GrowingAsianPears Newell

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Transcript of GrowingAsianPears Newell

  • Growing Asian PearsMichael Newell

    Horticultural Crops Program Manager

    Wye Research and Education Center

  • What Are Asian Pears?What Are Asian Pears? Apple-Pears, some folks call them, or Pear-pp

    Apples; some say Salad Pears, because some varieties blend so nicely into salads. Asian pears make up a unique group, really quite unlike either apples or q g p y q ppEuropean pears. Many of them are shaped like apples; at first glance, Chojuro might masquerade as a Golden Russet apple. Asian pears are typically very pp p yp y ycrisp, very juicy, very sweet, and very low acid. Most Nashi (Japanese for pear) reach peak flavor ripened on the tree; even with prolonged storage, they do not attain ; p g g , ythe buttery texture of many European pears. All Asian pears today are selected seedlings or crosses made within Pyrus serotina.y

  • Markets?Markets?

    Growing Asian population in U.S.Growing Asian population in U.S. Specialty markets

    Need aggressive marketing through consumer educationconsumer education

    Prices charged at local markets should be less than in major supermarket chainsless than in major supermarket chains

    Need to be sure you can sell what you growgrow

  • Varieties SHINSEIKI (NEW CENTURY) Nijiesiki x Chojuro; a Japanese selection introduced in 1945. An

    early season variety, with uniform size, globular lopsided shape and green to yellow-green y y, , g p p g y gcolor. The flesh is sweet, slightly tart, firm and juicy. Fruit hangs on the tree well; tree ripening is best. It has excellent storage life. Self-fertile, but more productive with a pollenizer. Fire blight susceptible.

    SHINSUI Early-ripening nashi with outstanding flavor. Medium sized. Beautiful orange-yellow ki M d t l tibl t fi bli ht P i d d tiskin. Moderately susceptible to fire blight. Precocious and very productive

    HOSUI From Japanese breeding program, introduced in 1972; (Kikusui x Yakumo) x Yakumo. This is the the best-flavored of all the Asian pears! Sugar content usually 12 brix or higher but more tart in the North. It is an early season, russet type with a round globular shape and yellow to brownish yellow skin heavily russeted It has a long storage life The tree is vigorousyellow to brownish-yellow skin, heavily russeted. It has a long storage life. The tree is vigorous, willowy and spreading. Good resistance to pear scab disease. Susceptible to fire blight.

    CHOJURO Found in 1895 in Japan, chance seedling of Pyrus pyrifolia. A brown to orange, russet-skinned early-midseason variety with high sugar content. White flesh; crisp; slightly aromatic;butterscotch flavor Moderately gritty in some seasons Fruit medium to large size oftenaromatic;butterscotch flavor. Moderately gritty in some seasons. Fruit medium to large size, often nearly a pound; roundish, somewhat flattened. Good winter keeper. Moderately susceptible to fire blight; apparently resistant to pear scab and Alternaria black spot. Tree is precocious and productive.

    NIITAKA. Large fruit, yellow and brown-russetted; coarse texture. Bland flavor. Fire blight g , y ; gsusceptible.

    KOSUI From a Kikusui x Wase-Kozo cross, introduced in Japan in 1959. High quality. Medium size;skin mostly russetted, light green to yellow-bronze. Resistant to Alternaria black-spot and moderately resistant to pear scab. Moderately productive. Regarded by many as highest

    lit f A iquality of Asian pears.

    Yoinashi': A large, brown-skinned fruit with excellent flavor. It ripens in mid-August with '20th Century' but sizes much better.

  • Varieties 20th CENTURY (Nijisseiki) A mid-season variety, with uniform size, and sweet, slightly tart, firm

    and very juicy flesh. It has a globular lopsided shape and yellow green color. Good storage -- 4 to 5 months in the refrigerator. Semi-spur habit. . Quite susceptible to pear scab and fire blight.

    SHINKO Seedling of Nijisseiki, selected in Japan. Introduced in 1941. Distinctive rich, sweet g j , p ,flavor. Fruit medium to large size. Attractive golden russet skin; firm, crisp flesh. Ripens mid-October in New York. Fine winter keeper. Very productive. Much less susceptible to fireblight than most asian pears.

    OLYMPIC (KOREAN GIANT). Very large, attractive fruit -- orange with russet coat. Crisp, sweet d j i E ll t t l t fi bli ht O f th ld h d hi O t b i iand juicy. Excellent tolerance to fire blight. One of the more cold-hardy nashi. October ripening;

    good storage.

    TSE LI Large, very sweet fruit; almost no acid; aromatic; should be stored for a while before eating -- not edible right off the tree. Typical pear shape. Excellent for storage. Complex hybrid of Pyrus ussuriensis x (P bretschneideri) Blooms very early so is especially susceptible to lateof Pyrus ussuriensis x (P. bretschneideri). Blooms very early, so is especially susceptible to late spring frosts; Ya Li is appropriate pollenizer. Some fire blight tolerance; seems to be damaged less by insects than Japanese varieties.

    YA LI A old Chinese variety of very good quality, ripening a month after 20th Century. Pyrus ussuriensis Large fruit Somewhat tolerant of fire blight (probably because of early bloomussuriensis. Large fruit. Somewhat tolerant of fire blight (probably because of early bloom time). Vigorous grower. Blooms very early, so frost susceptible -- 4 or 5 days earlier than Japanese varieties.

    SHIN LI.--Hybrid between Japanese variety Kikusui and Tse Li, bred at University of California-Davis. Introduced in 1988, plant patent 6076. Fine-textured, crisp, juicy, sweet. Fruit light , p p , p, j y, ggreen. Goode storage. Resistant to fire blight. Early bloom.

    Atago - Brown russetted, fruit is large, very firm crisp and juicy. Trees are upright, spreading and medium in vigor. Late season

  • RootstocksRootstocks Asian pear trees require root-stocks that impart a high p q p g

    state of vigor. No Pyrus communis rootstocks are vigorous enough for most Asian pears, with the possible exception of the most vigorous Old Home x Farmingdale p g gclones (OHxF 97).

    Asian pears require vigorous rootstocks such as P. betulaefolia or P calleryana Since some Asian pearbetulaefolia or P. calleryana. Since some Asian pear varieties will support the pear psylla that carries pear decline, it seems possible that trees on P. ussuriensis and P serotina rootstocks may get decline However ifand P. serotina rootstocks may get decline. However, if the scion variety reacts so strongly that it doesn't transmit the decline organism to the susceptible rootstock the trees won't get declinerootstock, the trees won t get decline.

  • Spacing and TrainingSpacing and Training**Modified central leader training. Similar to apple training g pp gsystems. This is done with little or no heading of the tree and selecting

    wide angle limbs for framework limbs off the central leader. The final tree looks like a Christmas tree in shape. It is advisable to maintain individual tree spacing and avoid tight hedgerows for good fruit color and long-lived, productive orchards Good limb angles are best achieved in fist year of growth using Good limb angles are best achieved in fist year of growth using clothes pins or small spreaders

    **SpacingSpacing - In row 12- 16 feet

    Between row 16 20 feet depending on equipment

  • OLYMPIC 2008

  • OLYMPIC - 6th LEAF

  • Olympic 2009

  • NIITAKA 6th LEAF

  • Pollination Requirements

    Dark box indicates not a good pollinator

  • Fruit ProductionFruit Production

    All fruit are borne on spurs on 2- to 6-year-oldAll fruit are borne on spurs on 2 to 6 year old wood. Older wood and spurs give smaller fruit than those on 2- to 4-year-old wood. Clean pruning cuts and excess spurs should be cut off smoothly so stubs will not rub and damage fruit. F it i b t 1 t 3 ldFruit sizes best on 1- to 3-year-old spurs on wood 1 to 2 inches in diameter. Fruit on small hanger wood sizes poorly Pruning shouldhanger wood sizes poorly Pruning should encourage several limbs with wide angle branches off main scaffold limbs.

  • Fruit ThinningFruit Thinning All Asian pear cultivars require heavy thinning to obtain p q y g

    good fruit sizes, to insure annual cropping, and to avoid limb breakage. All thinning is done by hand. Some growers blossom-thin, by cutting off by hand all but 2 to g y g y3 flowers per cluster. Most growers wait for fruit to set and then cut off all but 1 or 2 fruits per spur. .. The best thinning usually requires two times to effectively leave no g y q ymore than one fruit per spur, and if spurs are close together well thinned fruit are spaced four to six inches apart. Thinning up to 30 days before harvest can benefit p g p ysize, but early thinning is essential for annual bearing and good fruit sizes.

  • ATAGO

  • Fruit HarvestFruit Harvest Most growers determine harvest time by fruit taste and

    l S t t 12 5% ll i d t dcolor. Sugar content over 12.5% usually is adequate and fruit pressure of 8 to 11 pounds seems satisfactory. Fruit pressure is not as good a measure of maturity in Asian pears as it is in European pears The color of russet typepears as it is in European pears. The color of russet-type fruit changes from green to brown, and the ground color of green fruit changes from green to yellow. Color and sugar content best determine time to harvest. Somesugar content best determine time to harvest. Some green Chinese and hybrid types do not change color much at maturity. All Asian pears must be carefully handled to minimize bruising and brown marks and stem

    t O t f it i kl h ll b ipunctures. Over-mature fruit quickly show roller bruises, fingerprints and other signs of handling at harvest. Under-mature fruit are poor in flavor