Giáo Trình Kỹ Thuật Chuyển Mạch Và Tổng Đài Số

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Transcript of Giáo Trình Kỹ Thuật Chuyển Mạch Và Tổng Đài Số

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    TS. Nguyn Thanh H

    GIO TRNH

    K THUT CHUYN MCH

    V TNG I S

    NH XUT BN KHOA HC V K THUTH NI - 2009

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    MC LC

    Li ni u 3Mc lc 5

    Chng 1.CC KIN THC TNG QUAN 131.1 Mng v dch v vin thng 13

    1.1.1 Mng vin thng 131.1.1.1 Khi nim 131.1.1.2 Cc thnh phn ca mng vin thng 131.1.1.3 Cc phng php t chc mng 14

    1.1.2 Dch v vin thng 191.1.2.1 Khi nim 19

    1.1.2.2 Cc dch v vin thng 201.1.2.3 Mng's a dch v (ISDN) 211.2 Tng quan v tng i in thoi ^ 21

    1.2.1 Lch s v xu hng pht trin ca tng i 211.2.1.1 Lch s k thut tng i 211.2.1.2 Xu hng pht trin 24

    1.2.2 Phn loi tng i in t ^ 251.2.2.1 Phn loi theo phng thc chuyn mch 251.2.2.2 Phn loi theo phng thc iu khin 25

    1.2.2.3 Phn loi theo v tr 271.2.2.4 Phn loi theo tn hiu 27

    1.3 Tng i in t s SPC 271.3.1 S pht trin ca tng i in t SPC 271.3.2 u im ca cc tng i k thut s SPC 31

    1.3.2.1 Tnh linh hot 311.3.2.2 Cc tin ch thu bao 321.3.2.3 Tin ch qun tr 331.3.2.4 Cc u im thm vo ca k thut s 33

    1.3.3 S khi chc nng ca tng i s SPC 371.3.3.1 S khi 371.3.3.2 Chc nng 39

    1.3.4 Phn tch mt cuc gi trong tng i SPC 461.3.4.1 Tn hiu nhc my (o ff - hook) 471.3.4.2 S nhn dng ca thu bao gi 471.3.4.3 S phn phi b nh v cc thit b dng chung 471.3.4.4 Cc ch s a ch 48

    1.3.4.5 Phn tch ch s ^ 481.3.4.6 Thit lp ng dn chuyn mch 48

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    1.3.4.7 Dng chung v m hiuchuQng 491.3.4.8 Tn hiu tr li 491.3.4.9 Gim st 491.3.4.10 Tn hiu xa kt ni 49

    Chng 2.K THUT CIUYN MCH KNH 51

    2.1 Tng quan v chuyn mch 512.1.1 nh ngha 512.1.2 Chuyn mch knh (Circuit Swithching) 51

    2.1.2.1 Khi nim 512.1.2.2 c im 52

    2.1.3 Chuyn mch tin (MessaeeSvvithching) 522.1.3.1 Khi nim' 522.1.3.2 c im 53

    2.1.4 Chuyn mch gi 54

    2.1.4.1 Khi nim 542.1.4.2 c im 552.1.4.3 u im 55

    2.2 Chuyn mch knh 562.2.1 Phn loi 56

    2.2.1.1 Chuyn mch phn chia khng gian (SDTS) 562.2.1.2 Chuyn mch ghp (MPTS) 57

    2.2.2 Chuyn mch PCM 582.2.2.1 Chuyn mch thi gian (T) 592.122 Chuyn mch khng gian (S) 67

    2.2.3 Phi php cc cp chuyn mch 732.2.3.1 Chuyn mch ghp TS 732.2.3.2 Chuyn mch STS 752.2.3.3 Chuyn mch TST 772.2.3.4 Nhn xt 82

    Chng 3.K THUT IU KHIN 83

    3.1 Tng quan 833.2 Cu trc phn cng h thng iu khin tng i SPC 843.2.1 Cu trc chung 84

    3.2.1.1 S khi 843.2.1.2 Chc nng 843.2.1.3 Nguyn l lm vic 85

    3.2.2 Cc loi cu trc iu khin 863.2.2.1 Cu trc iu khin n x l 863.2.2.2 Cu trc a x l 87

    3.2.3 iu khin trung tmv strao i gia cc b vi x l 91

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    3.2.3.1 iu khin trung tm 91323 . 2 S trao i thng tin gia cc b x l 92

    3.3 C cu d phng 943.3.1 D phng cp ng b 943.3.2 D phng phn ti 953.3.3 D phng nng 96

    3.3.4 D phng n+1 963.4 Cu trc phn mm ca tng i 97

    3.4.1 Khi nim chung 973.4.2 Cc vn v thit k phn mn 98

    3.4.2.1 Cc c tnh ch yu ca phn mm 98s.4.2.2 v cu trc 993.4.2.3 Phn chia chng trnh 993.4.2.4 Cc chng trnh h thng 1003.4.2.5 Cc chng trnh p dng 1033.4.2. Cp nht phn mm hin hnh 103

    3.4.3 Cc modul chnh ca phn mm 1043.4.3.1 Modul iu khin chnh 1043.4.3.2 Modul giao tip ng y 1043.4.3.3 Modul lin lc ni b 1053.4.3.4 Modul lin lc ra ngoi 1053.43.5 Modul nhn bit v x l li 1063.4.3. Modul giao tip my tnh 106

    Chng4,K THUT BO HIU 107

    4.1 Tng quan 1074.1.1 Khi nim 1074.1.2 Cc chc nng bo hiu 107

    4.1.2.1 Chc nng gim st 1074.1.2.2 Chc nng tm chn 1074.1.2.3 Chc nng vn hnh 107

    4.1.3 c im cc h thng bo hiu 108

    4.1.4 H thng thng tin bo hiu 1084.1.5 K thut bo hiu 108

    4.2 Ni dung ca bo hiu 1084.2.1 Phn tch cuc gi 1084.2.2 Phn theo chc nng 110

    4.2.2.1 Bo hiu nghe - nhn 1104.2.2.2 Bo hiu trng thi (bo hiu gim st) 11142.2.3 Bo hiu a ch 111

    4.2.3 Phn theo tng quan 1134.2.3.1 Bo hiu gia tng i vi thu bao 113

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    4.2.3.2 Bo hiu lin tng i 1134.3 Phng php trun dn bo hiu 114

    4.3.1 Bo hiu knh kt hp (CAS: Chanel Associated Signalling) 1144.3.1.1 Phn loi 1144.3.1.2 Phng php truyn 1154.3.1.3 Cc k thut truyn cc tn hiu bo hiu trong CAS 115

    4.3.2 Bo hiu knh chung (CCS) 1204.3.2.1 Khi nim chung 12043.2.2 Cu trc bn tin CCS 1214.3.2.3 u im 122

    4.3.3 H thng bo hiu R2 (MFC) 1224.3.3.1 Khi nim chung 1224.3.3.2 Bo hiu ng dy 1224.3.3.3 Bo hiu thanh ghi 124

    4.3.4 Bo hiu s 7 (CCITT No 7) 128

    4.3.4.1 Khi nim chung 1284.3.4.2 Cc khi nim c bn 1294.3 A 3 Phn mc trong bo hiu s 7 1304.3.4.4 orn v bo hiu 132

    4.4 X l bo hiu trong tng i 1334.4.1 Tng quan 1334.4.2 S nh tun trong tng i 134

    4.4.2.1 Bo hiu tng i - thu bao 1344A.2.2 Bo hiu lin tng i 138

    4.4.3 Cc b thu pht bo hiu 1404.4.3.1 Thu pht MF 1404.4.3.2 Thu pht bo hiu knh kt hp 1414.4.3.3 Chuyn i 1VF sang CAS 145

    4.4.4 Cc b to tone v bn tin thng bo 1464.4.4.1 S nh tuyn tones v cc bn tin thng bo 1464.4.4.2 Cc tones x l cuc gi 1474.4.4.3 B to tone v cc bn tin thng bo 148

    Chng 5.GIAO TIP KT CUI 151

    5.1 Tng quan 1515.2 Giao tip ng dy thu bao 152

    5.2.1 Tng quan v cc kt cui ng dythu bao 1525.2.1.1 ng dy thu bao Analogue 1525.2.1.2 ng dy thu bao s 153

    5.2.2 Thit b giao tip thu bao tng t 1535.2.2.1 Chc nng cp ngun (Battery feed) 153

    5 2 2 2 Chc nng bo v qu p (Over Voltage Protection) 154

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    5.2.23 Chc nng rung chung (Ringging) 1545.2.2A Gim st (Supervision) 1555.22.5 Gii m, m ha (Codec) 15552.2.6 Sai ng (Hibrid) 15652.2.1 Kim tra (Test) . 1565.2.2.S Cc khi lin quan ln cn 157

    5.2.3 Giao tip u cui thu bao s 1575.3 Thit b tp trung 1585.3.1 Giao tip thit b ng b 1595.3.2 Giao tip thit b chuyn mch nhm 1595.3.3 Giao tip vi khi mch giao tip thu bao 1595.3.4 Giao tip thit b to m bo 1595.3.5 Giao tip vi thit b my in thoi chn s a tn 1595.3.6 Giao tip vi thit b cnh bo 160

    5.4 Giao tip thit b kt cui trung k 161

    5.4.1 Phn loi 1615.4.1.1 Trung k t thch 1615.4.1.2 Trung k hai dy c o - line 1615.4.1.3 Trung k E&M (4 dy) 1625.4.1.4 Trung k depart (3 dy) 1625.4.1.5 Trung k 6 dy 1625.4.1.6 Trung k s 162

    5.4.2 Giao tip thit b kt cui tning k tng t 162

    5.4.2.1 Bo hiu 1625A.2.2 Cp ngun 1635.4.2.3 Sai ng 1635A.2A Ghp knh v iu khin 163

    5.4.3 Giao tip thit b kt cui trung k s 1635.4.3.1 S khi 1635.4.3.2 Hot ng 164

    5.5 B tp trung xa 1655.5.1 Cu trc 165

    5.5.2 Phn phi cc chc nng iu khin 1665.5.2.1 Phng php phn b 1665.5.22 Phng php tp trung 166

    5.5.3 Bo hiu 1675.5.4 Cc c im ng ng ca h thng tp trung xa 167

    5.5.4.1 H thng ti 3 thu bao v cc b tp trung phn b 1675.5A.2 Gi ni b 167

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    Chng 6.IU HNH KHAI THC V BO DNG 169

    6.1 Tng quan 1696.2 iu hnh v khai thc trong tng i SPC 169

    6.2.1 iu hnh trang thit b tng i 169

    6.2.2 Qun l mng thu bao 1696.2.2.1 To lp thu bao mi 16962.2.2 Chuyn i thu bao 170.2.2.3 Thay i dch v thu bao 170.2.2.4 nh ch thu bao khai thc 170

    6.2.3 Qun l s liu, phin dch v to tuyn 1706.2.4 Qun l s liu cc 1706.2.5 Gim st, o th ti v lu lng 170

    6.2.5.1 Cc phng thc gim st 171

    6.2.5.2 Cc c ch o th 1716.3 Bo dng tng i 171

    6.3.1 Bo dng ng dy thu bao 1716.3.2 Bo dng ng trung k 1726.3.3 Bo dng trng chun mch 1726.3.4 Bo dng dng h thng iu khin 1726.3.5 Cc phng sch bo dng 173

    6.3.5.1 Phn cng 17363 . 52 Phn mm 174

    6.4 Nguyn tc x l chng ngi 1756.4.1 Tm li bng phng thc nhn cng 1756.4.2 Bo dng phng nga 175

    6.5 Bo dng phn mm 1766.5.1 Cu to v nhim v 1766.5.2 Bo co v li 1766.5.3 Lnh vc hot ng trung tm phn mm 1776.5.4 Th vin phn mm 177

    Chng 7. MNG CHUYN MCH GI 179

    7.1 C s mng chun mch gi 1797.1.1 M hnh tng th ^ 1797.1.2 T chc phn lp ca mng chuyn mch gi 1797.1.3 Thit lp tuyn ni 1817.1.4 Knhlogic 1817.1.5 Cc hnh thi dch v ^ 1827.1.6 Phng thc nh tuyn trong mng chuyn mch gi 183

    7.2 Mt s giao thc trong chuyn mch gi 184

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    7.2.1 Giao thc X.25 1847.2.1.1 X.25 cp 1: cpvt l 1857.2.1.2 X.25 cp 2; cp tuyn s liu 1857.2.1.3 X.25 cp 3; cp mng 192

    7.2.2 Giao thc TCP/IP 2017.2.2.1 Khi qut v TCP/IP 201

    12.2.2 Lp ng dng 2027.2.2.3 Lp vn chuyn 20212.2A iu khin lung trong TCP/DP 2097.2.2.5 Khi qut v lp Internet trong TCP/IP 210122 . 6 Tng quan v a ch TCP/IP 2127.2.2.7 Thnh phn v hnh dng ca a ch IP 2137.2.2.8 Cc lp a ch IP 214

    Chng 8.MT S CNG NGH CHUYN MCH TIN TIN 217

    8.1 Cng ngh Frame relay 2178.1.1 c im 2178.1.2 Cu hnh mng Frame relay 2198.1.3 Tnh nng ca Frame relay 221

    8.2 Cng ngh chuyn mch ATM 2228.2.1 Tng quan ATM 2228.2.2 M hnh chun ca ATM vmng ATM 223

    8.2.2. M hnh ATM chun 223

    8.2.2.2 Cc cu hnh giao thc chun 2268.2.3 Knh o v ng o 2288.2.3.1 Knh o 2288.2.3.2 ng o 228

    8.2.4 Nguyn l chuyn mch ATM 2288.2.5 Cu trc t bo ATM 231

    8.2.5.1 T bo ATM 2318.2.5.2 Cu trc t bo ATM 232

    8.2.6 Bo hiu v nh a ch 234

    8.2.6.1 BohiuA TM 2348.2.6.2 nh a ch 237

    8.2.7 Kt lun 2388.3 Cng ngh chun mch MPLS 240

    8.3.1 Lch s pht trin MPLS 2408.3.2 Qu trnh pht trin v gii php ban u ca cc hng 243

    8.3.2.1 IP over ATM 2438.3.2.2 Toshibas CSR 24483.2.3 Ciscos Tag Switching 2448.3.2.4 IBMs ARJS v Nortels VNS 245

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    8.3.2.5 Cng vic chun ha MPLS 2458.3.3 Cc thnh phn MPLS 246

    8.3.3.1 Cc khi nim c bn MPLS 2468.3.3.2 Thnh phn c bn ca MPLS 248

    8.3.4 Hot ng ca MPLS 2498.3.4.1 Cc ch hot ng ca MPLS 249

    s.3.4.2 Hot ng ca MPLS khung trong mng ATM -PVC 2608.3.5 Cc giao thc s dng trong mng MPLS 261

    8.3.5.1 Giao thc phn phi nhn 2618.3.5.2 Pht hin LSR lan cn 2638.3.5.3 Giao th