Greek Civilization Hellenistic Culturegreenwo .Greek Civilization Geography and ... Lesson 4...

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Transcript of Greek Civilization Hellenistic Culturegreenwo .Greek Civilization Geography and ... Lesson 4...

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    NAME DATE CLASS

    Greek Civilization

    Geography and History Activity

    Lesson 4 Hellenistic Culture

    Understanding Location: HellenisticCitiesSoonafterthedeathofAlexandertheGreat,hisempirewasdividedintothreekingdomsandthensome50yearslater,afourthkingdom.TherulersandwealthycitizensoftheselandswantedtoimportGreekcultureintotheirkingdoms.TheybuiltnewcitiesandwantedtomakethemlikeAthensandotherGreekculturalcenters.TheybroughtinGreekarchitectsandsculptorstoplanandbuildthenewcities.TheHellenisticcitiesbecamegreatcentersoflearning,filledwithlarge,beautifulbuildingsanddecoratedwithsculptureandart.

    Location and CitiesWaterwasacriticalfactorastowherenewcitieswerebuiltandwhethertheythrived.Locationonaseamadetravelandtradeeasier.Asupplyoffreshwaterwasessentialforsurvivalfordrinking,growingfood,andcleaning.

    ThemostimportantofthenewcitieswasAlexandria,Egypt.IthadtwoharborsontheMediterraneanSea.RainwatercollectionsystemsandacanaltotheNileRiverguaranteedasupplyoffreshwater.Inaddition,AlexandriasmuseumandlibraryattractedscholarsfromallovertheHellenisticworld.Thegreatlighthouse,knownasthePharosofAlexandria,wasoneoftheSevenWondersoftheWorld.

    Anothercity,Antioch,inwhatisnowTurkey,wasoneofthenewHellenisticcitiesandthecapitaloftheSeleucidKingdom.TheharborofAntiochwasatthemouthoftheOrontesRiver.Antiochslocationatthewesternendofanoverlandtraderoutemadeitabusycity,visitedbypeoplefromallovertheHellenisticworld.GoodscamefromtheEastandwerethenshippedbyseatoportsallaroundtheMediterranean.LikeAlexandria,Antiochwasaninternationalandstylishcity.ManyGreeksmigratedtothisnewcity.Thecity,withitswidestreets,hadtheaters,temples,alibrary,andpublicsquareswithstatuesofheroes,gods,andgoddesses,muchlikeAthensandothergreatcitiesofGreece.PeoplefrommanydifferentreligionsandculturesalsomovedtoAntioch,andtheythrivedintheHellenisticculture.

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    NAME DATE CLASS

    Greek Civilization

    Geography and History Activity Cont.

    PergamumwasonahillontheCaicusRiver16miles(25.7km)fromtheAegeanSea.ItsbuildingsincludedalibrarythatwassecondonlytotheoneatAlexandria,agrandtheater,andmanytemples.TherulersbroughtworksofartfromGreecetodecoratethecity,includinganaltarofZeusthatwasamasterpieceofHellenisticart.Theyalsocommissionednumerousworksofsculpture,painting,anddecorationfromresidentartists.

    Trade,commerce,andtheexchangeofideasandartwerecommonamongtheHellenisticcities.Theywereallconnectedbylandorbysea(orboth).ThroughthespreadofGreekculture,theywereconnectedculturally,too.

    Architecture and SculptureHellenisticarchitectureandsculptureweremodeledonClassicalGreekart,butweremorevaried.Hellenisticstylereflectedthebroaderperspectiveofpeoplewhowereconnectedtoeachotheracrosslargegeographicareas.ItalsoreflectedthepersonalityofAlexandertheGreat,whohadgivenhismentheideathattheywereheroicandlargerthanlife.Theyhadconqueredalmostalloftheknownworldandwereunderstandablyimpressedwiththeiraccomplishments.ThetendencyinHellenisticartwastoexaggeratestylesfromClassicalGreece.ManyoftheHellenistictempleswerehuge.Theatersandstadiumsweresimilarlygigantic.Evenprivatehomesbecamemuchmoreluxuriousandpalatial,orlikepalaces.

    Sculptureshowedbold,vigorousdisplaysofemotionandaction.ThealtarofZeusatPergamum,forinstance,hadasculpturedwallshowingabattleofgodsandgiants.Themuscularfiguresaresuperhumanandenergeticandareshowninallthetormentoftheirstruggle.ManyoftherulersandwealthycitizenswhohadbeenAlexandersgeneralscommissionedheroicportraitsofthemselves.

    Filledwithgiantsculptures,temples,theaters,andstadiums,thesecitiesweresymbolsofcivilizationintheHellenisticworld.CitieswereplaceswhereGreekculturethrived.Theywerecentersofart,literature,drama,andideas.ThelandsthatAlexanderandhismenhadconqueredweretransformedbytheinfluenceoftheHellenisticculturetheyimportedfromGreece.

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    NAME DATE CLASS

    Greek Civilization

    Geography and History Activity Cont.

    Hellenistic Cities

    SELEUCID KINGDOM

    MACEDONIANKINGDOM

    EGYPTIANKINGDOM

    PERGAMUM KINGDOM

    Caspian Sea

    Persian Gulf

    Black Sea

    AegeanSea

    Red Sea

    Mediterranean Sea

    Ionian Sea

    Euphrates R.

    Tigris R.

    Nile

    R

    .

    Orontes R.

    Danube R.

    Caicus R.

    Seleucia

    Pella

    Pergamum

    Ephesus

    Antioch

    Babylon

    Athens ASIA MINOR

    PERSIASYRIA

    ARABIA

    MESOPOTAMIA

    GREECE

    Lambert Conformal Conic projection 0 400 km

    400 miles0

    N

    S

    EW

    DOPW (Discovering our Past - World)

    Chapter 8Map Title: The Hellenistic CitiesFile Name: C8_L4_wsgh_01A.aiMap Size: 39p6 x 20p0

    Date/Proof: Feb 3, 2011 - First Proof

    GreekarchitectureandsculpturewereanimportantpartofnewcitiesbuiltintheHellenisticEra.

    Directions: Answerthefollowingquestions.

    Understanding the Concept1. Identifying WhatwastheprimarybodyofwaterusedfortravelandtradeintheHellenisticEra?

    2. Explaining WhatweretwogeographicfeaturesofAlexandriathathelpeditbecomeanimportantcity?

    Important Geographic Features of Alexandria

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    NAME DATE CLASS

    Greek Civilization

    Geography and History Activity Cont.

    Applying the Concept3. Analyzing HowdidAlexanderspersonalityinfluencethearchitectureandartoftheHellenisticEra?

    4. Contrasting WhatmadetheHellenisticstyleofartandarchitecturedifferentfromtheClassicalGreekstyle?

    5. Making Generalizations TheHellenisticcitieswereallphysicallyconnectedeitherbylandorseaorboth.Whatnon-physicalqualitiesconnectedthemalltoeachother?

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