GIS Intro Over New

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This paper is a study made for the GIS in different locations even could be used by companies like shell.

Transcript of GIS Intro Over New

  • 1presented by:Tim Haithcoat

    University of MissouriColumbia

    GISIntroduction& Overview

  • 2GIS is BIG Business NowGIS is BIG Business Now GIS is the primary driver for its very own, ever

    greater, acceptability and use. Everyone likes maps and graphics and the computer

    makes it easier for you to visualize your data. GIS growth feeds on its own successes and builds

    new and more complex applications as it permeatessociety.

    It is projected that $75 to $95 BILLION dollars willbe spent in the United States alone on GISimplementations through the year 2000.

    The market has grown over 40% per year with nostopping for several years now.

  • 3Most common practical applications:Most common practical applications: Analyze how the environment is affected by man

    Mapping out environmental layers to characterize a siteand predict site potential

    Routing of roads, transmission lines, pipelines, sewer,and network analysis / flow analysis through thesetransportation routes.

    Mapping and managing urban infrastructure includingbase maps, tax, curbs, water supply, drainage,electricity, telephone, and gas.

    Spatially examining socio and economic indicators ofthe population and their use in planning and growthmanagement.

  • 4There are literally thousands ofThere are literally thousands ofapplications of GIS!!applications of GIS!!

    Because no project is everstarted without first asking:

    Where??

  • 5Who benefits from the GIS Application?

    People responsible for the infrastructure -whether you watch it, study it, design it,repair it, sell it, own it, manage it, defend it,or just use it.

    GIS, once installed to serve a localgovernment, can act as a magnet pullinglocal citizens back to an appreciation oflocal political leadership.

  • 6VISIONVISION

    Create and promote anefficient GIS environmentthat fosters cooperation

    and data sharing.

  • 7GOALSGOALS Provide access to documented GIS data

    (base, current, and historical) whileensuring privacy.

    Provide GIS training and education acrossall levels of users and management.

    Provide access to and information on GIStechnology (hardware and software).

    Facilitate coordination of GIS technologyefforts to eliminate redundancy.

  • 8GoalGoal

    Conversion of existing data is labor-intensive. Undefined accuracies and extents of data

    collection and usage. Data transfer standards. Data update. Storage and maintenance planning. Need for technical assistance within

    their own office. Policies to ensure privacy. GIS law issues.

    Provide access to documented GIS data (base,current, and historical) while ensuring privacy.

    Potential Problems:Potential Problems:

  • 9GoalGoal

    Lack of trained personnel. Debate over centralized or decentralized system. Lack of application knowledge. Lack of understanding of importance and

    usefulness of this technology by policymakers and the general public.

    Provide GIS training and education across alllevels of users and management.

    Potential Problems:Potential Problems:

  • 10

    GoalGoal Provide access to and information on GIStechnology (hardware and software).

    Potential Problems:Potential Problems:

    Expense of hardware and software. Lack of knowledge about equipment options. Lack of funding. Bandwidth and connectivity restraints. Resistance to change.

  • 11

    GoalGoal Facilitate coordination of GIS technologyefforts to eliminate redundancy.

    Potential Problems:Potential Problems:

    Incompatibility of systems. Unwilling to share. What is useful/priority is not shared or coordinated. No existing GIS entity to address these issues and

    facilitate cooperation. Staff turnover. No assigned individual responsible

    for data. Lack of formal, on-going planning. Utilization of other agencies

    data lacking.

  • 12

  • 13

    A system of hardware, software, andprocedures

    designed to support the capture,management, manipulation, analysis,modeling, and display of spatiallyreferenced data

    for solving complex planning andmanagement problems.

  • 14

    While accurate,comprehensive, andwidely accepted

    this definition is verycryptic to a GISnewcomer.

  • 15

    A computer system whichcan hold and use data

    describing places on theearth's surface.

  • 16

    This definition also leaves out themost important component of the

    GISthe people who administrate,use, and manage the GIS.

  • 17

    Components of GISComponents of GIS

    Database

    Computer Hardware & Software

    Organizational Structure & People

  • 18

    Geographic Features

    Geographic features are represented by two types of data.

    SPATIAL DATA ATTRIBUTE DATA

    Street NameAddress range on leftAddress range on rightLength to travelDirections to travel

  • 19

    The Geographic Database

    Spatial and attribute data types arelinked together by a commonidentifier.

    Geographic Database

  • 20

    Other Terms Used forOther Terms Used forGeographic Information SystemsGeographic Information Systems

    Multipurpose Geographic DataSystem

    Multipurpose Land Use System Computerized GIS

    System for Handling NaturalResources Inventory Data

    Image Based InformationSystem

    Land Resources InformationSystem

    Spatial Data Management &Comprehensive AnalysisSystem

    Planning Information System

    Resource Information System Natural Resource Management

    Information System Spatial Data Handling System

    Geographically ReferencedInformation System

    Geo-Information System Spatial Information System Environment Information System

    AGIS - Automated GIS Multipurpose Cadastre Land Information System (LIS) AM/FM - Automated Mapping

    and Facilities Management

  • 21

    Major Areas of PracticalMajor Areas of PracticalApplication of GIS TechnologyApplication of GIS Technology

    Street Network-Based

    address matching vehicle routing and

    scheduling location analysis,

    site selection development of

    evacuation plans

  • 22

    Major Areas of PracticalMajor Areas of PracticalApplication of Application of GISGIS Technology Technology

    Facilities Management

    locating underground pipes,cables

    balancing loads in electricalnetworks

    planning facility maintenance tracking energy use

  • 23

    Major Areas of PracticalMajor Areas of PracticalApplication of Application of GISGIS Technology Technology

    Land Parcel-Based

    zoning, subdivision plan review land acquisition environmental impact statements water quality management ownership of maintenance

  • 24

    Major Areas of PracticalMajor Areas of PracticalApplication of GIS TechnologyApplication of GIS Technology

    Natural Resource-Based forest management wildlife habitat, migration routes management wild and scenic rivers preservation recreation resources planning floodplain management wetland preservation agricultural lands management groundwater modeling and

    contamination tracking environmental impact analysis viewshed analysis

  • 25

    Spatial OperationsSpatial OperationsASPATIAL QUERIES:

    Queries that in beinganswered do not use thestored X & Y location of thefeature, nor does it describewhere the places are inrelation to each other.

    SPATIAL QUERIES:Queries that can only beanswered using the stored X & Ylocation of the feature and itsrelationship to other features onthe earth's surface. Spatialqueries can not be answeredwithout geography and topology.

    Example: How many people are working with GIS in Missouri?

    Examples: How many people are working withGIS in the major population centers inMissouri?Which centers are within 100 miles ofeach other?What is the shortest route that passesthrough all of these centers?

  • 26

    Data LinkageData Linkage

    A GIS typically links different data setstogether.

    This may seem trivial but can prove to be theanalytical backbone of the GIS as well as itsgreatest selling point.

    Consider the different ways in which data setsmay need to be linked together.

  • 27

    Exact MatchingExact Matching

    Occurs when you havesome information inone file about lots ofgeographic features(i.e. counties) and

    additional informationin another file about

    the same set offeatures.

    State Region Population

    Michigan MidwestMississippi SouthMissouri MidwestMontana West

  • 28

    HierarchicalHierarchicalMatchingMatching

    Occurs when you havetwo data sets collected atdifferent levels of detail.If the smaller areas nest(fit exactly) within the

    larger ones, you can usehierarchical matching tolink the two data sets byadding the data for the

    small areas together untilthe grouped areas match

    the bigger ones.

    Region State Park Area

    Ozarks Lake of the Ozarks

    Ozarks Ha Ha Tonka

    Ozarks Bennett Spring

  • 29

    Fuzzy MatchingFuzzy Matching

    On many occasions the smallareas do not match the largerones. This is especially true

    when dealing withenvironmental data (i.e.. soiland land cover data sets). Ifwe wanted to determine thesoils most productive for

    each crop, we would need tooverlay the 2 data sets &

    compute crop productivityfor each soil type.

    Ownership

    Soils

    Owner Assessed ValueC. Baker $200,000M. Jones $150,000E. Smith $300,000

    D. McCarthy $275,000

    Soil ID Prime Farm Land01B Yes01C Yes01C2 No03A No

  • 30

    Questions a GIS ca