GILDED AGE POLITICS

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GILDED AGE POLITICS. Unit VIB AP United States History. Third Party System (1860-1896). Politics Spoils system dominated the early period Electorate Strong loyalty and intense interest Regional campaigning Economics Laissez-faire policies - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Politics and Economics of the Gilded AgeUnit VIB

    AP United States History

  • Third Party System (1860-1896)DemocratsPlatformPro-slaveryStates rights; laissez-faireFactionsBourbon DemocratsPro-business DemocratsSupported civil service reformsRedeemer DemocratsCoalitionWhite Southerners, Catholics, Lutherans, Jews, Immigrants, working classSolid SouthRepublicansPlatformRadical ReconstructionPro-business; tariffs; protectionismFactionsStalwartsPreserve spoils system and machine politicsHalf-BreedsPursued civil service reformMugwumpsIndependents discouraged with corrupt GOPCoalitionBusiness, upper-class, middle-class, Northern WASPs, reformers, blacks, scalawags, carpetbaggersNortheast and WestAntebellum and Post War Issues(1854-1877)Slavery and EmancipationReconstruction policiesPost Reconstruction Issues (1877-1896)Civil Service ReformTariffs and ProtectionismGold Standard and SilverPopulist Party

  • Election of 1868Ulysses S. Grant (R)Horatio Seymour (D)

  • Ulysses S. Grant (R) (1869-1877)Civil War hero, but no political experience; linked with moderates and RadicalsGrantismCredit MobilierUnion Pacific Railroad creates dummy construction company to hire execs at inflated salaries and earn high dividendsSold stock to Republican congressmen and bribed press to keep quietWhiskey RingRepublicans embezzled liquor tax revenues using bribes and networksAmnesty Act of 1872Panic of 1873

  • Election of 1872

  • Panic of 1873: The Long DepressionCausesExpansion of railroads, enterprises in industries and mines outpaces market demandCoinage Act of 1873Demonetizes silver contracting the money supplyCrime of 73Jay Cooke & Company bankruptMajor financing investment firm leads to chain reaction of banksEffectsOver 100 railroads fail; 16,000 businesses failUnemployment at 14%

  • Election of 1876Republicans struggle to nominate boring Rutherford B. HayesDemocrats nominate solid and popular Samuel J. TildenTilden won the popular vote solidly and needed only 1 more electoral vote for majorityContested electoral votes in 3 Reconstruction states (Louisiana, South Carolina, Florida)Electoral Commission rewarded 3 sets of electoral votes to HayesSplit ideologically 8-7 in favor of RepublicansSamuel Tilden (D)Rutherford B. Hayes (R)81.8% voter turnout

  • Compromise of 1877Hayes will become president, ifRemove federal troops from the SouthHelp develop infrastructure in South, ex. RailroadsAppoint Southerner to CabinetLimited enforcement of racial equalityRedemptionRedeemer DemocratsPlessy v. Ferguson (1896)Jim Crow LawsSegregationDisenfranchisementLiteracy testsPoll taxesGrandfather clauses

  • Rutherford B. Hayes (R) (1877-1881)Compromise of 1877Great Railroad Strike of 1877Civil service reform

  • Election of 1880James A. Garfield (R)Protective tariffsWinfield S. Hancock (D)Lower tariffs79.4% voter turnout

  • James A. Garfield (R) (1881)Challenged political machines, spoils system, and senatorial courtesyAssassinationJuly 2, 1881Charles J. Guiteaua disgruntled office-seekerDeathSeptember 19, 1881Chester A. Arthur assumes presidency

  • Civil Service ReformPatronage/Spoils System dominated political appointments since JacksonCorruption during Grant administration called for reformStalwartsSupported machine politics and spoils systemRoscoe ConklingHalf-breedsPursued civil service reformJames G. BlaineGarfields assassinationPendleton Civil Service Reform Act (1883)United States Civil Service CommissionFederal employees based on expertise, civil service examsProhibited federal employees and campaign contributions

  • Chester A. Arthur (R) (1881-1885)Assumed office after Garfields assassinationPendleton Act (1883)Despite being a StalwartChinese Exclusion Act of 1882

  • Election of 1884Grover Cleveland (D)James G. Blaine (R)CampaignBlaine, Blaine, James G. Blaine. Continental liar, from the state of MaineRum, Romanism, and RebellionMama, mama! Wheres my pa?On to the White House, HA HA HA77.5% voter turnout

  • Grover Cleveland (D) (1885-1889)Haymarket Riot (1886)Interstate Commerce Act (1887)Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)Opposed Civil War veteran pensionsGrand Army of the Republic (GAR) advocacyPursued tariff reform

  • Election of 1888Benjamin Harrison (R)Protective tariffsGrover Cleveland (D)Lower tariffsAgainst inflationary currency and war pensionsWon the popular vote79.3% voter turnout

  • Benjamin Harrison (R) (1889-1893)Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)Billion Dollar CongressSherman Silver Purchase Act (1890)Free Silver/SilveritesMcKinley Tariff (1890)Homestead Strike (1892)

  • The Populist MovementOrigin and Evolution of Populist PartyGranger Movement -> Farmers Alliance -> Populist Movement -> Peoples Party/Populist PartyWest and SouthOmaha Platform (July 4, 1892)Coinage of silverDirect election of SenatorsGraduated income taxState laws through referendums/initiativesGovernment regulation/ownership of infrastructure8-hour workdayAbolition of national banksCivil service reform

  • BimetallismCoinage Act of 1873For Silver and GoldInflationary effectIf a farmer owes $3,000 and can earn $1 for every bushel of wheat sold at harvest, he needs to sell 3,000 bushels to pay off the debt. If inflation could push the price of a bushel of wheat up to $3, he needs to sell only 1,000 bushels.Free Silver/SilveritesFor Gold StandardSound moneyBanks and businesses preferred gold standardStable economy and prevents inflationSherman Silver Purchase Act (1890)U.S. Treasury ordered to buy 4.5 million oz of silver monthlyTreasury notes could be turned in for silver or goldMost took gold depleting U.S. gold reserves

  • Election of 1892Grover Cleveland (D)Lower tariffsGold standardBenjamin Harrison (R)Protective tariffsBimetallismJames B. Weaver (Pop)Coalition of farmers and labor unions74.7% voter turnout

  • Grover Cleveland (D) (1893-1897)Panic of 1893BimetallismPullman Strike (1894)

  • Panic of 1893CausesOverexpansionRailroad speculationPennsylvania and Reading Railroad bankruptcySilver Purchase Act repealedImpactUnemployment to 18.4%16,000 businesses and 500 banks bankrupt/failedPullman Strike (July 1894)Coxeys Army (1894)March on Washington by unemployed workers and farmers $500 million for jobsDispersed by federal troopsJ.P. Morgan and the TreasuryCleveland and U.S. borrowed $65 million in gold

  • William Jennings Bryan (D)The Great CommonerAppealed to farmers, working class, middle classCross of Gold SpeechIf they dare to come out in the open field and defend the gold standard as a good thing, we shall fight them to the uttermost, having behind us the producing masses of the nation and the world. Having behind us the commercial interests and the laboring interests and all the toiling masses, we shall answer their demands for a gold standard by saying to them, you shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns. You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold.

  • Election of 1896William McKinley (R)Mark HannaOutspent Bryan 5 to 1Benefited from recovering economyWilliam Jennings Bryan (D)Populist rhetoricCampaignBryans stump speeches McKinleys front-porchRealignment electionEnds Third Party SystemBegins Fourth Party SystemRepublican domination