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  • GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY IN

    BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE

    A Ciba Foundation Symposium

    Edited by

    RUTH PORTER

    I. & A. CHURCHILL LTD. 104 GLOUCESTER PLACE

    LONDON . . . 1969

  • GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY IN BIOLOGY AND MEDIC1 NE

  • GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY IN BIOLOGY AND MEDIC1 NE

  • GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY IN BIOLOGY AND MEDIC1 NE

  • GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY IN

    BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE

    A Ciba Foundation Symposium

    Edited by

    RUTH PORTER

    I. & A. CHURCHILL LTD. 104 GLOUCESTER PLACE

    LONDON . . . 1969

  • First published 1969

    Containing 67 illustrations

    Standard Book Number 7000 1428 4 (cased) 7000 1442 X (limp)

    0 1. & A. Churchill Ltd. 1969 All rights reserved. No part ofthis publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrievol system, or transmitted, in any form or by any meons, electronic, mechanical, photo- copying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner.

    Printed in Great Britain

  • Contents

    J. P. Payne A. J. P. Martin

    S. R. Lipsky

    Discussion

    J. H. Purnell

    Discussion

    D. W. Hill Discussion

    B. C. H. Warren M. G. Dalzell Discussion

    B. C. H. Warren J. E. Lovelock Discussion

    J. Janik

    Discussion

    H. L. Lowe K. Hagler Discussion

    M. J. Purves

    Discussion

    General discussion

    Introduction

    Chairman’s opening remarks

    Historical background

    Gas chromatography: the anatomy of a scientific revolu- tion Lipsky, Martin, Payne, Purnell, Scott, Sjdvall, Warren

    Design

    The main aim of chromatography: elimination of the column Brooks, Carter, Lipsky, Martin, Payne, Purnell, Scott, Sjllvall

    Detectors for gas chromatography Carter, Hill, Jandk, Lipsky, Martin, Purnell, Scott, Warren

    The effect of water vapour on argon ionization detectors

    Hill, Lipsky, Purnell, Scott, Warren

    The W-value detector: determination of oxygen and anaesthetic vapours in expired air A. Curry, Hill, Lipsky, Lowe, Mitchell, Payne, Purnell, Robin- son, Scott, Warren

    The gas chromatographic column as an analogue for respiratory function in the lung in man Cervenko, Hill, landk, Lipsky, Lowe, Payne, Purnell, Purves, Robinson, Scott, Sjovall

    Biological and medical applications

    Determination of volatile organic anaesthetics in blood, gases, tissues and lipids: partition coefficients Brooks, Cervenko, A. Curry, Geddes, Lipsky, Lowe, Payne, Purnell, Purves, Robinson, Scott

    Measurement of the gas content of blood samples using gas chromatography

    Blackmore, Carter, Gray, Hill, Lipsky, Lowe, Martin, Payne, Purnell, Purves, Robinson, Scott Carter, A. Curry, Gray, Hill, Lipsky, Martin, Purnell, Scott, Sjovall

    I

    2

    I I 16

    21 31

    37 53

    59

    62

    65

    69

    74

    79

    86

    I04

    I I3

    I 20

    I29

    V

  • vi CONTENTS

    A. S. Curry

    D. J. Blackmore

    Discussion

    Recent developments in the use of gas chromatography in forensic toxicology I32

    The use of gas liquid chromatography in aircraft accident toxicology I36 Blackmore, Brooks, A. Curry, S. Curry, Gray, Hil l , Lipsky, Lowe, Martin, Mitchell, Payne, Purnell, Scott, SjBvall, Warren 145

    S. Garattini Gas chromatographic analysis of benrodiazepines* 161 F. Narcucci E. Mussini

    R. P. W. Scott Discussion

    G. B. Marson

    Discussion

    General discussion

    J. P. Payne

    Author Index

    Subject index

    Trends in development

    Gas chromatographic and spectrometric techniques Brooks, Lipsky. Martin, Payne, Purnell, Scott, Warren

    Digital computers and the analysis of chromatographic data Hifl, Lipsky, Lowe, Marson, Martin, Mitchell, Payne, Purnell, Scott Blackmore, Brooks, Carter, A. Curry, S. Curry, Gray, Lipsky, Martin, Mitchell, Payne Purneil, Scott, Sjovall

    Chairman’s closing remarks

    I73 181

    187..

    I92

    I96

    207

    209

    210

    *This paper was not read a t the meeting but contributed for publication after- wards

  • Membership

    Symposium on Gas Chromatography in Biology and Medicine held 5th and 6th February, 1969.

    1. P. Payne (Chairman)

    D. J . Blackmore

    C. J. W. Brooks

    H. V. Carter

    F. W. Cervenko

    A. S. Curry

    S. H. Curry

    I. C. Geddes

    G. M. Gray

    D. W. Hill

    C. Hitchcock

    J. Janik

    G. Levis

    S. R. Lipsky

    H. J. Lowe

    G. B. Marson

    Research Department of Anaesthetics, Royal College of Surgeons of England, London

    RAF Institute of Pathology and Tropical Medicine, Home Office Central Research Establishment, Aldermaston, Berkshire

    Chemistry Department, The University, Glasgow

    Perkin-Elmer Ltd, Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire

    Department of Anaesthesiology, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario

    Home Office Central Research Establishment, Alder- maston, Berkshire

    Department of Pharmacology, The London Hospital Medical College

    Department of Anaesthesia, University of Liverpool

    Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine, University of London

    Research Department of Anaesthetics, Royal College of Surgeons of England, London

    Unilever Research Laboratory, Coleworth House, Sharn- brook, Bedford

    Institute of Instrumental Analytical Chemistry, Czecho- slovak Academy of Sciences, Brno

    Department of Clinical Therapeutics, University of Athens School of Medicine

    Section of Physical Sciences, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut

    Section of Anesthesiology, University of Chicago Medical School, Chicago, Illinois

    Digital Systems Division, Kent Instruments Ltd, Luton, Bedfordshire

    vii

  • ... Vlll

    A. J. P. Martin

    F. L. Mitchell

    J. H. Purnell

    M. J, Purves

    J. S. Robinson

    R. P. W. Scott

    J . Sjovall

    B. C. H. Warren

    MEMBERSHIP

    Abbotsbury, Elstree, Hertfordshire, and Technological University, Eindhoven, Netherlands

    Division of Clinical Chemistry, MRC Clinical Endo- crinology Research Unit, Edinburgh*

    Department of Chemistry, University College, Singleton Park, Swansea, Wales

    Department of Physiology, University of Bristol

    Department of Anaesthetics, University of Birmingham

    Unilever Research Laboratory, Coleworth House, Sharn- brook, Bedford

    Kemiska Institutionen, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm

    Physics Research Division, Chemical Defence Experi- mental Establishment, Porton Down, Wiltshire

    'Present address: Division of Clinical Chemistry, MRC Clinical Research Centre, Harrow, Middlesex.

  • The Ciba Foundation

    The Ciba Foundation was opened in 1949 to promote international cooperation in medical and chemical re- search. It owes its existence to the generosity of CIBA Ltd, Basle, who, recognizing the obstacles to scientific

    communication created by war, man’s natural secretiveness, dis- ciplinary divisions, academic prejudices, distance, and differences of language, decided to set up a philanthropic institution whose aim would be to overcome such barriers. London was chosen as its site for reasons dictated by the special advantages of English charitable trust law (ensuring the independence of its actions), as well as those of language and geography.

    The Foundation’s house at 41 Portland Place, London, has become well known to workers in many fields of science. Every year the Foundation organizes six to ten three-day symposia and three to four shorter study groups, all of which are published in book form. Many other scientific meetings are held, organized either by the Foundation or by other groups in need of a meeting place. Accommodation is also provided for scientists visiting London, whether or not they are attending a meeting in the house.

    The Foundation’s many activities are controlled by a small group of distinguished trustees. Within the general framework of biological science, interpreted in its broadest sense, these activities are well summed up by the motto of the Ciba Foundation: Consocient Gentes-let the peoples come together.

    ix

  • CHAIRMAN’S OPENING REMARKS

    WE owe a debt of thanks to the Ciba Foundation because there are few institutions which allow the lack of formality that is achieved in the type of meeting that this Foundation runs. I know of no other place where a small group can meet so informally and yet, at the same time, get through so much work.

    I am delighted that all the invited members of the group, except, unfor- tunately, Professor Garattini, are here, and we are especially honoured that Professor Martin, who tends to avoid meetings about gas chromatography, has been able to join us. Some of you may feel that we have not chosen the members of this group as wisely as you could have done yourselves. You may be missing your friends. But because the total number of scientists who can be invited to the Ciba Foundation’s conferences is restricted to twenty- five it is possible that had they been here you