Habib rahman

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Works of Habib Rahman Presentation by: Mayank Shekhawat Vedika Agrawal

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Page 1: Habib rahman

Works of Habib Rahman

Presentation by: Mayank Shekhawat Vedika Agrawal

Page 2: Habib rahman

“A building becomes architecture when it not only works effectively but moves the human soul.”

Habib Rahman

Image 1, 2 source: http://www.scribd.com/doc/55420661/Habib-Rahman-Architecture-Tribute

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Habib Rahman - One of the first generation architects to bring in Modernism to India 1950s – Post Independence – Political change, cultural ethos of India Nehru’s philosophy – drove the nation politically and architecturally Nehru was set to embrace modernism as the vehicle to represent the agenda of the unfolding future Habib Rahmn introduced the Bauhaus style in the Indian context

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•  Flat roofs, smooth facades, cubic shapes favoring right angles •  The colors used are white, gray, black, or beige - dull colors which show the

lack of ornamentation •  Open floor plans and functional furniture •  Use of steel frames, flat slab, concrete as construction material

Absence of ornamentation Importance of function Radically simplified forms Rationality and functionality

Image source: http://fabfashionista92.wordpress.com/2012/03/28/modern-movements-bauhaus1913-1933/

BAUHAUS

Bauhaus style – Emphasized on the use of modern technology, and mass production techniques and materials to design and manufacture high quality and cheap goods which could be accessible to many.

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THE USE OF INDIAN ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS

•  Jalis •  Chajjas •  Dome •  Overhanging roof •  Horizontal and vertical louvers Image 1: New Secretariat, Kolkata

Image 1 source: https://ssl.panoramio.com/user/6073558?with_photo_id=69754386

Image 2: Use of jali at Rabindra Bhavan

Image 3: Mazzar of Zakir Hussain

Image 3, 4 source: http://www.scribd.com/doc/55420661/Habib-Rahman-Architecture-Tribute

Image 4: Residential flats, Ramkrishnapuram, Delhi

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The brief demanded the reflection of the personality and philosophy of the Mahatma

A tower – A simplified profile of a temple shikhara, capped with an Islamic Dome and a horizontal projecting cantilevered slab projecting from from both sides appearing in silhouette somewhat like a cross which the ghat steps descend to the river.

GANDHI GHAT, KOLKATA

Image source: http://www.pwdwb.in/html/buildings.php

Column and cantilever – INSPIRED BY F.L. WRIGHT

Rahman was trying to break away from Gropius’s influence and form his own style

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•  Introduction of steel framed structure resting on concrete piles

•  Introduction of horizontal and vertical concrete louvers as sun breakers.

•  Building designed in 3 blocks – to take advantage of the site

•  14 storey high – tallest at that time in India – Rahman was the 1st architect to introduce skyscraper to India

•  To obtain uniform illumination and max. ventilation, the blocks have been comparatively narrow.

NEW SECRETARIAT, KOLKATA

Image source: http://www.scribd.com/doc/55420661/Habib-Rahman-Architecture-Tribute

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The first steel frame skyscraper built in India

NEW SECRETARIAT, KOLKATA

Image source: http://www.scribd.com/doc/55420661/Habib-Rahman-Architecture-Tribute

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UGC BUILDING

Aim of the project: To provide accommodation to house all the offices of the University Grants Commission, New Delhi

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Rahman was inspired from the Bauhaus ideology and building forms; hence, the UGC building is much like a box shape in overall form Being a Modernist building, it was designed for a functional purpose (classification of spaces being rational)

Rahman broke the building into two blocks, to fit the site

Image 1, 2 source: Jon Lang, 1997. Architecture and Independence: The Search for Identity - India 1880 to 1980. 1 Edition. Oxford University Press, USA.

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Being true to his modernist roots, he used R.C.C framed structure the grid was simple and thus, the linear form The columns are either visible as ribs or are free standing. Free standing columns are rectangular In shape with semi circular ends giving the illusion of slenderness-heavy structure resting on very little support

The projected slabs and void space create a floating effect on the ground floor

Image 1

Image source: http://sukanyarahman.com/2011/12/11/habib-rahman-remembered-in-history-of-delhi-architecture/

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Funds were less- so AC not installed during time of construction; but Rahman designed the building in such a way that it could later adapt the AC system

Image source: http://sukanyarahman.com/2011/12/11/habib-rahman-remembered-in-history-of-delhi-architecture/

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The facades were divided into horizontal chajjas n vertical louvers - almost like a skin protecting the building Rather than using the same articulation on back façade of the building, he provided two continuous overhangs on the windows- this expression was something new that any architect had used during that time - this would protect rooms from direct sunlight and also help cut down the heat load on ac system

Façade detail of front elevation Façade detail of rear elevation

Image 1, 2 source: http://sukanyarahman.com/2011/12/11/habib-rahman-remembered-in-history-of-delhi-architecture/

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Here he has protected the building from extreme climate of the regions by creating surface of smaller units consisting vertical and horizontal louvers and hangovers. Closely placed vertical louvers and thin hangovers with cut-outs at every interval space create the perfect play of mass and void in the façade of the building.

Façade of ministry of health and education designed by oscar niemeyer

Front façade detail of UGC

Rear façade detail of UGC

Image 1, 2 source: http://caravanmagazine.in/lede/modern-or-modernist

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Not much ornamentation is done except the use of concrete jaali. Rather than going overboard with it, Rahman has used very limited amount of this expression at few places - end of corridors and at the ground floor parking of the North wing.

Image source: http://caravanmagazine.in/lede/modern-or-modernist

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Image source: http://sukanyarahman.com/2011/12/11/habib-rahman-remembered-in-history-of-delhi-architecture/

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RABINDRA BHAWAN

Aim of the project: To provide accommodation to house the activities of the 3 National Academies – The Lalit Kala Academy (Plastic arts), Sahitya (Lterature and philosophy) and Sangeet Natak Academy (Performing Arts)

“Rabindra Bhawan, which was nominated for the Aga Khan award in 1980, was the first building where I could free myself from the influence of Walter Gropius. This building belongs to India. Here I used tradtional Indian elements such as chhajjas, jalis and overhanging roof. It was the first functional building to give me aesthetical satistfaction. Maybe it was Rabindranath’s artistic genius that inspired me to give an emotionally moving quality to the building. I feel proud to have been able to design memorials to both the Mahatma and Gurudev.” Rahman Habib 1965

Image source: http://www.scribd.com/doc/55420661/Habib-Rahman-Architecture-Tribute

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Shape and positioning of the wings follows the shape of the site

Use of pure geometry in overall form of the building. Rahman created an interconnected structure free from Gropius’s box shapes and the bauhaus factory aesthetics.

Image 1, 2 source: Jon Lang, 1997. Architecture and Independence: The Search for Identity - India 1880 to 1980. 1 Edition. Oxford University Press, USA.

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The building is divided into three major blocks- administrative building, exhibition gallery and theatre. The administrative block, which is the biggest of all, occupies prominent amount of space on the site. The architects vision was to make a bold statement and hold itself on the huge site- hence the monumental scale of the block. The Y - shape is chosen very

thoughtfully to cover the maximum area on the site. Not only that, the shape of the block creates different sizes of pockets where other two blocks are placed

EXHIBITION GALLERY

THEATRE

ADMINISTRATIVE BLOCK

Image source: Jon Lang, 1997. Architecture and Independence: The Search for Identity - India 1880 to 1980. 1 Edition. Oxford University Press, USA.

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Image source: Jon Lang, 1997. Architecture and Independence: The Search for Identity - India 1880 to 1980. 1 Edition. Oxford University Press, USA.

Unlike other modernists, who tried to design their building like a piece of art and created large open spaces to view the building, Rahman broke his building into different blocks to create gali-like greets – which he borrowed from Indian architecture.

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Basic layout of the building having service core in the centre and functional spaces around.

Image 1, 2 source: Jon Lang, 1997. Architecture and Independence: The Search for Identity - India 1880 to 1980. 1 Edition. Oxford University Press, USA.

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Reinterpreted form of chajjas in continuous horizontal louvers.

Image showing rows of continous chajjas , where the louvered rows are placed on cantilievered brackets

Image 1 source: http://sukanyarahman.com/2011/12/11/habib-rahman-remembered-in-history-of-delhi-architecture/ Image 2: http://rabindrabhavandelhi.blogspot.in

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Composite structure of the building of brick load bearing walls and RCC framed structure

Image source: http://sukanyarahman.com/2011/12/11/habib-rahman-remembered-in-history-of-delhi-architecture/

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Image 1, 2 source: http://sukanyarahman.com/2011/12/11/habib-rahman-remembered-in-history-of-delhi-architecture/

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THE USE OF INDIAN ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS

•  Jalis •  Chajjas •  Dome

Image 1: http://rabindrabhavandelhi.blogspot.in Image 2: http://caravanmagazine.in/lede/modern-or-modernist

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R. K PURAM, sec - 13

The govt wanted to develop a residential area for their employees that would not only be high in density but it would also have the appropriate environment for the people for quality living.

Double storied houses of RK Puram

Rahman’s design of the proposed mult-storey housing- south elevation

Image 2 source: http://sukanyarahman.com/2011/12/11/habib-rahman-remembered-in-history-of-delhi-architecture/

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-Since the designing of the Rabindra Bhawan, rahman had significant changes in his way of designing. -The rectangular box form of each wing still depicts his love for pure geometry in the building form. -He always tried to break this singular form by providing wing systems and varied facades and corner conditions that would create the play of mass and void unlike the flat façade of the Bauhaus building.

Image 1, 2 source: Jon Lang, 1997. Architecture and Independence: The Search for Identity - India 1880 to 1980. 1 Edition. Oxford University Press, USA.

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-Generally Rahman tried to orient the building wings or block parallel to the plot boundary to place it appropriate on site. But here rather than following the same principle, he tilted each of the apartments in relation to the existing road. -The idea behind such orientation was most importantly climate and also to give best possible non obstructive view to the maximum number of rooms in each block. -Also, with providing the large open spaces between the blocks, a feeling of openness with good air and light and considerable private for each flat is established.

Image source: Jon Lang, 1997. Architecture and Independence: The Search for Identity - India 1880 to 1980. 1 Edition. Oxford University Press, USA.

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Simple structure- R.C.C framework with brick filler walls.

Image 1 source: : http://www.scribd.com/doc/55420661/Habib-Rahman-Architecture-Tribute Image 2 source: http://sukanyarahman.com/2011/12/11/habib-rahman-remembered-in-history-of-delhi-architecture/

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DETAIL ELEMENTS The external walls of the apartment are painted without any plaster underneath. So one can see the joints of brick masonry on the facades of building. The alternatively cantilevered balconies, concrete jaali, projecting chajjas and exposed brick masonry, all together creates a harmonious combinations of the architectural language that Rahman has used in his design.

Alternatively cantilevered balconies

Jaali work

Jaali pattern for staircase area

Jaali pattern for the apartment area

Image 1 source: http://www.scribd.com/doc/55420661/Habib-Rahman-Architecture-Tribute

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Books Jon Lang, 2010. Concise History of Modern Architecture In India. Edition. Permanent Black. Jon Lang, 1997. Architecture and Independence: The Search for Identity - India 1880 to 1980. 1 Edition. Oxford University Press, USA. Websites Habib+Rahman+Architecture+Tribute. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.scribd.com/doc/55420661/Habib-Rahman-Architecture-Tribute. [Accessed 01 March 2014]. Why was Bauhaus so important. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.architectweekly.com/2012/12/why-was-bauhaus-style-so-important.html%00. [Accessed 02 March 2014]. Modern Movements: Bauhaus (1913-1933). [ONLINE] Available at: http://fabfashionista92.wordpress.com/2012/03/28/modern-movements-bauhaus1913-1933/[Accessed 01 March 2014]. West Bengal Public Works Department 2014.West Bengal Public Works Department [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.pwdwb.in/html. [Accessed 28 February 2014]. Habib Rahman Remembered In History Of Delhi Architecture. 2014. [ONLINE] Available at: http://sukanyarahman.com/2011/12/11/habib-rahman-remembered-in-history-of-delhi-architecture. [Accessed 28 February 2014]. Modern or Modernist | The Caravan - A Journal of Politics and Culture. 2014. [ONLINE] Available at: http://caravanmagazine.in/lede/modern-or-modernist. [Accessed 03 March 2014].

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