Global Warming --- Notes No 2

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Transcript of Global Warming --- Notes No 2

  • Environmental Management Notes by Prof Zubin___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ standard dams (explained in notes no 1) flood areas behind them. this flooding is controversial in many cases. the reasons are given below. a) flooding of land that is in a natural state (ie unaltered by humans) (amount of such land is reducing every year. most of the

    land of our world, has been cleared / changed to create space for farms, cities, factories, roads, ports, etc. Hence, the increasing pressure to preserve the amount of such land that is left.)

    b) flooding of land that is inhabited by persons. these persons have to be given compensation (land at another place or money). such compensation is not always a smooth process (eg compensation given / to be given to tribals who lost their lands because of flooding by dams of narmada irrigation project. search on the internet for info about protests led by narmada bachao andolan.)

    c) life cycles of some fish-species is spread over the rivers and the sea (eg indian salmon, better known as rawas) (they are born in the rivers, they swim downstream to the seas to live their lives and for reproduction, they swim from the seas into the rivers. dams prevent them from swimming downstream / upstream.)

    one solution to this problem is to build dams of very low height. hence, flooding of land will be negligible. such dams are called run of the river dams. Electricity is generated by harnessing the kinetic energy of the river water / by harnessing the natural elevation drop of the river. Since ror plants do not have tall dams, they have smaller electricity-generation capacities than standard dams.

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  • Environmental Management Notes by Prof Zubin___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    lower granite dam (an ror dam) on snake river in washington state, usa (see foll pic)

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  • Environmental Management Notes by Prof Zubin___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    can you notice the small height of the dam compared to the surrounding mountains ? a taller dam could have been built to generate more electricity.

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  • Environmental Management Notes by Prof Zubin___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    Baspa II, a ror project across baspa river, a tributary of Sutlej (pic ref = 149)

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  • Environmental Management Notes by Prof Zubin___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    compare the height of the dam with the height of the surrounding valledy. the dam could have been built much taller. (pic ref = 150) Electricity-generation capacity : 300 mw Displacement of persons : 0 Flooding of forest : 0 (excluding the 57 acres of forest were required to build the barrage and the associated buildings upon) dams (standard type as well as ror) help to decrease global warming. how ? they help to produce electricity without creating CO2.

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  • Environmental Management Notes by Prof Zubin___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    what is the above pic about ?

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  • Environmental Management Notes by Prof Zubin___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    above pic : what does the ellipse highlight ?

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  • Environmental Management Notes by Prof Zubin___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    above pic : can you make out the height difference ?

    Rance tidal-power station

    Located in north-east france, across the estuary a

    of rance river Barrage (dam) is 750 m long the tidal basin is 22.5 km2 large 24 turbines of 10MW capacity = 240 MW peak capacity Worlds first tidal power station (started operating in 1966) As of dec 2011, worlds 2nd largest tidal-power station by capacity

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  • Environmental Management Notes by Prof Zubin___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Difference between the high tides and low tides ranges from 8m to 13.5m as of jan 2014, in india electricity is not produced using tidal energy tidal power plants are a type of hydro-electric power plants question : tidal power plants help to mitigate global warming. how ? answer : they produce electricity without creating CO2. a --- An estuary is a partly enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free

    connection to the open sea. see videos electricity from wind energy 1.mp4 & electricity from wind energy 2.mp4

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  • Environmental Management Notes by Prof Zubin___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    Windmills near Patta fort (nasik, Maharashtra) (pic ref = 18) suzlons group of wind-farms in jaisalmer district 141 & 142

  • Environmental Management Notes by Prof Zubin___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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  • Environmental Management Notes by Prof Zubin___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    a wind farm at roscoe, texas, usa

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    a wind farm at roscoe, texas, usa

  • Environmental Management Notes by Prof Zubin___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 600+ wind turbines, capable of generating 781.5 MW cotton and wheat are grown on the land between the wind towers

    >> 34

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  • Environmental Management Notes by Prof Zubin___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    Tehachapi-Pass Wind Farm

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  • Environmental Management Notes by Prof Zubin___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    what is the above pic about ?

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  • Environmental Management Notes by Prof Zubin___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    Thanet off-shore wind farm (pic ref = 36)

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  • Environmental Management Notes by Prof Zubin___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    an offshore wind-farm near copenhagen

    see video about london array : offshore wind farm in thames estuary (video ref = 76) the advantage of offshore wind farms over wind farms located on land : a) to construct a wind farm located on land, land has to be acquired from the owners of the land. if this land is privately owned, the acquisition might take years. (eg industrial, infrastructure projects in india stalled because of slow acquisition of the privately-owned land) to construct an wind offshore wind farm, no land needs to be acquired. the seas off the coast of a country are generally owned by the government of that country. hence, if the government is co-operative, the project can be implemented faster. b) wind speeds are generally more over the sea than over the land

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  • Environmental Management Notes by Prof Zubin___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • Environmental Management Notes by Prof Zubin___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    (building 1) what is the above pic about ??

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  • Environmental Management Notes by Prof Zubin___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    (buildings 2 & 3) what is the above pic about ??

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  • Environmental Management Notes by Prof Zubin____________________________________________