAYER 2 (SIGNAL 1)

LAYER 3 (BOTTOM SIDE)

26mil

Nominal Design:Nominal Design:Nominal Design:Nominal Design:

Traces:Traces:Traces:Traces:

Width= 6milWidth= 6milWidth= 6milWidth= 6mil

Spacing= 18milSpacing= 18milSpacing= 18milSpacing= 18mil

Thickness=0.7milThickness=0.7milThickness=0.7milThickness=0.7mil

Length: 1000milLength: 1000milLength: 1000milLength: 1000mil

Substrate:Substrate:Substrate:Substrate:

Thickness=26milThickness=26milThickness=26milThickness=26mil

εεεεrrrr= 4.4= 4.4= 4.4= 4.4

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Ansoft HFSS Design EnvironmentThe following features of the Ansoft HFSS Design Environment are used to

create this passive device model.

3D Solid Modeling

Primitives: Box, RectanglesBox, RectanglesBox, RectanglesBox, Rectangles

Boolean Operations: Duplicate Along Line, Sweep Along VectorDuplicate Along Line, Sweep Along VectorDuplicate Along Line, Sweep Along VectorDuplicate Along Line, Sweep Along Vector

Boundaries/Excitations

Ports: Wave PortsWave PortsWave PortsWave Ports

Analysis

Sweep: InterpolatingInterpolatingInterpolatingInterpolating

Results

Cartesian and Smith Chart plottingCartesian and Smith Chart plottingCartesian and Smith Chart plottingCartesian and Smith Chart plotting

Field Overlays

3D Field Plots3D Field Plots3D Field Plots3D Field Plots

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Design ReviewBefore we jump into setting up this device lets review the design.

Trace Width = 6mils

Trace Length= 1000mils

Dielectric Height= 13mils x 2

1/2oz copper Traces/Grounds= 0.7mils

Port Size= ???

Port Width

The port width should be at least 3-5 times the stackup(78-130mils). Since

the traces are not centered, lets use 5x and add the pair spacing(18mils)

for a total port/model width of 220mils.

Trace Length

Since we are modeling a uniform transmission line, we do not need to

simulate the 1000mils length. Lets reduce the model to 100 mils and use

de-embedding to add the extra length.

Material Properties

To start with, lets make an engineering assumption that the material

properties are constant over frequency. In addition, we will assume that

modeling the traces as perfect conductors will not have an impact on the performance of the device. This will speed up the simulation. As an

additional exercise, the model can be modified to include frequency

dependent materials and lossy conductors.

Ground Planes

Since we are ignoring the metal conductivity, we do not need to create

objects for the ground planes. Instead, we will utilize the background

(Perfect Conductor) boundary. If we need to investigate the effects of

copper, a finite conductivity boundary condition can be used to simulate the copper ground planes.

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Solution SetupSince we are going to use the model for SPICE simulation, the frequency range

of interest is going to be determined by the rise-time(tr) of the input signal. The

maximum frequency is calculated by taking 0.5/tr, or the knee frequency, and

multiplying it by the number of samples per tr. The minimum frequency should

be selected as close to DC as possible.

The following values will be used for the Solution Setup

Rise-Time(tr): 330ps

Number of Samples: 5

Upper Frequency: (0.5/330ps)*5 ~ 7.58GHz or 8.0GHz

Lower Frequency: 0.01GHz

Frequency Spacing: 0.01GHz

Single(Adaptive) Frequency: 8.0GHz

Adaptive Passes: 10

Delta S: 0.02

Sweep Type: Interpolating

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Getting Started

Launching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSS

1. To access Ansoft HFSS, click the Microsoft StartStartStartStart button, select ProgramsProgramsProgramsPrograms, and select

the Ansoft, HFSS 11Ansoft, HFSS 11Ansoft, HFSS 11Ansoft, HFSS 11 program group. Click HFSS 11HFSS 11HFSS 11HFSS 11.

Setting Tool OptionsSetting Tool OptionsSetting Tool OptionsSetting Tool Options

To set the tool options:To set the tool options:To set the tool options:To set the tool options:

Note: Note: Note: Note: In order to follow the steps outlined in this example, verify that the following tool options are set : : : :

1. Select the menu item Tools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS Options

2. HFSS Options Window:

1. Click the GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneral tab

Use Wizards for data entry when creating new boundaries: : : :

CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

Duplicate boundaries with geometry: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

Auto-assign terminals on ports:: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

3. Select the menu item Tools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler Options.

4. Modeler Options Window:

1. Click the OperationOperationOperationOperation tab

Automatically cover closed polylines: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

2. Click the DrawingDrawingDrawingDrawing tab

Edit property of new primitives: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Opening a New ProjectOpening a New ProjectOpening a New ProjectOpening a New Project

To open a new project:To open a new project:To open a new project:To open a new project:

1. In an Ansoft HFSS window, click the On the Standard toolbar, or select

the menu item File > NewFile > NewFile > NewFile > New.

2. From the ProjectProjectProjectProject menu, select Insert HFSS DesignInsert HFSS DesignInsert HFSS DesignInsert HFSS Design....

Set Solution TypeSet Solution TypeSet Solution TypeSet Solution Type

To set the solution type:To set the solution type:To set the solution type:To set the solution type:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution Type

2. Solution Type Window:

1. Choose Driven TerminalDriven TerminalDriven TerminalDriven Terminal

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Creating the 3D Model

Set Model UnitsSet Model UnitsSet Model UnitsSet Model Units

To set the units:To set the units:To set the units:To set the units:

1. Select the menu item Modeler > UnitsModeler > UnitsModeler > UnitsModeler > Units

2. Set Model Units:

1. Select Units: milmilmilmil

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Set Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default Material

To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:

1. Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose SelectSelectSelectSelect

2. Select Definition Window:

1. Type pecpecpecpec in the Search by NameSearch by NameSearch by NameSearch by Name field

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Create Trace 1Create Trace 1Create Trace 1Create Trace 1

To create trace 1:To create trace 1:To create trace 1:To create trace 1:

1.Select the menu item Draw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > Box

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 9.09.09.09.0, Z: ----0.350.350.350.35, Press the Enter Enter Enter Enter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the base

rectangle:

dX: 100.0100.0100.0100.0, dY: 6.06.06.06.0, dZ: 0.7, 0.7, 0.7, 0.7, Press the Enter Enter Enter Enter key

To parameterize the object:To parameterize the object:To parameterize the object:To parameterize the object:

1. Select the CommandCommandCommandCommand tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window

2. For PositionPositionPositionPosition, type: 0.0mil, S/2, 0.0mil, S/2, 0.0mil, S/2, 0.0mil, S/2, ----0.35mil0.35mil0.35mil0.35mil, Click the TabTabTabTab key to accept

Add Variable SSSS: 18mil18mil18mil18mil, Click the OKOKOKOK button

3. For YSizeYSizeYSizeYSize, type: WWWW, Click the TabTabTabTab key to accept

Add Variable WWWW: 6mil6mil6mil6mil, Click the OKOKOKOK button

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: trace1trace1trace1trace1

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . . Or press the CTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+D key

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Create Trace 2Create Trace 2Create Trace 2Create Trace 2

To create trace 2:To create trace 2:To create trace 2:To create trace 2:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select All VisibleEdit > Select All VisibleEdit > Select All VisibleEdit > Select All Visible. . . . Or press the CTRL+ACTRL+ACTRL+ACTRL+A key.

2. Select the menu item, Edit > Duplicate > MirrorEdit > Duplicate > MirrorEdit > Duplicate > MirrorEdit > Duplicate > Mirror.

1. Input the anchor point of the mirror plane:

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the Enter Enter Enter Enter key

2. Input the target point of the vector normal to the mirror plane:

dX: 0.00.00.00.0, dY: ----1.01.01.01.0, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the Enter Enter Enter Enter key

3. Click OKOKOKOK when the Property WindowProperty WindowProperty WindowProperty Window appears

To set the name: To set the name: To set the name: To set the name:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > ListHFSS > ListHFSS > ListHFSS > List

2. From the ModelModelModelModel tab, select the object named trace1_1trace1_1trace1_1trace1_1

3. Click the Properties Properties Properties Properties button

1. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: trace2trace2trace2trace2

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

4. Click the DoneDoneDoneDone button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . . Or press the CTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+D key

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Add New MaterialAdd New MaterialAdd New MaterialAdd New Material

To add a new material:To add a new material:To add a new material:To add a new material:

1. Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose SelectSelectSelectSelect

2. From the Select Definition window, click the Add MaterialAdd MaterialAdd MaterialAdd Material button

3. View/Edit Material Window:

1. Material Name: My_FR4My_FR4My_FR4My_FR4

2. Relative Permittivity: 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.4

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

4. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Create SubstrateCreate SubstrateCreate SubstrateCreate Substrate

To create substrate:To create substrate:To create substrate:To create substrate:

1. Select the menu item Draw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > Box

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: ----100.0100.0100.0100.0, Z: ----13.0, 13.0, 13.0, 13.0, Press the Enter Enter Enter Enter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the base rectangle:

dX: 100.0100.0100.0100.0, dY: 200.0200.0200.0200.0, dZ: 26.0, 26.0, 26.0, 26.0, Press the Enter Enter Enter Enter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: substratesubstratesubstratesubstrate

To set the transparency:To set the transparency:To set the transparency:To set the transparency:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. Click the button for Transparency

1. Move the slide bar to 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 (Opaque=0, Transparency=1)

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

1. Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . .

Or press the CTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+D key

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Create Wave Port Excitation Create Wave Port Excitation Create Wave Port Excitation Create Wave Port Excitation

To set grid planeTo set grid planeTo set grid planeTo set grid plane

Select the menu item Modeler > Grid Plane > YZModeler > Grid Plane > YZModeler > Grid Plane > YZModeler > Grid Plane > YZ

To create a rectangle that represents the port:To create a rectangle that represents the port:To create a rectangle that represents the port:To create a rectangle that represents the port:

1. Select the menu item Draw > Rectangle Draw > Rectangle Draw > Rectangle Draw > Rectangle

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the rectangle position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: ----100.0100.0100.0100.0, Z: ----13.013.013.013.0, Press the Enter Enter Enter Enter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the rectangle:

dX: 0.00.00.00.0, dY: 200.0200.0200.0200.0, dZ: 26.026.026.026.0, Press the Enter Enter Enter Enter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: Port1Port1Port1Port1

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To select the object Port1:To select the object Port1:To select the object Port1:To select the object Port1:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: Port1Port1Port1Port1

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

NoteNoteNoteNote: You can also select the object from the

Model Tree

To duplicate the object Port1:To duplicate the object Port1:To duplicate the object Port1:To duplicate the object Port1:

1. Select the menu item, Edit > Duplicate > Along LineEdit > Duplicate > Along LineEdit > Duplicate > Along LineEdit > Duplicate > Along Line

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the first point of the duplicate vector

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the second point of the duplicate

vector

dX: 100.0100.0100.0100.0, dY: 0.00.00.00.0, dZ: 0.0,0.0,0.0,0.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

4. Duplicate Along Line Windows

1. Total Number: 2222

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

3. Click OKOKOKOK when the Property WindowProperty WindowProperty WindowProperty Window appears

5. From the Model tree select the object Port1_1Port1_1Port1_1Port1_1.

6. In the Property window for the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: Port2Port2Port2Port2

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Example – LVDS Differential Pair

Create Wave Port Excitation (Continued)Create Wave Port Excitation (Continued)Create Wave Port Excitation (Continued)Create Wave Port Excitation (Continued)Select the object Port1. Port1. Port1. Port1. Select the menu item HFSS > Excitations > Assign > HFSS > Excitations > Assign > HFSS > Excitations > Assign > HFSS > Excitations > Assign > Wave Port, Wave Port, Wave Port, Wave Port, a window appears and click OKOKOKOK. The wave port and terminals are automatically assigned.

Note: Note: Note: Note: Reference Conductors are not shown

because we are using the Outer

boundary condition as the Reference Conductor

Set the name for excitations:Set the name for excitations:Set the name for excitations:Set the name for excitations:

• Expand the ExcitationsExcitationsExcitationsExcitations in

Project ManagerProject ManagerProject ManagerProject Manager

• Click on WavePort1. WavePort1. WavePort1. WavePort1.

• Change the name name name name in the

PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window: P1P1P1P1

Set Differential pairsSet Differential pairsSet Differential pairsSet Differential pairs

• Select the menu item HFSS > Excitations > Differential pairsHFSS > Excitations > Differential pairsHFSS > Excitations > Differential pairsHFSS > Excitations > Differential pairs

• Click the New PairNew PairNew PairNew Pair button

• Click OKOKOKOK

Repeat the above stepsRepeat the above stepsRepeat the above stepsRepeat the above steps to assign an excitation for the object Port2 Port2 Port2 Port2 and set the excitation name as P2. P2. P2. P2. Then add a new diff pair.

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Example – LVDS Differential Pair

Create Wave Port Excitation (Continued)Create Wave Port Excitation (Continued)Create Wave Port Excitation (Continued)Create Wave Port Excitation (Continued)

To set deembedding:To set deembedding:To set deembedding:To set deembedding:

1. From the Project ManagerProject ManagerProject ManagerProject Manager, select the excitation named P2P2P2P2

2. In the Properties Properties Properties Properties window:

1. Deembed Distance: ----900mil 900mil 900mil 900mil (Positive Values are into the Port)

2. Deembed: CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

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Boundary DisplayBoundary DisplayBoundary DisplayBoundary Display

To verify the boundary setup:To verify the boundary setup:To verify the boundary setup:To verify the boundary setup:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Boundary DisplayHFSS > Boundary DisplayHFSS > Boundary DisplayHFSS > Boundary Display (Solver View)(Solver View)(Solver View)(Solver View)

2. From the Solver View of Boundaries, toggle the Visibility check box for the

boundaries you wish to display.

Note:Note:Note:Note: The background (Perfect Conductor) is displayed as the outerouterouterouterboundary.

Note:Note:Note:Note: The Perfect Conductors are displayed as the smetalsmetalsmetalsmetal boundary.

Note:Note:Note:Note: Select the menu item, View > VisibilityView > VisibilityView > VisibilityView > Visibility to hide all of the

geometry objects. This makes it easier to see the boundary

3. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button when you are finished.

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Analysis Setup

Creating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis Setup

To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution SetupHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Solution Setup

2. Solution Setup Window:

1. Click the GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneral tab::::

Solution Frequency: 8.0GHz: 8.0GHz: 8.0GHz: 8.0GHz

Maximum Number of Passes: 20202020

Maximum Delta S: 0.020.020.020.02

2. Click the OptionsOptionsOptionsOptions tab::::

Do Lambda Refinement: CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

Lambda Target: Use Default Value: CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

Order of basis function: Zero order. : Zero order. : Zero order. : Zero order.

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Adding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency SweepAdding a Frequency Sweep

To add a frequency sweep:To add a frequency sweep:To add a frequency sweep:To add a frequency sweep:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Frequency SweepHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Frequency SweepHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Frequency SweepHFSS > Analysis Setup > Add Frequency Sweep

1. Select Solution Setup: Setup1 Setup1 Setup1 Setup1

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

2. Edit Sweep Window:

1. Sweep Type: Interpolating: Interpolating: Interpolating: Interpolating

2. Frequency Setup:

Type: Linear Step: Linear Step: Linear Step: Linear Step

Start: 0.0GHz0.0GHz0.0GHz0.0GHz

Stop: 8.0GHz: 8.0GHz: 8.0GHz: 8.0GHz

Step: 0.01GHz: 0.01GHz: 0.01GHz: 0.01GHz

3. Interpolating Sweep Options:

Max Solutions: 50: 50: 50: 50

Error Tolerance: 0.5%: 0.5%: 0.5%: 0.5%

4. Extrapolate to DC: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

Minimum Solve Frequency: 0.01 GHz: 0.01 GHz: 0.01 GHz: 0.01 GHz

5. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Save ProjectSave ProjectSave ProjectSave Project

To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:

1. In an Ansoft HFSS window, select the menu item File > Save AsFile > Save AsFile > Save AsFile > Save As.

2. From the Save As Save As Save As Save As window, type the Filename: hfss_lvds_diffpairhfss_lvds_diffpairhfss_lvds_diffpairhfss_lvds_diffpair

3. Click the SaveSaveSaveSave button

Analyze

Model ValidationModel ValidationModel ValidationModel Validation

To validate the model:To validate the model:To validate the model:To validate the model:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation Check

2. Click the Close Close Close Close button

Note:Note:Note:Note: To view any errors or warning messages, see the Message Manager.

AnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyze

To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Analyze HFSS > Analyze HFSS > Analyze HFSS > Analyze Or click the icon

on the tool bar.

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Solution DataSolution DataSolution DataSolution Data

To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:To view the Solution Data:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution DataHFSS > Results > Solution Data

To view the Profile:To view the Profile:To view the Profile:To view the Profile:

1. Click the ProfileProfileProfileProfile Tab.

To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:To view the Convergence:

1. Click the ConvergenceConvergenceConvergenceConvergence Tab

Note: Note: Note: Note: The default view is for convergence is TableTableTableTable. Select

the PlotPlotPlotPlot radio button to view a graphical representations of

the convergence data.

To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:

1. Click the Matrix DataMatrix DataMatrix DataMatrix Data Tab

Note: Note: Note: Note: To view a real-time update of the Matrix Data, set the

Simulation to Setup1, Last AdaptiveSetup1, Last AdaptiveSetup1, Last AdaptiveSetup1, Last Adaptive

2. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

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Example – LVDS Differential Pair

0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00Freq [GHz]

-100.00

-80.00

-60.00

-40.00

-20.00

0.00

Y1

Ansoft Corporation HFSSModel1XY Plot 1

Curve InfodB(St(Diff1,Diff1))

Setup1 : Sweep1dB(St(Diff1,Comm1))

Setup1 : Sweep1dB(St(Diff1,p2_Diff1))

Setup1 : Sweep1

Create Reports

Create Differential Pair SCreate Differential Pair SCreate Differential Pair SCreate Differential Pair S----Parameter PlotParameter PlotParameter PlotParameter Plot

To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data Report > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular PlotReport > Rectangular Plot

2. Context Window:

1. Solution: Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1Setup1: Sweep1

2. Domain: SweepSweepSweepSweep

3. Trace Window

1. Category: Terminal S ParametersTerminal S ParametersTerminal S ParametersTerminal S Parameters

2. Quantity: St(Diff1,Diff1), St(Diff1,Comm1), St(Diff1, Diff2St(Diff1,Diff1), St(Diff1,Comm1), St(Diff1, Diff2St(Diff1,Diff1), St(Diff1,Comm1), St(Diff1, Diff2St(Diff1,Diff1), St(Diff1,Comm1), St(Diff1, Diff2)

3. Function: dBdBdBdB

4. Click the New Report New Report New Report New Report button

5. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

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Example – LVDS Differential Pair

Create Differential and Common Pair Impedances Data TableCreate Differential and Common Pair Impedances Data TableCreate Differential and Common Pair Impedances Data TableCreate Differential and Common Pair Impedances Data Table

To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:To create a report:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data Report > Data TableReport > Data TableReport > Data TableReport > Data Table

2. Context Window: Solution: Setup1: Setup1: Setup1: Setup1: LastAdaptiveLastAdaptiveLastAdaptiveLastAdaptive

3. Trace Window

1. Category: Terminal Port Terminal Port Terminal Port Terminal Port ZoZoZoZo

2. Quantity: Zot(Diff1,Diff1), Zot(Comm1,Comm1)Zot(Diff1,Diff1), Zot(Comm1,Comm1)Zot(Diff1,Diff1), Zot(Comm1,Comm1)Zot(Diff1,Diff1), Zot(Comm1,Comm1)

3. Function: magmagmagmag

4. Click the New Report New Report New Report New Report button

Matrix Data Matrix Data Matrix Data Matrix Data ---- Export SExport SExport SExport S----parameters to a fileparameters to a fileparameters to a fileparameters to a file

To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:To view the Matrix Data:

1.Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Solution Data, HFSS > Results > Solution Data, HFSS > Results > Solution Data, HFSS > Results > Solution Data,

2.Solution Data dialog

1.Click the Matrix DataMatrix DataMatrix DataMatrix Data Tab

2.Simulation: Setup1, Sweep1Setup1, Sweep1Setup1, Sweep1Setup1, Sweep1

3.Click the ExportExportExportExport button.

1.Filename: hfss_lvds_diffpairhfss_lvds_diffpairhfss_lvds_diffpairhfss_lvds_diffpair

2.Save as Type: TouchstoneTouchstoneTouchstoneTouchstone

3.Click the SaveSaveSaveSave button

4.Click the OKOKOKOK button to accept 50 ohm

reference impedance

4.Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

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Example – LVDS Differential Pair

Field Overlays

Set Sources: CommonSet Sources: CommonSet Sources: CommonSet Sources: Common

To set the field excitation:To set the field excitation:To set the field excitation:To set the field excitation:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Fields > Edit SourcesHFSS > Fields > Edit SourcesHFSS > Fields > Edit SourcesHFSS > Fields > Edit Sources

2. Edit Sources Window::::

1. For Trace1_T1: Use the default value

2. For Trace2_T1: Scaling Factor: 1111

3. For Trace1_T2: Terminated: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

4. For Trace2_T2: Terminated: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

5. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Create Field OverlayCreate Field OverlayCreate Field OverlayCreate Field Overlay

Select the menu item Window> Window> Window> Window> hfss_diff_pairhfss_diff_pairhfss_diff_pairhfss_diff_pair –––– HFSSDesign1HFSSDesign1HFSSDesign1HFSSDesign1---- ModelerModelerModelerModeler

To create a field plot:To create a field plot:To create a field plot:To create a field plot:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: Port1Port1Port1Port1

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

3. Select the menu item HFSS > Fields > Plot Fields > E > HFSS > Fields > Plot Fields > E > HFSS > Fields > Plot Fields > E > HFSS > Fields > Plot Fields > E > Mag_EMag_EMag_EMag_E

4. Create Field Plot Window

1. Solution: Setup1 : Setup1 : Setup1 : Setup1 : LastAdaptiveLastAdaptiveLastAdaptiveLastAdaptive

2. Quantity: Mag_EMag_EMag_EMag_E

3. In Volume: AllObjectsAllObjectsAllObjectsAllObjects

4. Click the DoneDoneDoneDone button

To modify the attributes of a field plot:To modify the attributes of a field plot:To modify the attributes of a field plot:To modify the attributes of a field plot:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Fields > Modify Plot AttributesHFSS > Fields > Modify Plot AttributesHFSS > Fields > Modify Plot AttributesHFSS > Fields > Modify Plot Attributes

2. Select Plot Folder Window, Click the OKOKOKOK button

3. E-Field Window:

1. Click the Scale Scale Scale Scale tab

1. Select Use LimitsUse LimitsUse LimitsUse Limits

2. Min: 5555

3. Max: 10000100001000010000

4. Scale: LogLogLogLog

2. Click the PlotPlotPlotPlot tab

1. IsoValType: FringeFringeFringeFringe

2. If real time modereal time modereal time modereal time mode is not checked, click the ApplyApplyApplyApply button.

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Create Field Overlay (Cont. )Create Field Overlay (Cont. )Create Field Overlay (Cont. )Create Field Overlay (Cont. )

To create a field plot:To create a field plot:To create a field plot:To create a field plot:

1. Select the menu item Edit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By NameEdit > Select > By Name

2. Select Object Dialog,

1. Select the objects named: Port1Port1Port1Port1

2. Click the OK OK OK OK button

3. Select the menu item HFSS > Fields > Plot Fields > E > Vector_EHFSS > Fields > Plot Fields > E > Vector_EHFSS > Fields > Plot Fields > E > Vector_EHFSS > Fields > Plot Fields > E > Vector_E

4. Create Field Plot Window

1. Solution: Setup1 : LastAdaptiveSetup1 : LastAdaptiveSetup1 : LastAdaptiveSetup1 : LastAdaptive

2. Quantity: Vector_EVector_EVector_EVector_E

3. In Volume: AllAllAllAll

4. Click the DoneDoneDoneDone button

To modify the attributes of a field plot:To modify the attributes of a field plot:To modify the attributes of a field plot:To modify the attributes of a field plot:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Fields > Modify Plot AttributesHFSS > Fields > Modify Plot AttributesHFSS > Fields > Modify Plot AttributesHFSS > Fields > Modify Plot Attributes

2. Select Plot Folder Window:

1. Select: E FieldE FieldE FieldE Field

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

3. E-Field Window:

1. Click the Marker/ArrowMarker/ArrowMarker/ArrowMarker/Arrow tab

1. Type: CylinderCylinderCylinderCylinder

2. Map Size: UncheckedUncheckedUncheckedUnchecked

3. Arrow Tale: UncheckedUncheckedUncheckedUnchecked

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Example – LVDS Differential Pair

Set Differential Mode Field ExcitationSet Differential Mode Field ExcitationSet Differential Mode Field ExcitationSet Differential Mode Field Excitation

To set the field excitation:To set the field excitation:To set the field excitation:To set the field excitation:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Fields > Edit SourcesHFSS > Fields > Edit SourcesHFSS > Fields > Edit SourcesHFSS > Fields > Edit Sources

2. Edit Sources Window::::

1. For Trace2_T1: Offset Phase: 180 Deg.

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

The field plots will automatically be updated to reflect the changes.

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Example – LVDS Differential Pair

Optimetrics Setup – Parametric SweepDuring the design of a device, it is common practice to develop design trends based on

swept parameters. Ansoft HFSS with Optimetrics Parametric Sweep can automatically

create these design curves.

We will parameterize this design using two variables:

1. Variable W will vary the width of traces: 6 ≤ W ≤ 12 mils

2. Variable S will vary the spacing between traces: 15 ≤ S ≤ 21 mils

In the post processor you will able to display results and see how Differential impedance

changes with the respect to trace width and spacing between traces.

6 6 6 6 ≤≤≤≤ W W W W ≤≤≤≤ 12 mils12 mils12 mils12 mils

15 15 15 15 ≤≤≤≤ S S S S ≤≤≤≤ 21 mils21 mils21 mils21 mils

WWWW

SSSS

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Optimetrics Setup – Parametric Sweep

Add a Parametric SweepAdd a Parametric SweepAdd a Parametric SweepAdd a Parametric Sweep

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Add ParametricHFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Add ParametricHFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Add ParametricHFSS > Optimetrics Analysis > Add Parametric

2. Setup Sweep AnalysisSweep AnalysisSweep AnalysisSweep Analysis Window:

1. Click the Sweep DefinitionsSweep DefinitionsSweep DefinitionsSweep Definitions tab::::

1. Click the AddAddAddAdd button

2. Add/Edit Sweep Dialog

1. Variable: SSSS

2. Select Linear CountLinear CountLinear CountLinear Count

3. Start: 15mil15mil15mil15mil

4. Stop: 21mil21mil21mil21mil

5. Count: 3333

6. Click the Add >>Add >>Add >>Add >> button

7. Variable: W W W W

8. Select Linear CountLinear CountLinear CountLinear Count

9. Start: 6mil6mil6mil6mil

10. Stop: 12mil12mil12mil12mil

11. Count: 3333

12. Click the AddAddAddAdd >>>>>>>> button

13. Click the OKOKOKOK button

2. Click on the OptionsOptionsOptionsOptions tab::::

1. Save Fields And Mesh: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Example – LVDS Differential Pair

Save ProjectSave ProjectSave ProjectSave Project

To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:

1. In an Ansoft HFSS window, select the menu item File > SaveFile > SaveFile > SaveFile > Save.

Analyze

Model ValidationModel ValidationModel ValidationModel Validation

To validate the model:To validate the model:To validate the model:To validate the model:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation CheckHFSS > Validation Check

2. Click the Close Close Close Close button

Note:Note:Note:Note: To view any errors or warning messages, use the Message

Manager.

AnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyzeAnalyze

To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:To start the solution process:

1. Expand the Project Tree to display the items listed under OptimetricsOptimetricsOptimetricsOptimetrics

2. Right-click the mouse on ParametricSetup1 ParametricSetup1 ParametricSetup1 ParametricSetup1 and choose Analyze Analyze Analyze Analyze

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Example – LVDS Differential Pair

Create Reports

Create Terminal Port Zo vs SCreate Terminal Port Zo vs SCreate Terminal Port Zo vs SCreate Terminal Port Zo vs S

To Create a report:To Create a report:To Create a report:To Create a report:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data HFSS > Results > Create Terminal Solution Data Report > Report > Report > Report > Rectangular Plot Rectangular Plot Rectangular Plot Rectangular Plot

2. Context Window:

1. Solution: Setup1: LastAdaptiveSetup1: LastAdaptiveSetup1: LastAdaptiveSetup1: LastAdaptive

3. Trace Window

1. X: S

2. Category: Terminal Port ZoTerminal Port ZoTerminal Port ZoTerminal Port Zo

3. Quantity: Zot(Diff1,Diff1), Zot(Comm1,Comm1) Zot(Diff1,Diff1), Zot(Comm1,Comm1) Zot(Diff1,Diff1), Zot(Comm1,Comm1) Zot(Diff1,Diff1), Zot(Comm1,Comm1)

4. Function: MagMagMagMag

5. Click the New Report New Report New Report New Report button

6. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00 20.00 21.00S [mil]

0.00

20.00

40.00

60.00

80.00

100.00

120.00

Y1

Ansoft Corporation HFSSDesign1XY Plot 3

Curve Info

mag(Zot(Comm1,CSetup1 : LastAdaptiveFreq='8GHz' W='6mil'

mag(Zot(Comm1,CSetup1 : LastAdaptiveFreq='8GHz' W='9mil'

mag(Zot(Comm1,CSetup1 : LastAdaptiveFreq='8GHz' W='12mil'

mag(Zot(Diff1,Diff1Setup1 : LastAdaptiveFreq='8GHz' W='6mil'

mag(Zot(Diff1,Diff1Setup1 : LastAdaptiveFreq='8GHz' W='9mil'

mag(Zot(Diff1,Diff1Setup1 : LastAdaptiveFreq='8GHz' W='12mil'

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Example – LVDS Differential Pair

Field Overlays

Create Field Plot vs SCreate Field Plot vs SCreate Field Plot vs SCreate Field Plot vs SUsing the project tree, expand the Field OverlayField OverlayField OverlayField Overlay, E FieldE FieldE FieldE Field.

Double Click on Mag_E1Mag_E1Mag_E1Mag_E1 to make the field plot visible

Right-Click on Mag_E1Mag_E1Mag_E1Mag_E1 and select AnimateAnimateAnimateAnimate

Setup Animation

Swept Variable: SSSS

Click the OKOKOKOK button

The Animation dialog will appear.

Save ProjectSave ProjectSave ProjectSave ProjectTo save the project:To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:

1. In an Ansoft HFSS window, select the menu item File > SaveFile > SaveFile > SaveFile > Save.

Exiting HFSSExiting HFSSExiting HFSSExiting HFSSTo Exit HFSS:To Exit HFSS:To Exit HFSS:To Exit HFSS:

1. Select the menu item File > ExitFile > ExitFile > ExitFile > Exit

1. If prompted Save the changes

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Example – LVDS Differential Pair

Launching Ansoft Designer

To access Ansoft Designer, click the Microsoft StartStartStartStart button, select ProgramsProgramsProgramsPrograms, select Ansoft Ansoft Ansoft Ansoft and select the Designer 4Designer 4Designer 4Designer 4 program group. Click Ansoft Designer 4Ansoft Designer 4Ansoft Designer 4Ansoft Designer 4.

Opening a New Project

To create a new project:To create a new project:To create a new project:To create a new project:

From the ProjectProjectProjectProject menu, select Insert Nexxim Circuit DesignInsert Nexxim Circuit DesignInsert Nexxim Circuit DesignInsert Nexxim Circuit Design

Choose Layout Technology Window

Click NoneNoneNoneNone

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Adding an HFSS Design – LVDS Diff Pair Model

To insert an HFSS Design select the menu item Project> Add Model> Add HFSS Project> Add Model> Add HFSS Project> Add Model> Add HFSS Project> Add Model> Add HFSS Model..Model..Model..Model..

The HFSS Dynamic Link HFSS Dynamic Link HFSS Dynamic Link HFSS Dynamic Link window will appear

Change Name to: Diff_pairDiff_pairDiff_pairDiff_pair

File name: Click on the ............ browse button

The OpenOpenOpenOpen window will appear

Browse to the location of hfss_lvds_diffpair.hfss hfss_lvds_diffpair.hfss hfss_lvds_diffpair.hfss hfss_lvds_diffpair.hfss

Click OpenOpenOpenOpen

Click on the Link DescriptionLink DescriptionLink DescriptionLink Description tab

Transmission Line Model (Waveport1): CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

Click OKOKOKOK to close the HFSS Dynamic Link window

Browse button

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Placing ComponentsPlace the HFSS model in the schematic

1. Click the Project Project Project Project tab in the Project ManagerProject ManagerProject ManagerProject Manager

2.2.2.2. Expand DefinitionsDefinitionsDefinitionsDefinitions then expand ModelsModelsModelsModels

3. Select diff_pairdiff_pairdiff_pairdiff_pair, right click and select Place New ComponentPlace New ComponentPlace New ComponentPlace New Component…………

4. Click NoNoNoNo for Show Common Reference Port?Show Common Reference Port?Show Common Reference Port?Show Common Reference Port?

5.5.5.5. Left mouse click to place on the schematic. To finish hit Esc key.

Edit the Diff Pair component

1. Right mouse click on the Diff Pair component in the schematic and select

PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties

2. For the Value of HFSSLineLengthHFSSLineLengthHFSSLineLengthHFSSLineLength type 1000mil1000mil1000mil1000mil.

3. Press OKOKOKOK

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Component Placement Component Placement Component Placement Component Placement –––– continuedcontinuedcontinuedcontinued

Place 3 Resistors in the schematic

1. In the Components TabComponents TabComponents TabComponents Tab, under LumpedLumpedLumpedLumped ----> Resistors> Resistors> Resistors> Resistors, double click

ResistorsResistorsResistorsResistors

2. Click the left mouse button 3 times to place 3 resistors in the

schematic.

3. To end the placement, click the right mouse button and select

FinishFinishFinishFinish. (You can also end the placement by pressing the space bar)

Note: Note: Note: Note: Before placing a component on the schematic use the RRRR key to rotate. If a component is already placed, use the <ctrl> R<ctrl> R<ctrl> R<ctrl> R key to rotate.

Change the value of the third resistor

1. Right mouse click the resistor shown on the right hand side of the

schematic and then select Properties in the pull down menu

2. Change the value of RRRR from 50 to 100100100100, then hit EnterEnterEnterEnter

Note: alternatively, you can double left mouse button click on the

resistor to bring up the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window (shown below) and

change the value from 100 to 50505050, then hit EnterEnterEnterEnter

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Component Placement Component Placement Component Placement Component Placement –––– continuedcontinuedcontinuedcontinued

Place Piecewise Linear Source

1. In the Components Tab, under Independent SourcesIndependent SourcesIndependent SourcesIndependent Sources, double click

on VPWL Piecewise LinearVPWL Piecewise LinearVPWL Piecewise LinearVPWL Piecewise Linear Voltage SourceVoltage SourceVoltage SourceVoltage Source.

2. Left mouse click to place the source in the schematic

3. Press the space barspace barspace barspace bar to finish the placement

Edit Properties of Voltage Source

1. Right mouse click on the source PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties in the pull down menu

2. Change value of Time2Time2Time2Time2 to 330ps330ps330ps330ps

3. Change value of Val2Val2Val2Val2 to 1V1V1V1V

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Component Placement Component Placement Component Placement Component Placement –––– continuedcontinuedcontinuedcontinued

Place Second Piecewise Linear Source

1. In the Components Tab, under Independent SourcesIndependent SourcesIndependent SourcesIndependent Sources, double click

on VPWL Piecewise LinearVPWL Piecewise LinearVPWL Piecewise LinearVPWL Piecewise Linear Voltage SourceVoltage SourceVoltage SourceVoltage Source.

2. Left mouse click to place the source in the schematic

3. Press the space barspace barspace barspace bar to finish the placement

Edit Properties of Voltage Source

1. Right mouse click on the source PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties in the pull down menu

2. Change value of Time2Time2Time2Time2 to 330ps330ps330ps330ps

3. Change value of Val2Val2Val2Val2 to -1V1V1V1V

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Component Placement Component Placement Component Placement Component Placement –––– continuedcontinuedcontinuedcontinued

Adding Wiring to connect componentsAdding Wiring to connect componentsAdding Wiring to connect componentsAdding Wiring to connect components

1. Select the menu item Draw Draw Draw Draw ----> Wire> Wire> Wire> Wire

2. Place the cursor (which is now an X) over a node and left mouse click once

3. Drag the mouse to the connection node and left mouse click once.

4. Repeat this procedure until the connections below are made

Adding Ground ConnectionsAdding Ground ConnectionsAdding Ground ConnectionsAdding Ground Connections

1. Select the menu item Draw > GroundDraw > GroundDraw > GroundDraw > Ground (alternatively you can select the

toolbar icon)

2. Place 2 ground connections on the ends of the voltage sources as shown

below

Adding Voltage Probes Adding Voltage Probes Adding Voltage Probes Adding Voltage Probes

1. In the ComponentsComponentsComponentsComponents tab, expand the Probes.Probes.Probes.Probes.

2. Place 4 Voltage ProbesVoltage ProbesVoltage ProbesVoltage Probes and name them Vin1, Vin2, Vout1, Vout2 as shown

below.

3. Place a Differential Voltage ProbeDifferential Voltage ProbeDifferential Voltage ProbeDifferential Voltage Probe across the 100 Ohm resistor and name it Vdiff Vdiff Vdiff Vdiff as shown below....

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Example – LVDS Differential Pair

Save ProjectSave ProjectSave ProjectSave Project

To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:To save the project:

1. Select the menu item File > Save AsFile > Save AsFile > Save AsFile > Save As.

2. From the Save As Save As Save As Save As window, type the Filename: lvds_diffpair_transientlvds_diffpair_transientlvds_diffpair_transientlvds_diffpair_transient

3. Click the SaveSaveSaveSave button

Analysis Setup

Creating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis SetupCreating an Analysis Setup

To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:To create an analysis setup:

1. Select the menu item Nexxim Circuit > Add Solution Setup > Transient Nexxim Circuit > Add Solution Setup > Transient Nexxim Circuit > Add Solution Setup > Transient Nexxim Circuit > Add Solution Setup > Transient AnalysisAnalysisAnalysisAnalysis

2. Analysis Setup Window:

1.1.1.1. Analysis ControlAnalysis ControlAnalysis ControlAnalysis Control

1. Step: 1ps1ps1ps1ps

2. Stop: 2ns2ns2ns2ns

2. Click OKOKOKOK

3. Select the menu item Nexxim Circuit > AnalyzeNexxim Circuit > AnalyzeNexxim Circuit > AnalyzeNexxim Circuit > Analyze

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Example – LVDS Differential Pair

Create Reports

Plot Input, Output and Difference waveformsPlot Input, Output and Difference waveformsPlot Input, Output and Difference waveformsPlot Input, Output and Difference waveforms

Create ReportCreate ReportCreate ReportCreate Report

1. Select the menu item Nexxim Circuit> Results > Create Standard Report> Nexxim Circuit> Results > Create Standard Report> Nexxim Circuit> Results > Create Standard Report> Nexxim Circuit> Results > Create Standard Report> Rectangular Plot Rectangular Plot Rectangular Plot Rectangular Plot

2. Traces Window::::

1. Category: VoltageVoltageVoltageVoltage

2. Quantity: V(Vin1), V(Vin2), V(Vout1), V(Vout2)V(Vin1), V(Vin2), V(Vout1), V(Vout2)V(Vin1), V(Vin2), V(Vout1), V(Vout2)V(Vin1), V(Vin2), V(Vout1), V(Vout2)

3. Function: <none><none><none><none>

4. Click the New ReportNew ReportNew ReportNew Report button

5. Click the CloseCloseCloseClose button

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Example – Segmented Return Path

Segmented Return PathThis example is intended to show you how to create, simulate, and analyze a

trace over a slot in the ground plant using the Ansoft HFSS Design Environment.

LAYER 1 (SIGNAL 1)

LAYER 2 (BOTTOM SIDE)

1.3mm

Nominal Design:Nominal Design:Nominal Design:Nominal Design:

Board:Board:Board:Board:

Thickness= 1.3mmThickness= 1.3mmThickness= 1.3mmThickness= 1.3mm

εεεεrrrr= 4.5= 4.5= 4.5= 4.5

Trace:Trace:Trace:Trace:

Length= 8.2cmLength= 8.2cmLength= 8.2cmLength= 8.2cm

Termination: 47Termination: 47Termination: 47Termination: 47ΩΩΩΩ

8 mm

4 cm

5 cm 6 mm 3.4 cm 1 cm

1 cm

3mm

6 cm

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Ansoft HFSS Design EnvironmentThe following features of the Ansoft HFSS Design Environment are used to create

this passive device model

3D Solid Modeling

Primitives: Box, RectanglesBox, RectanglesBox, RectanglesBox, Rectangles

Boolean Operations: SubtractSubtractSubtractSubtract

Boundaries/Excitations

Ports: Lumped PortLumped PortLumped PortLumped Port

Boundary Conditions: Lumped RLC, PMLLumped RLC, PMLLumped RLC, PMLLumped RLC, PML

Analysis

Sweep: Interpolating SweepInterpolating SweepInterpolating SweepInterpolating Sweep

Results

Cartesian and Smith Chart plottingCartesian and Smith Chart plottingCartesian and Smith Chart plottingCartesian and Smith Chart plotting

Field Overlays

Magnitude and Vector Field PlottingMagnitude and Vector Field PlottingMagnitude and Vector Field PlottingMagnitude and Vector Field Plotting

AnimationAnimationAnimationAnimation

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Example – Segmented Return Path

Design ReviewBefore we jump into setting up this device lets review the design.

Trace Width = 3mm

Trace Length= 8.2cm

Dielectric Height= 1.3mm

Port Size/Type= ???

Free Space= PML or Radiation Boundary

Port Size/Type

Since the trace is internal to the model, let’s use a lumped gap source port

Trace Thickness/Material Properties

To start let’s make an engineering assumption that the trace thickness and conductivity will not have an impact on the performance of the device. This will speed up the simulation.

Free Space

We should expect some radiation to occur because of the slot in the ground, however, it should not be very strong. Because there is limited radiation the separation from the device and the free-space boundary can be kept to a minimum. The incidence angle of the radiation is unknown, therefore we should use a PML. The maximum spacing will be ~λ/20 @ 1GHz or about 1.5cm

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Example – Segmented Return Path

Getting Started

Launching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSSLaunching Ansoft HFSS

1. To access Ansoft HFSS, click the Microsoft StartStartStartStart button, select ProgramsProgramsProgramsPrograms, and select

the Ansoft, HFSS 11Ansoft, HFSS 11Ansoft, HFSS 11Ansoft, HFSS 11 program group. Click HFSS 11HFSS 11HFSS 11HFSS 11.

Setting Tool OptionsSetting Tool OptionsSetting Tool OptionsSetting Tool Options

To set the tool options:To set the tool options:To set the tool options:To set the tool options:

Note: Note: Note: Note: In order to follow the steps outlined in this example, verify that the following tool options are set : : : :

1. Select the menu item Tools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS OptionsTools > Options > HFSS Options

2. HFSS Options Window:

1. Click the GeneralGeneralGeneralGeneral tab

Use Wizards for data entry when creating new boundaries: : : :

CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

Duplicate boundaries with geometry: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

Auto-assign terminals on ports: CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

3. Select the menu item Tools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler OptionsTools > Options > Modeler Options.

4. Modeler Options Window:

1. Click the OperationOperationOperationOperation tab

Automatically cover closed polylines: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

2. Click the DrawingDrawingDrawingDrawing tab

Edit property of new primitives: : : : CheckedCheckedCheckedChecked

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Opening a New ProjectOpening a New ProjectOpening a New ProjectOpening a New Project

To open a new project:To open a new project:To open a new project:To open a new project:

1. In an Ansoft HFSS window, click the On the Standard toolbar, or select

the menu item File > NewFile > NewFile > NewFile > New.

2. From the ProjectProjectProjectProject menu, select Insert HFSS DesignInsert HFSS DesignInsert HFSS DesignInsert HFSS Design....

Set Solution TypeSet Solution TypeSet Solution TypeSet Solution Type

To set the solution type:To set the solution type:To set the solution type:To set the solution type:

1. Select the menu item HFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution TypeHFSS > Solution Type

2. Solution Type Window:

1. Choose Driven TerminalDriven TerminalDriven TerminalDriven Terminal

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Example – Segmented Return Path

Creating the 3D Model

Set Model UnitsSet Model UnitsSet Model UnitsSet Model Units

To set the units:To set the units:To set the units:To set the units:

1. Select the menu item Modeler > UnitsModeler > UnitsModeler > UnitsModeler > Units

2. Set Model Units:

1. Select Units: cmcmcmcm

2. Click the OKOKOKOK button

Set Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default MaterialSet Default Material

To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:To set the default material:

1. Using the 3D Modeler Materials toolbar, choose SelectSelectSelectSelect

2. Select Definition Window:

1. Click the Add MaterialAdd MaterialAdd MaterialAdd Material button

2. View/Edit Material Window:

1. For the Material NameMaterial NameMaterial NameMaterial Name type: My_FR4My_FR4My_FR4My_FR4

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of Relative PermittivityRelative PermittivityRelative PermittivityRelative Permittivity type: 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

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Example – Segmented Return Path

Create BoardCreate BoardCreate BoardCreate Board

To create the board:To create the board:To create the board:To create the board:

1. Select the menu item Draw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > BoxDraw > Box

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the base rectangle:

dX: 6.06.06.06.0, dY: 10.010.010.010.0, dZ: ----1.3mm1.3mm1.3mm1.3mm, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:To set the name:

1. Select the AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute tab from the PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties window.

2. For the ValueValueValueValue of NameNameNameName type: BoardBoardBoardBoard

3. Click the OKOKOKOK button

To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:To fit the view:

Select the menu item View > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active ViewView > Fit All > Active View. . . . Or press the CTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+DCTRL+D key

Create GroundCreate GroundCreate GroundCreate Ground

To create ground:To create ground:To create ground:To create ground:

1. Select the menu item Draw > RectangleDraw > RectangleDraw > RectangleDraw > Rectangle

2. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the box position

X: 0.00.00.00.0, Y: 0.00.00.00.0, Z: ----1.3mm1.3mm1.3mm1.3mm, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

3. Using the coordinate entry fields, enter the opposite corner of the base

rectangle:

dX: 6.06.06.06.0, dY: 10.010.010.010.0, dZ: 0.00.00.00.0, Press the EnterEnterEnterEnter key

To set the name:To set the nam