GHG Emission Assessment Guideline Volume III: Guideline Assessment Guideline... · PDF...

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  • GHG Emission Assessment Guideline

    Volume III: Guideline on Data Collection and

    Estimation of GHG Emission

    from Livestock and Manure Management

  • 2

    FEDERAL DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF ETHIOPIA

    MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE

    ADDIS ABABA

    ETHIOPIA

    About the authors

    Dr. Million Tadessee

    Acknowledgements

    The authors would like to thank the Ministry of Agriculture Natural Resources Management

    Directorate CRGE unit for providing financial assistance and technical support in the development

    of this guideline.

    Produced by Echnoserve Consulting

    April 2015

    Front cover photo: Echnoserve

    Credit: Bayu Nebsu & Asefa Tadesse

  • 3

    Table of Contents

    I. Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 5

    II. Livestock Green House Gas emission ................................................................................................... 6

    III. Livestock feed characterization and GHG emission calculation approach ........................ 7

    3.1. Livestock population and feed characterization .......................................................................... 7

    3.1.1. Livestock species categories and subcategories .................................................................. 7

    3.2 GHG emission estimation approach in livestock population in Ethiopia ........................ 8

    3.3. Basic characterization for livestock population (tier 1 approach) ................................ 10

    3.4. Enhanced characterization for livestock population (tier 2 approach) ...................... 12

    IV. Methods for estimation of methane emission from enteric fermentation and manure

    management in cattle ....................................................................................................................................... 20

    4.1 Methane emission from enteric fermentation in cattle ..................................................... 20

    4.1.1 Calculation of feed intake or gross energy (GE) intake for cattle ......................... 21

    4.1.2 Calculation of methane emission factor for enteric fermentation ........................ 27

    4.2 Methane emission from manure management in cattle .................................................... 28

    V. Methods for estimation of nitrous oxide emission from manure management in cattle .. 31

    VI. Green House Gas emission reporting .................................................................................................. 36

    Reference............................................................................................................................................................... 38

  • 4

    LIST OF TABLE

    Table 1. Livestock species that contribute to GHG emission and their emission sources category in Ethiopia ... 8

    Table 2. GHG emission source category and calculation approaches ...................................................................... 9

    Table 3. Level of characterization (livestock and feed) required for estimation of GHG emission in Ethiopia .. 10

    Table 4. Definition of livestock (cattle) population category and sub-category in Ethiopia ................................ 13

    Table 5. Example of body weight (in kg) of some cattle breed in Ethiopia at different age ................................. 15

    Table 6. Livestock feeding situation and activity coefficient required for calculation of net energy for activity.

    ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 16

    Table 7. Data on average milk production and lactation length for different breeds in Ethiopia ....................... 17

    Table 8. Digestibility coefficient for different feed or diet type (Adopted from IPCC, 2006) ............................... 18

    Table 9. The mean chemical composition and nutritive value of Ethiopian feeds by class on percent DM basis

    (EIAR, 2007) ............................................................................................................................................................... 19

    Table 10. Net energy for maintenance of indigenous cattle by sub-category ....................................................... 21

    Table 11. Net energy requirement of indigenous cattle for activity ...................................................................... 22

    Table 12. Estimate of Net Energy for growth requirement of indigenous cattle breed........................................ 23

    Table 13. Calculating gross energy (GE) for indigenous cattle species by sub-category ...................................... 26

    Table 14. Methane conversion factors (Adapted from IPCC 2006) ........................................................................ 27

    Table 15.Ccalculating methane emission factor (EF) for enteric fermentation in cattle species by sub-category

    ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 27

    Table 16. Example of methane emission from enteric fermentation indigenous cattle in Ethiopia .................... 28

    Table 17. Dairy cows default methane emission factor from manure management (Adapted IPCC, 2006) ....... 29

    Table 18. Example of calculation of methane emission from manure management ............................................ 30

    Table 19. Example of calculation of N intake for indigenous cattle breed ............................................................. 33

    Table 20. Example of calculation of N retention for indigenous cattle breed ....................................................... 34

    Table 21. Example of calculation of N excretion for indigenous cattle breed ....................................................... 34

    Table 22. Example of calculation of direct N2O emission for indigenous cattle .................................................... 34

    Table 23. Example of calculation of total direct N2O emission for indigenous cattle ........................................... 35

    Table 24. CH4 and N2O emission factor (kg/animal/year) for indigenous cattle in Ethiopia tier 2 methodology

    ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 36

    Table 25. Green house gas (CH4+N2O) mission factors in tone of carbon dioxide equivalent for indigenous

    cattle in Ethiopia ........................................................................................................................................................ 36

    Table 26. Example of calculation of total GHG emission for indigenous cattle in Ethiopia for year 2013 .......... 37

  • 5

    I. INTRODUCTION

    The livestock production system contributes to global climate change directly through the

    production of methane (CH4) from enteric fermentation and manure management and nitrous

    oxide (N2O) emission from manure management (Dourmad et al., 2008). Among Ethiopian

    livestock species the major contributor to GHGs emission are cattle, which are used for meat, dairy

    products, as draught animals, and are treated as financial assets. Given current practices, the cattle

    population is likely to increase from todays around 55 million (CSA, 2013) to more than 90 million

    in 2030 (CRGE, 2011), thereby almost reaching the cattle carrying capacity of the country and

    doubling emissions from the livestock sector. In a business-as-usual scenario, emissions from

    livestock are projected to increase as a function of livestock population growth from 55 Mt CO2e in

    2013 to 124 Mt CO2e in 2030 (CRGE, 2011 ), mainly driven by an increase in methane from enteric

    fermentation and manure management (accounting for 112 Mt CO2e or 90% of emissions in 2030).

    Emissions from manure left on pasture, range and paddock account for the remaining 10% of

    livestock emissions in 2030 (CRGE, 2011). Cognizing this fact, Ethiopia set Climate Resilience Green

    Economy Strategy to protect the country from adverse effect of climate change. As part of the

    strategy, the government has selected four imitative for fast track implementation. Efficiency

    improvement in livestock value chain is one of the initiatives selected for fast track implementation

    to reduce GHG emission from livestock sector. Key to realizing emissions reductions is the ability to

    measure and track emissions. Development of method and tools for GHG estimation provide this

    ability and they can be used to quantify emission reduction at farm level, track progress toward

    reduction goals, and communicate this progress to concerned body or key audiences.

    The overall objective of this guideline is to impart the knowledge and skill on GHGs emission

    measurement and reporting customized guidance to experts, professional, development agent, and

    producers in Ethiopia on how they should collect data, measure, tracks and report GHG emissions

    from livestock production customized to the Ethiopian context. Chapter 1 introduce the major GHG

    emission sources in Livestock, chapter 2 describe the livestock and feed characterization data

    required for estimation of GHG emission, chapter 3 introd