Greek Art from E l Cl l Early Classical to Hellenistic .E l Cl l Early Classical to Hellenistic...
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Greek Art from E l Cl l Early Classical to Hellenistic PeriodHellenistic Period
Mrs. CookAP Art HistoryAP Art History
Greek Classical ArtGreek Classical Art Scholars have characterized Greek Classical art as
being based on three general concepts:being based on three general concepts: Humanism RationalismRationalism Idealism
Idea Man is the measure of all things know Idea Man is the measure of all things know thyself seek inner significance of forms; and Nothing in excess. his body and mind in balanceg y
Greeks imagined their gods looked like perfect human beings
Greek Art & ArchitectureGreek Art & Architecture Greeks valued reason over emotion, nothing
happens by accidenthappens by accident Practicing the faith in rationality expressed by their
philosophers Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, and logic philosophers Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, and logic and reason underlie natural processes,
Greeks saw life, including the arts, as having meaning , g , g gand pattern,
The creation of the orders in architecture and the canon of proportions in sculpture
The great Greek artists and architects were not only practitioners but theoreticians as well.
The first great monument of Classical architecture at Olympia, the site of the y p ,Olympic games, architect was Libon of ElisThe temple was made of stone, it was decorated with sculpture of imported
5-29: Temple of Hera IIdecorated with sculpture of imported marble, the themes demonstrated the power of the gods Zeus, Apollo, and Athena.
5-30: East Pediment, Temple of Zeus
The subject of the eastThe subject of the east pediment is the chariot race
Seer, east pediment Temple of Zeusp p
Seer is a rare depiction of old age, balding, wrinkled head, sagging musculature-shocking expression on his face - We have moved away from the archaic smile, not a regular feature until the Hellenistic age
Athena, Herakles, and Atlas with Apples of the Hesperides
Severe Style The Early Classical style of Greek sculpture 480-450 BCE Herakles cleaning Augean Stables:
Labor #5Labor #5
5-34: Kritios BoyMarble, 210
Transitional piece from Archaic to Classical art - Under life-size, art historiansTransitional piece from Archaic to Classical art Under life size, art historians thought it was the work of sculpture Kritios, they believe this is one of the most important statues in the history of art. Never before had a sculptore been concerned with portraying a human being as he truly stands. K iti B th fi t t thi t i l f t th b d hift i ht h itKritios Boy was the first to grasp this anatomical fact the body shifts weight when it moves This weight shift is called contrapposto (counterbalance) This separates Archaic Greek period from the Classical periods,
CONTRAPPOSTO (or COUNTERPOISE), ( ),an Italian word, describes the stance of the human body in which one leg bears the weight while the other is relaxed. An asymmetry is created in the shoulder hipasymmetry is created in the shoulder-hip axis. This is a natural, relaxed body pose. Early sculptures of human figures, while anatomically correct, appeared stiff and unnatural
If we look at the early Greek sculpture, the
Anavysos Kouros (c 525 BCE), the unnatural stiffness is still present.
...the shoulders are level
...the hips are level
...both fists are level
...even the knees are level
b t th l ft l i th t f d...but the left leg is thrust forward. The left leg is forward and would have to be six inches longer!
Contrapposto first appeared in classical Greek sculpture.
...the left shoulder is higher than the right shoulder
...an angle from the right shoulder to the left hip. The leg is relaxed and the hip bone is lower.
...the right leg bears all the bodys weight.
Also notice how the knees are not level and at an angle. The shoulders counterbalance the hips.angle. The shoulders counterbalance the hips.
If the hips and shoulders were parallel, we could not balance and would fall over!
The classical Greeks progressed to where they were able to model the human in a nonsymmetrical, relaxed stance that appears much more realistic. This was lost during the Middle Ages and was rediscovered by artists like Donatello during the Renaissance
5-35: Warrior, from the sea off Riacec. 460-450 BCE, Bronze, 66
An unknown sculptor carried the innovation
f th K iti B i tof the Kritios Boy into a bronze statue. The statue lacks its shield, spear, and s e d, spea , a dhelmet. Contrapposto is more pronounced, It is a masterpiece ofmasterpiece of hollow-casting method. Natural motion in space has replaced Archaic frontality and rigidity!
the head turns more forcefully to the right, his shoulders tiltshoulders tilt, his hips swing more markedly, his arms are freed from the body - than in ythe Kritios Boy.
Hollow-casting techniqueHollow casting technique
Thi d h Ri i i h i l liThis exceeds the Riace warrior in technical quality, The stance is almost an Archaic but the turn of the head and feet in opposite directions as well as the slight twist at the waist is keeping with the Severe style, originally part of awaist is keeping with the Severe style, originally part of a group representing a team of horse pulling a chariot driven by this charioteer Assemblage required hundreds of individually cast pieces
ld d t thsoldered together
5-38: Zeus (or Poseidon?)c. 460-450 BCE, Bronze, 610
The male human form is in motion, the bearded god once hurled a weapon held in his right hand, probably a thunderboltboldly extends both arms and raises his right heel off the groundright heel off the ground
5-39: MYRON, Diskobolos (Discus Thrower)c. 450 BCE, Roman copy, Marble, 51
Original is lost only marble copy exists (roman times whenOriginal is lost, only marble copy exists, (roman times, when demand so far exceeded the supply of Greek statues, the industry met the call by producing in marble, which presented a very different appearance from shiny bronze without them we would not be able to reconstruct the history of Greek sculpture) Myron (sculpture) froze the action and arranged the body and limbs to form to intersecting arcs (one from theand limbs to form to intersecting arcs (one from the discus to the left hand, one from the head to the right knee) The tension is not mirrored on his face, mid-swing, impossible to throw the discus this way but optically the pose
k i i t i l f th f tworks, viewpoint mainly form the front Idealized heroic bodyUse of negative space opens large areas in the sculpture.
Most copied, this was the embodiment of Polykleitossvision of the ideal statue of a nude male athlete or warriornude male athlete or warrior. He made it a demonstration piece to accompany a treatise on the subject Canon, the contrappostoj ppis more pronounced than ever, his aim was to render a figure that stands naturally, His aim was to impose order on humanimpose order on human movement to make it beautiful and perfect. He achieved this by a system of
5-40: POLYKLEITOS, Doryphoros
cross balance, (right arm and left leg are relaxed, the tensed supporting leg opposes the flexed arm with the spear head turns to the right whileDoryphoros
(Spear Bearer)c. 450-440 BCE, Roman copy, marble,
spear, head turns to the right while the hips twist to the left) He appears to step forward but doesn't move, dynamic asymmetrical balance, this
ti hil t t d lti611 Cue Cardmotion while at rest, and resulting harmony of opposites are the essence of Polykleitian style, closed stance, movement restrain,
Chiastic (cross balance)
Chiastic (cross balance) is asymmetrical balanceasymmetrical balance
right arm and leg rigid & stiff creating columnar stability and
the bent left arm and leg
head turns right, hips twist left, back foot turns outward creating a twist in the body
5-41; KRESILAS, PericlesRoman herm copy, c 429 BCE,Marble, 46Marble, 4 6
Kresilas the copies reproduce the head only in the form of a herm (a bust y (on a square pillar) He is wearing a helmet that shows he was a general, unblemished features, his bodys perfect physique noble andhis body s perfect physique, noble and important men to appear even more noble in their portraits -Greek portraits were not likenesses but idealized images in which humans appeared godlike Classical beauty
Herm Bust on a square pillar
5-42 to 5-44: Aerial View & Model of the Acropolis, Iktinosand Kallikrates, 447-438 BCE,
Under the leadership of Pericles theUnder the leadership of Pericles, the Athenians undertook the costly project of reconstructing the Acropolis after the Persian sac of 480 BCEIt is dedicated to the god AthenaGreatest Athenians architects Iktinos and Kalikrates, Iktinos believed harmonic proportions producedIktinos believed harmonic proportions produced beautiful buildings, In the Parthenon, the ratio of larger and smaller parts is x=2y +1 (8 columns on the faade, 17 on the side
IKTINOS and KALLIKRATES, ParthenonCue Card
IKTINOS and KALLIKRATES, Parthenon
The Parthenon may be viewed as the ideal solution to the Greek architects quest for the perfect proportions in Doric temple design Its well-spaced columns, with slender shafts, and capitals ultimate refine