Geography

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  • 1. Physical Features Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, andEgypt Stretches from the Atlantic Ocean to theRed Sea; Mediterranean Sea is off thenorthern coast; Sahara desert is to thesouth

2. The Nile Worlds longest river Flows northward through the easternSahara Empties into the Mediterranean Sea Blue Nile and White Nile merge to formthe Nile Water from Nile irrigates farmlands andforms a large river delta where it emptiesinto the Mediterranean Sea Flooding of the Nile has left silt (finelyground soil good for growing crops) insurrounding fields Aswan High Dam was built to control flooding Trapped water formed Lake Nasser in southern Egypt Dam traps silt and now farmers must use fertilizers to enrich their fields 3. The Sinai Peninsula and SuezCanal Sinai Peninsula East of the Nile Barren, rocky mountains, and desert cover the peninsula Suez Canal was built by the French in1860s It is a strategic waterway that connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea 4. The Sahara Covers most of North Africa Largest desert in the world Few people live here Some settlements near oasis Windswept gravel plains and sand dunes cover much of desert 5. Mountains Some sand dunes reach 1,000 feet Mountains Ahagger Mountains located in central Sahara Highest peak is 9,842 feet Atlas Mountains located on northwestern side of Sahara Rise to 13,671 feet 6. Climate& Resources 3 climate types: Desert Climate covers most of region; temperaturesfrom mild to very hot (136 degrees F); low humiditycauses temperatures to drop rapidly after sunset Mediterranean Climate (A climate characterized by moist, mild winters and hot, drysummers): Northern coast west of Egypt Steppe Climate (found in the middle of continents and in the lee of high mountains. The mountains blockmoist air from oceans or tropical climates from reaching the steppe ) Between the Mediterranean climate and the Sahara Resources: Oil and gas most important Iron ore and minerals to make fertilizers coal 7. Section 2 8. history Nile River home to worlds oldestcivilizations 3200 B.C. Egyptian kingdom was formedalong northern Nile They also built pyramids, other monuments,and writing system Later invaded by Greeks and Arabs 9. The Ancient Egyptians Built pyramids as tombs for pharaohs Workers cut large blocks of stone far away and rolled them on logs to the Nile, moved on barges, and carved at building site 10. Egyptian Writing Developed hieroglyphics Pictures and symbols stood for ideas orwords Carved into temples and monuments Record words and achievements of pharaohs 11. Greek and Arab Civilizations Open to invaders due to longMediterranean coastline Greeks and Romans Alexander the Great: founded city ofAlexandria, Egypt Became important seaport and trading center Arab armies Invaded; brought Arabic language & Islam Cities became centers of learning, trade, andcraft making 12. European Control 1800s European countries began taking over region 1912 controlled all of North Africa 1922 Egypt gained limited independence British kept military bases & control of the Suez Canaluntil 1956 Region a major battle ground during WWII 1950s Libya, Morocco, & Tunisia each gainedindependence; Algeria in 1962 after bitter war withFrance Modern North Africa After gaining independence, countries have tried to buildstronger ties with Arab countries 13. CultureLanguage & Religion Common aspects of culture Language, religion, foods, holidays, customs, & art and literature People and Language Egyptians, Berbers, & Bedouins (nomadic herders who travelthroughout deserts of Egypt and Southwest Asia) make upnearly all of Egypts population Arab & Berber ancestry Berbers: an ethnic group who are native to North Africa andspeak Berber language French, Italian, & English still spoken in some areas Religion Most are Muslims Pray 5 times a day 6% of Egyptians are Christians 14. Food & Festivals Grains, vegetables, fruits, & nuts arecommon Couscous: made from wheat and lookslike small pellets of pasta; steamed overboiling water or soup; served withvegetables or meat, butter, & olive oil Fuul is a popular dish in Egypt Made from fava beans mashed with olive oil, salt, pepper, garlic, & lemons 15. Holidays Birthday of the prophet of Islam,Muhammad Marked with lights, parades, and special sweets of honey, nuts, & sugar During holy month of Ramadan,Muslims abstain from food and drinkduring the day 16. Art & Literature North Africa is know for its architecture,wood carving, & other crafts Women weave textiles (carpets withgeometric designs and bright colors) Important writers and artists in this region Egyptian poetry and other writings date backthousands of years Naguib Mahfouz: 1st Arab writer to win NoblePrize in literature Also has growing movie industry Popular music based on singing and poetry isenjoyed by North Africans 17. North Africa Today 18. Egypt Most populous of North Africas countries Govt face challenges Most Egyptians are poor farmers Limited resources & few jobs Govt and Society Republic govt Influenced by Islamic law Constitution; elected officials; power shared between president &prime minister Debate over role of Islam in country Some believe laws should be based on Islam law, some fear this would causefewer personal freedoms; some violence has resulted Little clean water and disease are common in larger cities 19. Resources & Economy Few resources Farmland limited to Nile River valley &delta Fertilizer must be used in soil (expensive) Over watering has brought salt to the surface of the soil,which is bad for growing crops Have caused increase in importing of foods Had to import much of its food recently Suez Canal is another sources of income;ships pay a toll to pass through it Economy dependent on: Agriculture, petroleum exports, and tourism 20. Other Countries of North Africa Western Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, &Morocco called Maghreb Arabic for west Mostly covered by Sahara Cities & farmland along the coast 21. Government & Economy Conflict over role of Islam in society Oil, mining, and tourism Oil most important Money from oil pays for schools, health care, other socialprograms, & military equipment Large deposits of natural gas, iron ore, & lead as well Agriculture is important Wheat, other grains, olives, fruits, & nuts Desert climate & poor soil limit farming Food is generally imported 22. The Countries Today Share similar challenges Violence: under dictator ships Trying to strengthen trading relationships w/ U.S. & Europe 23. Algeria Violence between govt & Islamic groupskilled thousands in1990s Today Trying to recover from violence & strengthen economy w/ exports 24. Tunisia More rights granted to women recently Close economic relationships w/ Europe 25. Morocco Only North African country w/ little oil Important producer and exporter offertilizer