Gerald Conover Managing Director PRC Associates, USA r epresenting ITS America

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Cooperative and Automated Driving in the United States. Opportunities and Challenges. Gerald Conover Managing Director PRC Associates, USA r epresenting ITS America. Agenda. Introduction / Agenda The “Big News” from America Currently Implemented ITS Solutions Cooperative Driving - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Gerald ConoverManaging DirectorPRC Associates, USArepresenting ITS AmericaCooperative and Automated Drivingin the United StatesOpportunities and Challenges1Thank you, Mr. Chairman. Good afternoon.As Mr. YARNOLD said, I am Gerald Conover, the Managing Director of PRC Associates in the United States. I am also the chairman for international affairs for the Intelligent Transportation Society of America.I am here today to share with you some status and some insights into Cooperative Driving and Automated Driving in the United States.

1Introduction / AgendaThe Big News from AmericaCurrently Implemented ITS SolutionsCooperative DrivingAutomated DrivingPolitical OverviewOpportunities for AuthoritiesConclusionITS World Congress Detroit 20142AgendaToday I would like to summarize for you the situation for Cooperative and Automated Driving in the United States. This provides some background for the plans we have for these technologies in the coming years.Of necessity, this will be a broad overview.We will cover briefly the topics shown on this slide. These will provide the underpinnings for the American strategy toward cooperative and automated driving..2The US federal government plans to require vehicle-to-vehicle communications systems on future cars and light trucks.NHTSA is finalizing its analysis of the data . The report will include analysis of technical feasibility, privacy and security, and preliminary estimates on costs and safety benefits. NHTSA will then begin working on a regulatory proposal that would require V2V devices in new vehicles in a future year.Bottom Line:Regulation targeted for publication by end 2016 CY.Likely applied starting in the 2021 model year (our estimate).3The Big News from AmericaThe big news about cooperative driving in America is that the US Department of Transportation has finally decided to set regulations requiring vehicle-to-vehicle communications among light vehicles.Transportation Secretary Foxx said the regulations will be in place by the end of President Obamas term in office. That means by the end of 2016, for practical purposes.If we assume a four-year implementation calendar for automakers and suppliers, this would imply on-the-road by the 2021 model year. Of course, this could be accelerated given the amount of work automakers and suppliers have already done.3In VehiclesNavigationTelematicsDriver Assistance SystemsOn the RoadAdaptive Traffic Signal ControlVariable Message SignsTraffic and Roadway MonitoringElectronic Toll CollectionTravel Demand ManagementComing NextCooperative Driving (2021 MY)Automated Driving (in degrees, 2025-2035)4Currently Implemented I.T.S. SolutionsITS systems and services are implemented broadly in the United States as they are in many countries.Many of the infrastructure applications are concentrated in urban areas because 83% of Americas population is concentrated on the two coasts and a number of Midwestern cities such as Detroit and Chicago.Much of America is rural agricultural land for the most part where vehicle traffic is light.Nonetheless, ITS enjoys growing popularity among drivers and road and traffic managers.4Cooperative Driving

5It has been a long-time wish of everyone involved in road transport to be able to prevent traffic crashes in the first place.If the cars could talk with each other digitally, of course, not in spoken words, ,,,and each car knew where it was positioned relative to other vehicles sharing the same roadway, and each car could tell its nearby mates its speed and direction of travel you have the makings of cooperative driving..If the cars in the neighborhood could put all this data together very quickly, they could predict the possibility of a crash happening and with the right braking and steering actuators could actually avoid the crash by slowing or turning away.5Safety Pilot Model Deployment

6Two large field operational tests are underway one in America and one in Europe to determine whether such science can indeed do something good for the driving experience.The Safety Pilot Model Deployment going on right now in Ann Arbor, Michigan, is collecting data on the behavior of more than 2,800 vehicles, of all sizes and types, when the vehicles have mutual awareness. In some cases, the drivers are in the control loop, but in others, its all up to the car or truck.The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute is running the program to provide the US Department of Transportation with data sufficient to support the departments rulemaking initiative.The project was recently extended indefinitely by the USDOT and will become the basis for a fully networked Ann Arbor region.6Safety Pilot StatusMore than 2,750 vehicles on the road37,500 V2V interactions 2,000 critical eventsMore than 9 billion messages representing 6million road milesMotorcycles and one bicycle includedIce formation warning application77University of MichiganMobility Transformation Center

8The University of Michigan is also undertaking the design of a unique environment for testing connected and automated vehicles.The facility, which simulates a dynamic urban environment, is an important element of a joint project with industry and government to develop and implement an entire system of connected and automated vehicles on the streets of Southeastern Michigan by 2021.The U-M Mobility Transformation Center will occupy 30 acres at the Universitys North Campus Research Complex. The novel test environment will include almost three lane-miles of roads with intersections, traffic signs and signals, sidewalks, benches, simulated buildings, street lights and obstacles such as construction barriers. Current plans call for the facility to be completed by September 2014 at a cost of about $6.5 million.Dr. Peter Sweatman is head of the Mobility Transformation Center. His goal is to have the MTC accelerate innovations that will lead to a commercially viable automated mobility system that will fundamentally transform our society."8Infrastructure Communications

9There is potentially a very large infrastructure component within cooperative driving.In addition to cars talking to each other over relatively short ranges, roadside communicators that can also talk with cars going by would be able to share situational awareness with vehicles further up the road.They could also warn drivers and their cars about approaching motorcycles, bicyclists and pedestrians.Honda, for example, demonstrated such concept at the 20th World Congress on Intelligent Transport Systems in Tokyo, Japan.Roadside communications are also part of the Safety Pilot Model Deployment. One interesting finding of that work the distance between roadside devices can be up to five times what theoretical calculations said it had to be a huge saving for infrastructure installations.9V2I Mobility ApplicationsLane-specific traffic flow prediction; dynamic traffic signal timingInform the visually impaired when to crossManage public transit; transit signal priorityTravel information for commercial vehicle operatorsIntegrated transit operations; passenger connections; dispatching; dynamic ride sharing.10Through a program called Dynamic Mobility Applications, the USDOT is exploring the potential benefits of V2I connectivity. The first application would use comprehensive data to accurately predict lane-specific flows of vehicles and to transform how traffic signal systems are used maximize traffic flows in real time.A second application would inform visually impaired pedestrians, via their smartphones, when to cross at intersections. The third application would help transit agencies grant buses priority at traffic signals when needed. The fourth would provide travel information to commercial vehicle operators, including freight-specific route guidance, and to coordinate load management to reduce empty-load trips.A final application would facilitate integrated transit operations, such as passenger connection protection, transit dispatching, and new forms of operational practices intended to enhance dynamic ridesharing.10Issues with Cooperative DrivingWill drivers accept intervention?Will insurance companies and trial lawyers accept or attack these systems?How will these systems work in mixed traffic, where a lot of vehicles are not equipped?Are the data secure? Susceptible to hacking?How long will it take to get more than half of the car parc?11Were at the brink of something really exciting.The automakers are ready to go. In Europe, several automakers and major suppliers have committed to real-world, high-volume sale of cooperative driving systems by 2015.There are still a few questions:Will drivers accept intervention with their driving?Will insurance companies and trial lawyers accept or attack these systems that work beyond the drivers control?How will these systems work in mixed traffic, where a goodly slice of the vehicle population is not so equipped?Are the V2V and V2I data and links secure?How long will it take to get the lions share of the car parc?11Automated Driving

12The notion of cars talking to one another and vehicle systems intervening leads to another area of mobility that has many people very interested.What if you didnt have to drive the car at all? What if some kind of robotic chauffer could do it for you?Farfetched? Not if you ask Google or Toyota or Nissan or Mercedes or Audi or General Motors or Ford.And there are surely others doing similar work that they havent spoken about publicly yet.12Pre-Conditions for AutomationHigh levels of situational awarenessThe ability to crunch a lot of numbers very quicklyHigh-speed, highly accurate actuatorsData reliability and security13There are three principle technological keys to opening the door to automated, or even autonomous, driving:We need to have high levels of situational awareness what is going on around us that c