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  • Globalization, Localization and Globalization, Localization and Individualization in Education:Individualization in Education:

    Pedagogic Implications for IBO SchoolsPedagogic Implications for IBO Schools

    Yin Cheong CHENGYin Cheong CHENG AsiaAsia--Pacific Centre for Education Leadership Pacific Centre for Education Leadership

    and School Qualityand School Quality Hong Kong Institute of EducationHong Kong Institute of Education

    Keynote Presentation at the IBO Regional ConferenceKeynote Presentation at the IBO Regional Conference 1919--21 March 2004, Mumbai India21 March 2004, Mumbai India

  • 2

    CongratulationsCongratulations & Thanks& Thanks

  • In the New CenturyIn the New Century

    KnowledgeKnowledge vsvs IntelligenceIntelligence


  • New Paradigm of Education

    Implications for IBO Schools 1. Implementation of New Education

    2. Change in Teacher Roles and Teaching Approaches

    3. Curriculum Reform

    Aims of Presentation Aims of Presentation

  • Challenges to New Generations in New Millennium

    1. Tremendous Impacts of Information Technology

    2. Rapid Multiple Globalizations

    3. Transformation towards Knowledge-based Economy/ Intelligence-based Economy

    4. International and Regional Competitions & Conflicts

    5. Local Demands for Developments…………

  • 6

    Is Our Existing Education Is Our Existing Education Still Still Effective and Effective and RelevantRelevant to the Future of to the Future of Our Students ??Our Students ??

  • 1. Develop New Education Aims relevant to the Future ?

    2. Initiate Innovative Approach to Achieving them ?

    3. Provide Unlimited Opportunities for Students’ Learning?

    How to reform education How to reform education ……..?..?

  • Paradigm Shift in Education in the New Century

    Traditional Site-Bounded


    New Triplization Paradigm

    Cheng (2000)


  • Development of Students’ Intelligence

    Triplization of Education ( (= globalization + localization + individualization

    iin education)

    New Paradigm of Education: Cheng (1999, 2000a)

  • 10

    Howard Gardner (1993)Howard Gardner (1993)

    Multiple IntelligencesMultiple Intelligences (Biological)(Biological)

    • musical intelligence • bodily-kinesthetic intelligence • logical-mathematical intelligence • linguistic intelligence • spatial intelligence • interpersonal intelligence • intrapersonal intelligence

  • 11

    Cheng’s (2000) Typology of Human Being and Intelligence

    In new century

    • Technological Person

    • Economic Person • Social Person • Political Person • Cultural Person • Learning Person

    •Technological Intelligence

    •Economic Intelligence •Social Intelligence •Political Intelligence •Cultural Intelligence •Learning Intelligence

  • 12Cultural Intelligence Political Intelligence

    Learning Intelligence

    Social Intelligence

    Technological Intelligence

    Economic Intelligence

    Pentagon Theory of CMI Pentagon Theory of CMI For For EducationEducation

  • 13

    Challenges to Our Education:

    How well we can facilitate :How well we can facilitate : 1. Development of CMI?

    2. Intelligence Transfer? Creativity

    3. Learning Intelligence as the Core ?

  • Localization

    Economic Globalization

    Political Globali- zation

    Learning Globali- zation Individualization

    Social Globali- zation

    Cultural Globali- zation

    Technological Globalization





    EI LI

    Triplization in Education : Globalization+ Localization+


  • A Globalized, Localized, & Individualized CMI Citizen Who

    will be engaged in life long learning and will creatively

    contribute to building up a CMI society and a CMI global village

  • 16

    Paradigm Shift in Learning

    Individualized Learning

    •Student is the Centre of Education

    •Individualized Programs

    •Self Learning

    •Self Actualizing Process

    •Focus on How to Learn

    •Self Rewarding

    Reproduced Learning:

    •Student is the Follower of Teacher

    •Standard Programs

    •Absorbing Knowledge

    •Receiving Process

    •Focus on How to Gain

    •External Rewarding

    New Traditional

  • 17

    Paradigm Shift in Learning

    Localized and Globalized Learning:

    •Multiple Sources of Learning

    •Networked Learning

    •Life-long and Everywhere

    •Unlimited Opportunities

    •World-Class Learning

    •Local and International Outlook

    Site-Bounded Learning:

    •Teacher-Based Learning

    •Separated Learning

    •Fixed Period and Within Institution

    •Limited Opportunities

    •Site-Bounded Learning

    •Mainly Institution-based Experiences


  • 18

    Challenge to Our Learning Theory

    • How can we facilitate such a paradigm shift in learning?

    We need to have deeper understanding of self- learning

  • 19

    Self Learning Cycle

    5. Outcome 3. Action

    1. Mind-set

    2. Plan2. Plan

    4. Monitor4. Monitor

    6. Feedback6. Feedback

    7. Feedback7. Feedback

    Low Order Learning

    High Order Learning

  • 20

    Challenges to Our Educational Environment

    • How can we effectively facilitate such a continuous self-learning cycle among our students?

  • 21

    To Build Up A Borderless Networked Human and

    Technological Environment Re-define: • Boundary and nature of the learning

    context • Composition of players involved in the

    learning process • Format, speed and nature of

    communication and feedback • Knowledge generation, management,

    sharing and utilization

  • 22

    A community A community of networked of networked

    learning learning groupsgroups







    Y Y











    A community of networked self learners

    A community A community of networked of networked self learnersself learners

  • 23

    Network of Network of learning learning communitiescommunities

    Community of Community of networked networked learning groupslearning groups

    Community of Community of Networked Networked Learning Learning SocietiesSocieties

  • HumanHuman EnvironmentEnvironment

    ITIT EnvironmentEnvironment MINDSETMINDSET


    Meta- Cognition


    • Cognitive capacity building

    • Information generation


    • Engendering vision

    • Supporting volition


    • Inspiring • Sustaining

    • Stimulate • Facilitate


  • HumanHuman EnvironmentEnvironment

    ITIT EnvironmentEnvironment ACTIONACTION

    Engage in learning

    • Interaction, challenge, stimulation

    • Bountiful & up-to-date resource


    Establish frame of reference

    • Emotional safety net

    • Immediate feedback & positioning


    Control learning

    • Expert advice, benchmark

    • Quick access • Linkage of

    learners ++

  • 26

    Given the New Paradigm in Learning,

    Implications for Paradigm Shift in Teaching ?

  • New Vision of TeachingNew Vision of Teaching

    •• to facilitate paradigm shift towards the new to facilitate paradigm shift towards the new triplized learningtriplized learning

    •• to provide a triplized learning environment, to provide a triplized learning environment, with the support of IT and local and global with the support of IT and local and global networking,networking,

    •• for developing studentsfor developing students’’ triplized self triplized self learning ability & CMI.learning ability & CMI.

  • 28

    What TeacherWhat Teacher--Student RelationshipStudent Relationship for New Learning?for New Learning?


    Students ????

  • 29 Investigation skills

    SearcherExperimentat- ion

    5. Questioner

    Adventurous- ness

    ExplorerSearching, observing

    4. Guide

    CreativenessDesigner -creator

    Making 3. Patron

    ResponsibilityPartnerParticipation 2. Partner

    Self- determination

    Searcher,As determined by student

    1. Appreciator

    Likely Student Quality as Outcome

    Student’ s Role

    Teaching/ Learning Process

    Teacher’s Role

    H igh O

    rder Learning

  • 30

    SkillsTraineeImitation10. Exemplar

    Possession of information

    MemorizerTransfer of information

    9. Instructor