GMO Stony Brook

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Genetic Modification of Food Aram. Emma. Goldy. Matt.

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  • Genetic Modification of Food Aram. Emma. Goldy. Matt.

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  • What Is a GMO?

    Genetically Modified Organisms are plants or animals which have an unrelated species gene inserted into their genomes so to produce specific characteristics.

    Commonly genetically modified plants are corn, canola, soybean, and cotton. The majority of those plants in the US are genetically modified (FDA).

    No GM animals have been approved for sale for human consumption in the US.

    Genetic modifications make crops more resistant to extreme weather conditions, pests, and diseases, or improves nutritional value.

    *GMOs (Genetically Modified Organisms) are plants or animals which have had a gene from an unrelated species inserted into their genomes in order to produce specific characteristics. According to the FDA, the most common genetically modified plants are corn, canola, soybean, and cotton. In 2009, 93% of soy, 93% of cotton, and 86% of corn grown in the US were GMO. No GM animals, however, have been approved for sale for human consumption in the US.

    Plants can be genetically modified to make the crop more resistant to extreme weather conditions and pests and diseases, or to improve nutritional value.In 2009, 93% of soy, 93% of cotton, and 86% of corn grown in the US were GMO.

  • How Are GMOs Made?

    A plasmid, a small circular piece of DNA containing a few genes of interest, can be constructed through the use of restriction enzymes and ligation enzymes. The newly made plasmid can then be replicated by the polymerase chain reaction, or PCR. The plasmids are then introduced to the target organism. Plasmids also contain a marker gene, which enables the identification of and selective growing of organisms containing the plasmid, to ensure that only organisms containing the plasmid and its genes are used.

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  • Media Concerns Over GMOs

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  • 02/06/14Nutritional differences between GMO food and non-GMO food[1A,3A].Allergic reactions[2A] Nutritional differences between GMO and non-GMO food. [1B]Transferring genes is unnatural. [1B]

    Scientists Concerns Over GMOs

  • Benefits of GMOs

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  • Concerns Put to RestSeveral studies found that GMOs are not significantly nutritionally different from their non-GMO counterparts[1A, 3A] (unless, of course, a GM crop was specifically made to have enhanced nutritional value).Gene transfer is not an entirely alien or unnatural process; microbes engage in horizontal gene transfer and occasionally share genes with eukaryotes as well[4A].New genes and corresponding proteins are rigorously screened for potential to cause allergic reactions. This makes it highly unlikely that a GM food will cause an allergic reaction[2A].

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  • Concerns Put to RestSeveral studies found that GMOs are not significantly nutritionally different from their non-GMO counterparts[1A, 3A] (unless the GM crop was specifically modified to have enhanced nutritional value).Gene transfer is not an entirely alien or unnatural process; microbes engage in horizontal gene transfer and occasionally share genes with eukaryotes as well[4A].New genes and corresponding proteins are rigorously screened for potential to cause allergic reactions. This makes it highly unlikely that a GM food will cause an allergic reaction[2A].

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  • Concerns Put to Rest (cont.)As of yet, the potential for GMOs to cause environmental harm is comparable to that of conventional crops[2A].Large corporations are not the only ones involved with or benefiting from GM technology. GM technology is also used for independent and humanitarian purposes.The pesticide in Bt corn has been used for years in conventional farming, even organic farming[2A].GMOs are regulated by several agencies and are required to be as safe as or safer than conventional foods[2A].

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  • Remaining Concerns

    If current screening practices are not maintained, it is possible that a GMO may be introduced that can cause allergic reactions in some individuals[2A].

    The pests and diseases GM crops are made resistant to may eventually overcome the resistances of the GM crop, and a new resistance factor may need to be added[2A].

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  • Conclusion

    There is nothing that suggests that GMOs are unsafe to consume.

    The economic and nutritional benefits of the technology far outweigh the small risks.

    The media tends to portray GMOs as being very risky, not beneficial, and not at all regulated. There are fairer media sources, but these are drowned out by the unfair portrayals.

    In truth, GMOs have only a small risk, and proper regulation is in place to ensure that no harm comes of this.

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  • References

    1A Comparison of Broiler Performance when Fed Diets Containing Roundup Ready (event RT73), Nontransgenic Control, or Commercial Canola Meal M.L. Taylor et. al.2A - Tempest in a Tea Pot: How did the Public Conversation on Genetically Modified Crops Drift so far from the Facts? Daniel A. Goldstein3A Performance of growing-finishing pigs fed dients containing Roundup Ready corn (event nk603), a nontransgenic genetically similar corn, or conventional corn lines Y. Hyun et. al.4A Assessing the survival of transgenic plant NDA in the human gastrointestinaltract, Trudy Netherwood et.al.

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    1B - http://versatilehealth.com/disadvantages-of-gmo/2B - http://www.wholefoodsmagazine.com/columns/consumer-bulletin/gmo-controversy-what-you-need-know3B - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002432.htm

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    *GMOs (Genetically Modified Organisms) are plants or animals which have had a gene from an unrelated species inserted into their genomes in order to produce specific characteristics. According to the FDA, the most common genetically modified plants are corn, canola, soybean, and cotton. In 2009, 93% of soy, 93% of cotton, and 86% of corn grown in the US were GMO. No GM animals, however, have been approved for sale for human consumption in the US.

    Plants can be genetically modified to make the crop more resistant to extreme weather conditions and pests and diseases, or to improve nutritional value.In 2009, 93% of soy, 93% of cotton, and 86% of corn grown in the US were GMO. *

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    1B - http://versatilehealth.com/disadvantages-of-gmo/2B - http://www.wholefoodsmagazine.com/columns/consumer-bulletin/gmo-controversy-what-you-need-know3B - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002432.htm