Grade 8 - fileReviewers Sue Dirlam • Hayward Unified School District Jo-Anne Mackley-Dobkins...

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  • Reviewers Sue Dirlam • Hayward Unified School District Jo-Anne Mackley-Dobkins • Fresno Unified School District Sophia Norman • Fresno Unified School District Carol Piercy • Clovis Unified School District Karen Redfield • Woodlake Union School District Gayle Vargas • Fresno Unified School District

    Image Credits ©Bettmann/CORBIS: p. 50; Some images www.clipart.com; www.photos.com

    © 2004 Perfection Learning® Corporation All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,

    or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the

    publisher. Printed in the United States of America.

    2 3 4 5 6 PP 08 07 06 05 04

    For information, contact Perfection Learning® Corporation

    1000 North Second Avenue, P.O. Box 500 Logan, Iowa 51546-0500

    Phone: 1-800-831-4190 • Fax: 1-800-543-2745 perfectionlearning.com

    #79728 ISBN 0-7891-6190-7

    Grade 8

  • Lesson Tryout Test Items Final Mastery Test Items

    1 Vocabulary 6, 7, 11, 14, 19, 20, 23, 29, 36, 39 5, 6, 11, 13, 19, 25, 33, 34

    2 Text Structures 13, 16, 42, 44 15, 16, 17, 20, 35, 40, 41, 42

    3 Reading Comprehension 21, 25, 26, 27, 32, 43, 45 1, 18, 21, 22, 23, 24, 36

    4 Understanding Literature 1, 3, 4, 5, 12, 15, 24, 30, 31, 33, 34, 2, 3, 7, 12, 14, 31, 37, 43, 44 35, 40, 41

    5 Language Conventions 2, 8, 9, 28, 37, 38 4, 8, 9, 26, 27, 28, 29, 32

    6 Writing Strategies 10, 17, 18, 22 10, 30, 38, 39, 45

    For the Student This book will help you review, practice, and master the

    California English/Language Arts Content Standards. Here are the steps to follow to use this book.

    1. Take the Tryout Test and check your answers. Use the chart at the bottom of this page to find out your strengths and weaknesses in the areas covered. Don’t be discouraged if you don’t get all the answers right or if you don’t understand some questions. Remember the questions that are hard for you to answer. They will be the types of questions you need to work on the most.

    2. Work through the lessons that follow the Tryout Test. Each lesson provides a review as well as practice questions based on the content standards. Each lesson ends with a short mastery test to reinforce your learning. As you go, complete the Charting Your Progess chart on page 112 of this book.

    3. After completing all six lessons, take the Final Mastery Test. Your score on this test will show your understanding of the content standards.

    By following the steps outlined above, you will increase your mastery of the California English/Language Arts Content Standards.

  • For the Student . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

    Tryout Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

    Vocabulary Analyzing Idioms (1.1) . . . . . . . . . 17 Analyzing Analogies (1.1) . . . . . . . . 19 Analyzing Metaphors and

    Similes (1.1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Word Origins (1.2) . . . . . . . . . . 21 Word Meanings Through Context (1.3) . . 24

    Mastery Test 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

    Text Structures Comparing and Contrasting

    Informational Materials (2.1) . . . . . . 30 Analyzing Proposition and

    Support (2.2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

    Mastery Test 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

    Reading Comprehension Comparing and Contrasting

    Main Ideas (2.3) . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Summarizing (2.4) . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Following Technical Directions (2.5) . . . 44 Explaining Decisions and

    Solving Problems (2.6) . . . . . . . . 46 Evaluating Structural Patterns

    of Text (2.7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

    Mastery Test 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

    Understanding Literature Characteristics of Poetry (3.1) . . . . . . 55 Plot (3.2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Characters (3.3) . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Setting (3.4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Theme (3.5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Literary Devices (3.6) . . . . . . . . . . 65 Analyzing Literature (3.7) . . . . . . . . 67

    Mastery Test 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

    Language Conventions Sentence Structure (1.1) . . . . . . . . . 74 Parallelism (1.2) . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Subordination, Coordination,

    and Apposition (1.3) . . . . . . . . . . 76 Grammar (1.4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Punctuation and Capitalization (1.5) . . . 79 Spelling (1.6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

    Mastery Test 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

    Writing Strategies Organization and Focus (1.1) . . . . . . 88 Transitions (1.2) . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Analogies (1.3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Paraphrases and Quotations (1.3) . . . . 92 Evaluation and Revision (1.6) . . . . . . 94

    Mastery Test 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

    Final Mastery Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

    Charting Your Progress . . . . . . . . . . 112

    6

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    Table of Contents

  • LESSON

    1

    © Perfection Learning® No reproduction permitted. Analyzing Idioms 17

    Vocabulary • Analyzing Idioms • Analyzing Analogies • Analyzing Metaphors and

    Similes

    • Word Origins • Word Meanings Through

    Context

    Analyzing Idioms

    An idiom is a phrase, or group of words, with a meaning that cannot be understood from the ordinary meanings of the individual words. For example, if a friend says, “You put your foot in your mouth,” your friend means that you said something you should not have said, not that you actually put your foot in your mouth.

    An idiom is underlined in each sentence below. Study the other words in the sentence to figure out the meaning of the idiom. Then write a brief definition of the idiom on the line. An example has been done for you.

    1 Juan is upset because his dreams of making the

    team just went down the drain.

    2 Dad wants full-time work, but right now he gets

    only dribs and drabs.

    3 Jenny reinvented the wheel when she did her

    science project over three times.

    4 Sammy is the big cheese at the restaurant when Mr. Jones is away.

    5 I’ve been burning the midnight oil to prepare for the math test.

    6 I’d like to talk to Uncle Joe about my problem, but he’s six feet under.

    7 The party wasn’t a surprise after Alex let the cat out of the bag.

    8 The senator took the floor in favor of the proposed bill.

    Try It

    Review Standard 1.1

    Go On

    disappeared

    Word Watch Our language has many idioms. Below are a few of the most common ones.

    in a fish bowl = no privacy

    top notch = the best

    threw a curveball = tricked or fooled

    come to terms = in agreement

    shout from the rooftops = announce publicly

    live and let live = be tolerant

    shoot the breeze = chat

    few and far between = widely scattered

  • LESSON 1: Vocabulary

    Analyzing Idioms continued

    Read each sentence and underline the idiom. Then write the letter of the correct definition of the idiom from the box.

    9 J.R. ignored the teacher’s warning, and now he’s in a pickle.

    10 Today is a red-letter day because Tonya took first place in her gymnastics meet.

    11 Jan hasn’t called in weeks, and she gave me the cold shoulder at the party.

    12 The first steps were hard, but it should be downhill all the way from now on.

    13 Since Mom started working long hours, we’re like ships that pass in the night.

    Work It Out

    18 Analyzing Idioms © Perfection Learning® No reproduction permitted.

    Definitions

    A. ignored B. easy C. people who are rarely in the same

    place at the same time D. in trouble E. special occasion

  • LESSON 1: Vocabulary

    © Perfection Learning® No reproduction permitted. Analyzing Analogies 19

    Analyzing Analogies

    An analogy shows the relationship between two sets of words. The words can be related in a number of different ways. For example, the analogy may show pairs of synonyms.

    Enormous is to gigantic as little is to small.

    Decide how the first two words in each analogy below are related. Then think of a word that relates to the unpaired word in the same way. Write your answer on the line. An example has been done for you. There may be more than one correct answer for each analogy.

    1 whole wheat is to bread as mozzarella is to

    2 accurate is to inaccurate as correct is to

    3 soar is to sore as vary is to

    4 alike is to opposite as ally is to

    5 crossword is to puzzle as checkers is to

    Choose the best word from the box to complete each analogy. Write the word on the line.

    6 harsh : gentle :: cruel :

    7 weather : whether :: aunt :

    8 bakes : baker :: baby-sits :

    9 dolphin : mammal :: snake :

    10 stable : horse :: coop :

    11 stanza : poem :: act :

    12 Big Dipper : constellation :: Milky Way :

    Analyze It

    Try It

    Review Standard 1.1

    In analogies, is to is often shown by a colon (:) and a