Geobiology & Biogeochemistry

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Geobiology & Biogeochemistry. Chapter 11. Biogeochemical Terms. Stromatolites Bacteria Archaea Eukaryota Phosphorus Cycle Sulfur Cycle Carbon Cycle Nitrogen Cycle. Tree of Life. Archaea. Archaea (ancient ones) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Geobiology & BiogeochemistryChapter 111Biogeochemical TermsStromatolitesBacteriaArchaeaEukaryotaPhosphorus CycleSulfur CycleCarbon CycleNitrogen Cycle

Tree of LifeArchaeaArchaea (ancient ones) Archaea, like bacteria, are prokaryote micro-organisms that lack a membrane-bound organelle such as a nucleus.They were discovered in extreme environments and defined on RNA phylogentics.BacteriaBacteria are micro-organisms that lack a membrane-bound nucleus.There are 10 times as many bacterial cells in your body as human cells.Bacteria are ubiquitous in all terrestrial environments from high atmosphere to several km underground EukaryaEukaryotes are organisms with a cytoskeleton and cell nuclei .Eukaryotes include:AnimalsPlantsFungiDiatoms & dinoflagellates

Your Family TreeBased on RNA phylogenetics

Diversity of organismsAge (Ma)02004006008000200400600Cambrianradiation429 MaMassextinction364 MaMass extinctionEnd-Permianmass extinction208 MaMass extinctionEnd-Cretaceousmass extinctionThe end-Cretaceous extinction includedthe demise of dinosaurs.8Stromatolites

Stromatolites

StromatolitesStromatolitesStromatolites are bacterial mats that precipitate calcite from seawater.These carbonates are preserved directly as fossils.Earliest stromatolites are 3.5 GyThese are the earliest true fossils on EarthBiogeochemical CyclesSome biogeochemical cycles may leave distinctive isotopic signatures that permit them to be identified in very ancient rocks.Biogeochemical CyclesPhosphorus P5+ (no oxidation) Sulfur S2-, S6+CarbonC0, C4+ (CO2, CH4)Nitrogen:N3-,N0, N2+, N5+

Reduction means decrease in valence.Oxidation means increase in valence.Reduction / oxidation (redox) reactions provide energy for biology.

THE PHOSPHORUS CYCLETectonic processesuplift rock to the surface.Wind and rain erodephosphorus-richrocks.Plants usephosphorusfrom soil.Animals eatplants.Decomposersreturn phosphorusto soil.Phosphorus leaches from the soil into water.Runoff of phosphate-bearing compounds in fertilizers.Sediment accumulatesto form phosphate-rich sedimentary rocks.Runoff carries sediment to rivers, lakes, and oceans.16Phosphorus Cycle:(your teeth and bones)Ca5(PO4)3(OH) Apatite in rocksH(PO4)- in soilsPhosphorus is essential for plant growth.P is a limiting nutrient in oceansP in runoff causes algal blooms and eutrophication (oxygen depletion in water)

Sulfur CycleS2- (sulfide) to S6+O3S6+O3 + H2O = H2SO4S6+ reduced to S2- Acid mine drainageEutrophication removes SOperates by oxidation/reductionSulfur isotopes fractionatedAncient biological activity may leave isotopic signature.Carbon CyclePhotosynthesis (reduction of atmospheric CO2)CO2 (atmosphere) = C + O2Carbon trapsCH4 (methane)Organic hydrocarbons Wood, Coal, gas, petroleumOcean & biogenic calciteMagnesite (MgCO3)Carbon CyclePhotosynthesis (reduction of atmospheric CO2)CO2 (atmosphere) = C + O2Atmosphere is ~390 ppm CO2We do not know where all the CO2 is going.2/3 of total emission is removed1/3 of total accumulates in atmosphereVery active area of research.

Carbon CycleHow much increase in 50 years?

395-315 = 80 ppm80 / 315 = ~ 25% in 50 years

What are you going to do?

Nitrogen CycleN3-H4+, N20, NO2-, NO3-N2 (atmosphere) NH4+ (ammonia) in soilsNH4+ can also be in mineralsNitrogen isotopes fractionatedAncient biological activity may leave N isotopic signature.14N (99.7%); 15N (0.3%)Sediment accumulatesto form phosphate-rich sedimentary rocks.

27Nitrogen CycleHaber Process (1914)CH4 (methane) + H2O = CO + 3H2N2 + 3H2 = 2 NH3

Sustains about 1/3 human populationCan also be used for explosivesClicker QuestionWhich of the major divisions of life-forms on Earth has membrane-divided organelles and a cytoskeleton?A. BacteriaB. ArchaeaC. EukaryaD. VirusesE. They all doClicker QuestionWhich of the major divisions of life-forms on Earth has membrane-divided organelles and a cytoskeleton?A. BacteriaB. ArchaeaC. EukaryaD. VirusesE. They all doClicker QuestionWhich of the major divisions of life-forms on Earth includes both multi-celled plants and animals?A. BacteriaB. ArchaeaC. EukaryaD. VirusesE. They all doClicker QuestionWhich of the major divisions of life-forms on Earth includes both multi-celled plants and animals?A. BacteriaB. ArchaeaC. EukaryaD. VirusesE. They all doClicker QuestionWhich of the major bio-geochemical cycles (S, C, P, N) does not involve oxidation-reduction.A. SulfurB. CarbonC. NitrogenD. PhosphorusE. They all doClicker QuestionWhich of the major bio-geochemical cycles (S, C, P, N) does not involve oxidation-reduction.A. SulfurB. CarbonC. NitrogenD. PhosphorusE. They all doClicker QuestionThe oldest true fossils on Earth are stromatolites. The oldest of these are about:A. 6000 yearsB. 550 million yearsC. 2000 million yearsD. 3500 million yearsE. 4550 million yearsClicker QuestionThe oldest true fossils on Earth are stromatolites. The oldest of these are about:A. 6000 yearsB. 550 million yearsC. 2000 million yearsD. 3500 million yearsE. 4550 million years

Tree of Life based on phylogenetics(Biochemistry)Biogeochemical TermsStromatolitesBacteriaArchaeaEukaryaPhosphorus CycleSulfur CycleCarbon CycleNitrogen Cycle