Geography Part 1. Geography is the study of the Earth, its physical features, and the people and...

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Transcript of Geography Part 1. Geography is the study of the Earth, its physical features, and the people and...

  • Geography Part 1

  • Geography is the study of the Earth, its physical features, and the people and creatures who live on it.

  • Just as you affect the environment, the environment affects where you live, what you do, where you go, and what you see.

  • The Five Themes of GeographyGeographers use the Five Themes of Geography to learn more about how people use the land.The Five Themes are:LocationPlaceHuman-Environment RelationshipsMovement Region

  • LocationRelative location is using landmarks or street names to explain where you are located.Example: next door to the bank or Addresses like 301 Pony Drive, Grapevine, Texas

    Absolute location is when geographers use the exact location of a place on the earths surface. Example latitude and longitude

  • Place Place is made up of the Physical Environment or the surroundings and conditions in which something exists

    How do Climate, vegetation, and landforms combine with human features in the environment.

    Example how would you describe the place or environment around you?

  • Human-Environment Relationships How has man changed the environment to meet his needs and how man has adapted to the environment?

    Examples: leveling forests, damming rivers pollution, people living in igloos or pueblo homes

  • MovementHow people and products move around the earth, and how we communicate with each other.

    Examples- Moving to another country or state, shipping products from one state to another, email

  • RegionThe world is divided into different geographic regions based on what they have in common and how they are different.

    Regions can be divided based on geographic, physical, political or cultural features.

    -Example include the 4 Natural Regions of Texas and Texas is a state that is part of the United States.

  • Latitude, Longitude, and Absolute Location

    Latitude-Runs East and West across the earth

  • EquatorLatitude has the Equator- a line that goes East and West at O degrees. Across the middle of the earth

  • Longitude-Runs North and South across the earth

  • Prime MeridianLongitude has the Prime Meridian- a line that goes North and South at O degrees.

  • Hemispheres The Equator and the Prime Meridian divide the earth into hemispheres. The area north of the Equator is the Northern Hemisphere. The area south of the Equator is the Southern Hemisphere.

  • The area East of the Prime Meridian is the Eastern Hemisphere. The area West of the Prime Meridian is the Western Hemisphere

  • Texas Geography is: The study of Texas and the people who live in it.Texas Landforms: Texas has mountains, plains, valleys, rivers, plateaus, escarpments.Texas Climate is the average weather of a location. Texas is so large it has more than one climate!Resources: soil, plant & animal life, water timber, grass, oil and gas, rock, sand, etc.:(What we need to survive!)

  • Geography (Landforms, Climate, Resources) affects how we live:What we eat, what we wear, what kind of tools we use, what kind of house we live in,how we travel.

    A Comanche CampDrawing by:James E. Taylor

  • Absolute Location: absolutely where you are!Lines of longitude: run north and south & are called meridians. (from Pole to Pole) Lines of latitude: run horizontally around the earth east to west. (Equator)The Earth is divided into hemispheres: Northern and Southern, but also Eastern and Western. N W E S

  • Absolute location: Exact location on the Earth by latitude and longitude.Example: Tyler is located at ____degrees ___latitude and ____degrees ___ longitude

    Relative location: The location of one place in relationship to another location.Example: Houston is south of Tyler. Houston is located on the Texas Gulf coast.

  • Resources: what we need to liveCause---People use resources to live: for food, shelter, clothing, toolsGive examples of resources: __________Effect---Resources can be depletedPollution

    American Indians valued the landand its resources.Do we value the land and resources today?

    Drawing of Plains Indians by James E. Taylor

  • Human-Environment Interaction:1. 2 ways people use the environment and change it for better or worse:a. b.2 ways the physical factors can affect people:a.b.

  • Using maps. Look in your textbook in the black reference pages. Find the following about Texas:Political Maps: p. ___ What do they show?Physical Maps: p.__ What do they show?Topical Maps: p.___ What do they show?Write examples in your notes as we discuss these!

  • Climate of TexasMiddle Latitudes (between North Pole and Equator) gives Texas mild winters and hot summers Gulf Air Stream brings warm moist air from Gulf of Mexico over Eastern Texas causing rain, humidity, warmer wintersWarm, moist Gulf air meets Cold, dry air from the North causing violent storms and tornadoes

  • Middle LatitudesGulf Air over Texas

  • Topography and ElevationSea Level at Gulf CoastRising in elevation from the coast to the westCoastal Plains on the coastPlateaus or Tablelands start in the western half of Texas, formed by escarpments where land is pushed upward on a fault lineMountains farthest West

  • EscarpmentsBalcones Escarpment created the Edwards Plateau west of Austin, part of it is known as the Texas Hill CountryCapRock Escarpment created the Llano Estacado and the Palo Duro Canyon in the Texas Panhandle

  • CaprockEscarpmentBalcones Escarpment

  • Water ResourcesGulf of Mexico provides sea ports for shipping and seafoodRivers provide water for transportation, drinking, irrigationHave been dammed to provide reservoirs or lakes which meet Texas water needs Droughts are times of little rain.

  • Texas AquifersUnderground reservoirs hold much of Texas water resources. Major aquifers:Balcones Aquifer under the Edwards PlateauCarrizo-Wilcox Aquifer under East TexasOgalalla Aquifer under the High Plains of the Panhandle

  • Aquifers provide water through springs which seep out of the ground, forming rivers and streamsWater is pumped out of aquifers to provide irrigation and water needs of populationCant be refilled without rain.Conservation practices insure enough water for future needs.

    Take notes. Copy this, explain we will learn more about these as we go through the power point.*Take notes and discuss drawing of Comanches: What are they wearing, what kind of shelter, what kind of transportation, food, etc?*Bring apples cut in half both ways. Process Activity, could use worksheet to practice finding locations using latitude and longitude. After the next slide!*Look at Map and record in notes. Figure it out together and show the lines and how they are numbered.

    Have students give you some other relative location examples.*Discuss photo which shows American Indians in 1800s wearing clothing of the white man, but still living their way. How did the Indians value the land from what you already know?How do we value the land and resources today? What resources do we value the most?What resources do we learn to conserve?What are ways we conserve resources?What resources are renewable? What resources are gone once we use them up? These are prompts to get discussion going. *Have students answer, then write down 2 of each in notes. The book discusses water pollution, affects on fishing and drinking water, also, farming practices can cause erosion if not careful; using up non-renewable resources vs. recycling; creating cities over the land: good or bad? Oil production and pollutionalso natural gas, coal, alternatives; use fertile soil and water to grow crops for food. Physical factors: what are they? Weather, landforms, earthquakes, things that man cannot control: tornadoes, hurricanes, drought, mountains, deserts, etc.*Do this as a class and be sure they add this to their notes. Political show man made things such as boundaries, cities, roads, counties, capitals etc. Physical maps can show topography which is landforms, elevation, climate; Topical maps show whatever is in the map key such as resources, crops, etc.*Pictures to show middle latitudes and who warm air over gulf which also contains moisture hits colder air from north and causes wsot*Show with pointer where the lines are and explain this is a satellite photo from space where the fault lines are visible.*Look at Map: Find cities on Gulf which are major ports, Look for Rivers, Look for Lakes on Rivers. Process activity, list the Give them a Texas Black line map and have them locate major port cities of Beaumont/Port Arthur, Houston, Corpus Christi and Brownsville, Locate Sabine, Red, Rio Grande, Neches, Trinity, Brazos, Colorado, San Antonio, Nueces, Canadian and Pecos; Locate Toledo Bend, Lake Amistad, Lake Texhoma, Lake Palestine.*Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer serves the water needs of 66 counties and the largest populated areas are: Tyler, Lufkin, Nacagdoches, Bryan-College Station. The aquifer runs parallel to the Gulf Coast. Balcones meets the needs of the Austin, San aAntonio area and is a very fragile water system. Many Caves in the area such as Longhorn Caverns, Innerspace Caverns. Ogalalla Aquifer is the main source of irrigation for all the agriculture in the Panhandle region. Process activity: locate these on a black line map.*