Hasnain Motivation

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motivation

Transcript of Hasnain Motivation

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Industrial psychology and sociologyAdil Amin PG-E10-08Qaiser Mahmood PG-E10-11Gulzar hussain CE-E10-26Shahid pervaiz CE-E10-38

Muhammad Farooq I.C.E.T., University of the Punjab

Meet our manager

Hi

The Manager works for a Company

The Manager works for a Company

We make stuff!

But there is a problem

The workers arent motivated

The Manager needs to figure out how to increase employee motivation

He tried to get the workers excited!

Lets go!

Getmotivated!

He put motivational quotes up around the office

He tried to instill fear!

Get moving or you're fired!

These fixes all work for a while

But none of them seemed to work for long

Ho Hum

So what should Manager do now??

To answer this question, We need to know/understand..

Motivation

Meaning Elements Types CharacteristicsImportance Relation between Motivation and Productivity Theories (Content , process) How to motivate employees Example of an eagle

Motivation at workplaceInternal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested in and committed to a job, role, or subject, and to exert persistent effort in attaining a goal Or It is a process by which a persons efforts are energized, directed and sustained towards attaining the goal.

Elements of motivation Motivation has three key elements

Intensity Direction Persistence

Intensity : It is a measure of motivational energy in the person. It tells how hard a person tries. Direction : Proper direction towards the goals.Persistence : It is a measure of how long a person can sustain his efforts.

Types of motivationExtrinsic motivation (May be +ve or ve)Intrinsic motivation (May be +ve or ve)

Extrinsic motivation: Extrinsic motivations are those that arise from outside of the individual and often involve rewards such as trophies, money, social recognition or praisePeople are compelled to do things out of desire or pleasure.

Intrinsic motivation: Intrinsic motivations are those that arise from within the individual such intrinsically person will work on math equation because it is enjoyable.

Example of a worker .he may be not happy with assignment , finds its boring but the reward which he will get after completing is giving him motivation.21

Types of motivation(cont.)

Basic model of motivation

Needs or expectationsDrive force(Behavior orAction)Desired GoalsfulfillmentsResultTo AchieveWhich ProvidesFeedback

Characteristics of MotivationArt of Stimulating Someone Or Oneself

Produces Goal Directed Behaviour

Motivation can be either Positive or Negative

Motivation is different from Satisfaction

Importance of MotivationPuts human resources into actionImproves level of efficiency of employeesEnhance productivity Leads to achievement of organizational goalsBuilds friendly relationshipLeads to stability of work force

Relation between motivation and productivityPritchard had developed Productivity and performance measurement system called ProMES Performance = Motivation * Ability

Ability ( e.g , intelligence )

If motivation=0 , then ability will not matter so performance=0

Theories of motivation Content theories Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theoryHerzberg's two-factor theoryAlderfer's ERG theoryMcClelland's acquired needs theoryM.C.Gregor X and Y theoryProcess theories Vrooms Expectancy TheoryAdams Equity TheoryLikerts Theory Reinforcement theory

Content theories

Maslows needs and motivation modelDeveloped by Abraham Maslow in the 1940s

Theory is based on the needs

Abraham Maslow defined need as a physiological or psychological deficiency that a person feels the compulsion to satisfy

This need can create tensions that can influence a person's work attitudes and behaviours

Humans are motivated by multiple needs and that these needs exist in a hierarchical order

Maslows needs and motivational model (cont.)Maslow's theory is based on the following two principles:

Deficit principle:A satisfied need no longer motivates behaviour because people act to satisfy deprived needs.

Progression principle: Need at any level only comes into play after a lowerlevel need has been satisfied.

Maslows needs and motivational model (cont.).

Plus point of Maslows theory

Limitations of Maslows theory Simple to understand

Helps the manager to understand employee needs.

The Various Individuals having different motivation and needs

All the needs can not fulfilled or might be employee satisfied in 3 or 4 level

Herzberg's two-factor theory

Herzberg developed his theory called two factor theory in 1950s Herzberg and his associates conducted a questionnaire at Pittsburgh. He asked them: i) Recall times they felt satisfied ii) Recall times they felt dissatisfied/unmotivated

Unmotivated times : Poor relationship with Boss ,no gratitute, poor Payment

Motivated times : Good relation with boss , Feelings of recognition , Growth opportunities

Herzberg found that entirely different factors were related to the employees feelings about their jobs

For instance, those who stated they were not satisfied because their jobs were low-paid would not necessarily identify high pay as a cause of satisfaction and motivation. Those people instead claimed that factors such as recognition or achievement were some of the main causes of job satisfaction and34Herzberg's two-factor theory(cont.)He uses concept Opposite of job satisfaction is no satisfaction , it is not dissatisfaction and vice versaTwo factors impact motivation at workplace :

Hygiene factors Presence of which eliminate the dissatisfaction from person but can no provide motivation Motivator The person is motivated by these factors.

Motivator

Hygiene

Herzberg's two-factor theory(cont.)Result ; Following Herzberg's twofactor theory, managers need to ensure that hygiene factors are adequate and then build satisfiers into jobs.

Limitations and criticisms

what motivates me may be a hygiene factor for the other.

Its for individuals, not as a homogeneous group with one set of wants and needs

Alderfer's ERG theory Alderfers in 1972 gave ERG theory

Built upon Maslows hierarchy of needs theory

He collapses Maslow's five levels of needs into three categories. Existence Relatedness Growth

Alderfer's ERG theory

PhysiologicalSafety & SecurityLove (Social)EsteemSAExistence needs (are the desires for satisfying physiological needs)Relatedness needsGrowth needs Principles of ERG theory

SatisfactionSatisfactionSatisfactionFrustration Frustration Frustration G R EProgression principleFrustration regressionMcClelland's acquired needs theory

Everyone prioritizes needs differently

Need for AchievementThe drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed.Need for AffiliationThe desire for friendly and close personal relationships.Need for PowerThe need to drive and manage others behavior nAchnPownAffMcClelland's acquired needs theory (cont.) High achievers often exhibit the following behavioursSeek personal responsibility for finding solutions to problemsWant rapid feedback on their performances so that they can tell easily whether they are improving or not

Individuals with a high need of power often demonstrate the following behaviours:

Enjoy being in chargeWant to influence others

McClelland's acquired needs theory (cont.)People needing affiliation display the following behaviours:Take a special interest in work that provides companionship and social approvalStrive for friendshipMay not make the best managers because their desire for social approval and friendship may complicate managerial decision making

M.C.Gregor X and Y theory

Gregor divided the Human beings in to two different parts according to physical structure According to feelings, affections, sympathy and etc.On the basis of nature it is divided in to two parts:

X theory Y theory

X type people can become Y type and Y type people can become X type

M.C.Gregor X and Y theoryTheory X

Assume that workers have little ambition, dislike work, avoid responsibility, and require close supervision.This theory means the workers have no power to suggest anything and only carry the order of supervisor and obey the orderThey do not work automatically ,They wait for the instructions or order They simple treated as machine not as employee

M.C.Gregor X and Y theoryTheory YAssumes that workers can exercise self-direction, desire, responsibility, and like to work

Work is the source of satisfaction

Life is hell for high skilled people if their job is challenge less

Utilized the full optimum of employees according to capability of each employees

Cognitive Evaluation Theory

Providing an extrinsic reward for behaviour that had been previously only intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation.The theory may only be relevant to jobs that are neither extremely dull nor extremely interesting.

Process Theories

The Expectancy TheoryExpectancy Theory, first proposed b