Groundwater Flow Modeling and Aquifer vulnerability ... (3) Estimation of Dynamic Groundwater...

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Transcript of Groundwater Flow Modeling and Aquifer vulnerability ... (3) Estimation of Dynamic Groundwater...

  • Groundwater Flow Modelling and Aquifer vulnerability assessment studies in Yamuna–Krishni Sub-basin,

    Muzaffarnagar District

    (Project No.23/36/2004-R&D)

    Completion Report

    Submitted to

    Indian National Committee on Ground Water Central Ground Water Board (CGWB)

    Ministry of Water Resources (Govt. of India)

    By

    Dr. Rashid Umar Principal Investigator

    Department of Geology Aligarh Muslim University

    Aligarh (U.P.) - 202002

  • CONTENTS

    I List of Figures i-iii II List of Tables iv III List of Appendices v IV List of Plates vi

    1. Name and address of the Institute 1 2. Name and addresses of the PI and other investigators 1 3 Title of the scheme 1 4. Financial details 1 5. Original objectives and methodology as in the sanctioned proposal 2-4 6. Any changes in the objectives during the operation of the scheme 4 7. All data collected and used in the analysis with sources of data 4 8. Methodology actually followed. (observations, analysis, results and inferences) 4-111 (1) The Study Area 7-17

    (2) Hydrogeology 18-42

    (3) Estimation of Dynamic Groundwater Resource 43-54

    (4) Groundwater Flow Modelling 55-75

    (5) Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment 76-85

    (6) Hydrogeochemistry 86-106

    (7) Project findings 107-111

    9. Conclusions / Recommendations 112-115 10. How do the conclusions / recommendations compare with current thinking 115-116 11. Field tests conducted 116

  • 12. Software generated, if any 116 13. Possibilities of any patents / copyrights. If so, then action taken in this regard 116 14. Suggestions for further work 116 Publications 117 References 118-123 Appendices

  • i

    LIST OF FIGURES

    Fig No. Title Page No.

    Fig.1.1 Location map of the study area 7 Fig.1.2 Digital elevation model (DEM) of Yamuna-Krishni sub-basin 10 Fig.1.3a Landuse/Landcover pattern in the study area (1971) 11 Fig.1.3b Landuse/Landcover pattern in the study area (2002) 12 Fig.1.4 Block wise water utilization pattern. 13 Fig.1.5a Yearly rainfall at Kairana raingauge station(1990-2007) 13 Fig.1.5b Yearly rainfall at Shamli raingauge station(1990-2007) 14 Fig.1.6 Isohyetal map showing distribution of average annual rainfall. 15 Fig.1.7 Soil map of the study area 16 Fig.1.8 Map of the Ganga Plain showing sub-surface basement high and thickness of the foreland sediment (in kilometers) Compiled from various sources, namely Agarwal 1977, Karunakaran and Ranga Rao 1979 and Singh 2004 17 Fig.2.1 Base map of Yamuna-Krishni sub-basin 19 Fig.2.2 Fence diagram showing aquifer disposition in Yamuna-Krishni sub-basin 20 Fig.2.3 Hydrogeological cross section along line A-B 21 Fig.2.4 Hydrogeological cross section along line C-D 21 Fig.2.5 Hydrogeological cross section along line E-F 22 Fig.2.6 Sand percent map of the study area 23 Fig.2.7 Pre-monsoon depth to water level map (June 2006) 25 Fig.2.8 Post-monsoon depth to water level map (Nov 2006) 25 Fig.2.9a Water level fluctuation map (2006) 27 Fig.2.9b Water level fluctuation map (2007) 27 Fig.2.10 3-D water table contour map 29 Fig.2.11 Pre-monsoon water table contour map (June 2006) 30 Fig.2.12 Post-monsoon water table contour map (Nov 2006) 30 Fig.2.13a Long term water level fluctuation trends at Thanabhawan and Jalalabad 32 Fig.2.13b Long term water level fluctuation trends at Shamli and Titoli 33 Fig.2.13c Long term water level fluctuation trends at Bhabhisa and Gangeru 33 Fig.2.13d Long term water level fluctuation trends at Garhi Abdullah and Toda 33 Fig.2.13e Long term water level fluctuation trends at Bhoora and Kandela 34 Fig.2.13f Long term water level fluctuation trends at Kairana and Khurgyan 34 Fig.2.13g Long term water level fluctuation trends at Kandhala and Mawi 34 Fig.2.14a Bimonthly water level fluctuation trends at Choutra, Chandelmal and Goharni 35 Fig.2.14b Bimonthly water level fluctuation trends at Khurgyan, Saiupat and Malakpur 35 Fig.2.14c Bimonthly water level fluctuation trends at Bunta, Chausana and Kairana 36 Fig.2.14d Bimonthly water level fluctuation trends at Garhi Pukhta, Todda and Lilaun 36

  • ii

    Fig.2.14e Bimonthly water level fluctuation trends at Harhar Fatehpur and Bhanera 36 Fig.2.15a Temporal variability of monthly rainfall and water level at Kairana 37 Fig.2.15b Temporal variability of monthly rainfall and water level at Shamli 38 Fig.2.16 Logan’s Isopermeability map 40 Fig.3.1 Command and Non-command area 44 Fig.3.2 Horizontal flows across the Yamuna-Krishni sub-basin 50 Fig.3.3a Hydrograph showing significant decline in command area 53 Fig.3.3b Hydrograph showing significant decline in non-command area 54 Fig.4.1a Zone wise permeability distribution in first and third layer 58 Fig.4.1b Zone wise permeability distribution in second layer 58 Fig.4.2 Zone wise recharge distribution in Yamuna-Krishni model 59 Fig.4.3 Simulated groundwater pumping centers in Yamuna-Krishni Model 60 Fig.4.4 Map showing boundary condition in the study area 61 Fig.4.5 Grid pattern and location of observation wells in Yamuna- Krishni model 63 Fig.4.6a Hydrogeological cross section along row 9 showing three layer system 63 Fig.4.6b Hydrogeological cross section along row 25 showing three layer system 63 Fig.4.7a Observed water table contour map (Nov 2006) 65 Fig.4.7b Simulated water table contour map (Nov 2006) 65 Fig.4.8 Calculated versus observed heads (Nov 2006) 66 Fig.4.9 Calculated versus observed heads (June 1999-June 2007) 68 Fig.4.10a Observed and simulated heads at Kairana, Titoli and Thanabhawan 68 Fig.4.10b Observed and simulated heads at Shamli and Khurgyan 69 Fig.4.10c Observed and simulated heads at Bhoora and Todda 69 Fig.4.10d Observed and simulated heads at Jalalabad and Kandela 70 Fig.4.11a Drawdown in prediction scenario 1 73 Fig.4.11b Drawdown in prediction scenario 2 74 Fig.4.11c Drawdown in prediction scenario 3 75 Fig.5.1 Procedure for the construction of the Aquifer vulnerability map 78 Fig.5.2 Depth to water level map (Nov 2007) 78 Fig.5.3 Soil map of the study area 80 Fig.5.4 Zone wise hydraulic conductivity distribution 82 Fig.5.5 Aquifer vulnerability map of Yamuna-Krishni sub-basin 84 Fig.6.1 Sampling location map of the study area 87 Fig.6.2 TDS distribution map in the study area 90 Fig.6.3 Relative abundances of Alkali’s over Ca+Mg 93 Fig.6.4 Relative abundances of HCO3 and Cl+SO4 93 Fig.6.5 Bonding affinity between Alkali’s and Cl 94 Fig.6.6 Bonding affinity between Ca+Mg and HCO3 94 Fig.6.7 Bonding affinity between Ca and SO4 95 Fig.6.8a Chemical classification of groundwater based on Piper diagram (November 2005) 96

  • iii

    Fig.6.8b Chemical classification of groundwater based on Piper diagram (June 2006) 96 Fig.6.9a Langelier and Ludwig diagram of post-monsoon samples (Nov 2005) 98 Fig.6.9b Langelier and Ludwig diagram of pre-monsoon samples (June 2006) 98 Fig.6.10a Salinity and Alkalinity hazards of Irrigation water in US Salinity diagram (Nov 2005) 104 Fig.6.10b Salinity and Alkalinity hazards of Irrigation water in US Salinity diagram (June 2006) 104

  • iv

    LIST OF TABLES

    Table No. Title Page No.

    Table 1.1 Change in LULC pattern in the study area 11 Table 1.2 Results of statistical analysis of annual rainfall data 14 Table 1.3 Probable Geological succession in the study area 17 Table 2.1 Effective Grain size and Uniformity coefficient 23 Table 2.2 Average annual decline during (1999-2007) in command area 32 Table 2.3 Average annual decline during (1999-2007) in non-command area 32 Table 2.4 Results of Laboratory Hydraulic Conductivity (m/day) 41 Table 2.5 Results of the long duration Pump test 41 Table 2.6 Results of the short duration Pump test 42 Table 3.1 Non-monsoon rainfall recharge 46 Table 3.2 Seasonal (crop wise) irrigation return flow in command area 47 Table 3.3 Seasonal (crop wise) irrigation return flow in non-command area 47 Table 3.4 Recharge through Canal seepage 48 Table 3.5 Recharge through surface water irrigation 48 Table 3.6 Subsurface horizontal inflows across the sub-basin 49 Table 3.7 River aquifer interaction 49 Table 3.8 Annual groundwater recharge in the study area (Mcum) 49 Table 3.9 Borewells census in the study area 50 Table 3.10 Groundwater draft through pumpage (Mcum) 51 Table 3.11 Discharge through EVAP in the study area 51 Table 3.12 Subsurface horizontal outflows (Mcum) 51 Table 3.13 Total discharge in the study area (Mcum) 52 Table 3.14 Stages of groundwater development (June 2006 to May 2007) 52 Table 3.15 Stages of groundwater development (June 2007 to May 2008) 53 Table 4.1 River aquifer interaction 72