FUNCTIONAL DYSPEPSIA H Ali Djumhana
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FUNCTIONALDYSPEPSIA H Ali Djumhana DEFINITION Dyspepsia refers to pain or discomfort centered in the upper abdomen Centered implies that the pain or discomfort is mainly in or around themidline.
Pain inthe right or left hypochondrium is not considered to be representative of dyspepsia Dyspepsia Discomfort may be characterized by or associated with upper abdominal fullness, early satiety, bloating , or nausea These symptoms typically are accompanied by a component of upper abdominal distress Spectrum of Dyspepsia Dyspepsia The painful or uncomfortable symptoms may be intermittent or continuous , and may or may not be related to meals Causes of dyspepsia Those with an identified cause for the symptoms
Those with an identifiable of pathophysiologicalor microbiological abnormalities, however the clinical relevance is uncertain Those with no identifiable explanation for the symptoms FUNCTIONAL DYSPEPSIA FD is a clinical syndrome which is defined by chronic or recurrent upper abdominal symptoms without a cause that is identifiableby conventional diagnosticmeans such as endoscopy, radiology or histology. Diagnostic approach Symptom alone are unable to discriminate organic dyspepsiafrom non organic dyspepsia Patients need to have further examination to rule out relevant organic disease Functional dyspepsia is a diagnosis of exclusion Definition of Functional Dyspepsia (Based 0n Clinical symptoms)
CLASSIFICATION (Based 0n Clinical symptoms) Ulcer like dyspepsia Pain is the predominant symptom Dysmotility like dyspepsia Discomfort is the predominant symptom and accompanied with abdominal fullness , early satiety, bloating, or nausea Unspecified ( non specific) dyspepsia The symptom is not fulfill the criteria for ulcer-like or dysmotility-like3 dyspepsia FUNCTIONAL DYSPEPSIA Dyspepsia is a very common complaint.
In western country: Theprevalence rate of FD :10-40%. The remission rate :10-20% annually The recurrence rate :20-55% PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF FUNCTIONAL DYSPEPSIA
Pathophysiology of FD is poorly understood The symptoms can be associated with Motility abnormality of the stomach Visceral hyperalgesia/hypersensitivity Hp gastritis Psychosocial factor PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF FUNCTIONAL DYSPEPSIA
In such a group of patient the symptoms are associated with abnormal motor function of the stomach: Impairment of gastric accommodation Delayed gastric emptying Antral hypomotility Bradygastria / Tachygastria Intragastric maldistribution of solid and liquid food small bowel dysmotility (Malagelada etal.1985;Camilleri etal.1986;Waldron etal.1991;Hveem etal.1996;Stanghellini etal.1996) Dilated gastric antrum
Disorders of gastric neuromuscular function: myoelectrical and contractile abnormalities Impaired fundic relaxation Abnormal fundic emptying Weak 3 cpm rhythm Gastric dysrhythmias Dilated gastric antrum Antral hypomotility Gastroparesis Small bowel dysmotility DIAGNOSTIC APPROACH Careful history taking and Physical examination
Alcohol, smoking, drugs (NSAID), weight loss, abdml surgery , intractable pain,dysphagia, recurrent vomiting GI bleeding, pallor, jaundice abdominal mass, abdominal scar. Laboratory examination CBC, Liver function test, Renal function test, ECG, Test for Hp X ray examination and USG upper abdomen Endoscopy examination and biopsy EGG, Gastric emptying study, Manometry,24 h pH monitoring Treatment Empirical treatment could be started to the patient with uninvestigated dyspepsia without alarm symptoms. The treatment should be individualize First line treatmentis prokinetic agent or anti secretory drug. However the placebo response is high (20-60%) Some patients should be avoid precipitating food or drink Other patients may be need anti anxiety or anti depressant drugs Uninvestigated vs Investigated Dyspepsia
It is important to distinguish the patient who presents dyspepsia that has not been investigated (uninvestigated dyspepsia ) from patients with diagnostic label after investigation, with either a structural diagnosis ( such as Peptic ulcer or GERD) or Functional dyspepsia Alarm symtoms Weight loss Anaemia Dysphagia Recurrent vomiting
Haematemesis and or maelena Abdominal mass Pharmacologic Treatment for FD
Prokinetic agent Dopaminergic ( Metoclopramid , Domperidone) Serotonergic ( Cisapride, Ondansetron, Granisetron) Anti secretion H2 blockers(Cimetidin,Ranitidin,Nizatidin,Famotidin,Roxatidin) PPI ( Omeprazole,Mesomeprazole,Lansoprazole,Rabeprazole, Pantopprazole) Antacid Cytoprotector agent Sucralfate Rebamipide Trepenon Anti anxiety or Anti depression Thank You