Frauwallner_1956_The Earliest Vinaya and the Beginnings of Buddhist Literature
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THE EARLIEST VINAYA AND THE BEGINNINGS OF BUDDHIST LITERATURE
ISTITUTO ITALIANO PER IL MEDIO ED ESTREMO ORIENTE
SERIE ORIENTALESOTTO LA DIREZIONEDI
M. E. O.
THE EARLIEST VINAYA AND THE BEGINNINGSOF BUDDHIST LITERATURE
M. E. O.
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
Printed in Italy - Stampato in Italia
DEDICATED TO THE MEMORYOF SYLVAIN LEVI
things become cer-
himself to be led astray by exceptions
able to respect problems*
The present workBuddhist Vinayathanpress,it it
outcome of a cursory study of perhaps more problemsit
Jf in spite of this I now send
because I think that the importance of the results
If these results are confirmed,it
shall gain through
them a basis from which
possible to grapple the central problems of the earliest Buddhistliterature
with a greater chance of success than heretofore.to
I have attempted
a solution a funda-
mental problem in the history of the Buddhist Vinaya. The threads issuing from it run in manifold directions; to follow themall
would require many years, andStill,
by other tasks.
I think that several important results
have been secured.through
.The mass of the material has been worked and prepared for further research. Through the
determination of a
belonging to the first half
of the 4th century B. C.the history of the earliest
we have obtained a firm point for Buddhist literature. At the same
time some light has been thrown on the literature of that period. The development of the biography of the Buddha hasbeen clarified in an essential point.Lastly,
we have found
FRAUWALLNERorigin of Buddhist
a starting point for a criticism of thechurch history andthese results willits
shall be glad if
in the field,
meet with the approval of fellow workers all if they will stimulate them to furtherProfessor G. Tucci,
work for his valuable Serie Orientate I wish its early publication possible.forthis,
who accepted Roma and madeto
as well as for the friendly interest
which he has always taken inLastly, Ithis
words about the dedication of I have studied at a university, where Indology
may add some
had been neglected for a long time and was limited to a most narrow circle of subjects. When later I went my own ways and became acquainted with the work of Sylvain Levi
was for me like the revelation of a new world and I received from it a large amount of stimulation. I had no occasion to meet Sylvain Levi personally, but I have This continuously learnt and am still learning from him.his school,it
book tooworks.to his
in a large measure based upon his and his pupils'even if I have gone
ways, yet I owe
stimulating researches more than the references in the
The dedication of this work to his memory means for me, therefore, the payment of a great debtnotes
Bulletin de l'ficole franchise d'Extreme Orient.
= = =
Indian Historical Quarterly.
Journal Asiatique.Zeitschrift der
Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft.
Works frequently quoted:Lamotte,Grande Vertu de Sagesse I-II, Louvain 1944-49. Przyluski, Acoka =* J. Przyluski, La legende de Vempereur Acoka dans lesTraitela
Ex. Lamotte, Le Traite de
de Ndgdrjuna (Bibliotheque der Museon, vol. 18),textes indiens el chinois
(Annales du Musee Guimet,
31), Paris 1923.
Przyluski, Concile = J. Przyluski, Le concile de Rdjagrha, Paris 1926. Przyluski, Le Nord-Ouest de VInde = J, Przyluski, Le Nord-Ouest de VInde dans le Vinaya des Mula-Sarvastivadin el les textes apparentSs, in JAsy
1914, II, pp. 493-568.
Przyluski, Le Parinirvana J. Przyluski, Le Parinirvana du Buddha (Extrait du Journal Asiatique, 1918-1920).
THE EARLIEST VINAYA AND THE BEGINNINGS OF BUDDHIST LITERATURE
- The schools of Buddhism and the missions of Asoka.is
The Vinayaof theearliest
of the highest importance for the studyits
Buddhist literature and
While the Sutrapitaka, with the exception of some fragments, has come down to us in the tradition of only one school (and that a scarcely important one for the generalschools.
we possess the Vinayas of no less than six have here, therefore, our only chance of getting more precise information on the origin and development of the earliest Buddhist literature. I shall thus place at the basis of the following discussion the Vinayadevelopment),
according to the tradition of the various schools, andshallis
be concerned above
with that part of
known by the name Skandhaka (P. Khandhaka). The Vinayas of the following schools are preserved:
vastivadin, Dharmaguptaka, Mahisasaka, the Pali school)
l With this name I indicate the school by which Buddhism was introduced into Ceylon, as well as the schools of Ceylon as far as they directly reproduce the tradition of the home country. For a later period, when in Ceylon a development of its own was started which gradually wielded influence on the home country too, the name Tamraparniya for the Singhalese schools seems to be preferable.
Mulasarvastivadin and Mahasamghika
Vinayas of the Sarvastivadin, Dharmaguptaka, Mahisasaka and Mahasamghika exist in Chinese translations, the Vinavaof the Pali school in the original Pali language, the Vinayaof the Mulasarvastivadin in Chinese and Tibetan transla-
which lately considerable sections of the Sanskrit 2 original have been added \ It has been known for a long time that a close relationship exists between all these works, both in the general outline and in the particulars. They are all of them divided in two parts: the Vibhaiiga^ i.e. the commentary on the ancient confession rules of the Pratimoksa, and the Skandhaka, i.e. the exposition of the Buddhist monastic 3 rides, to which several appendices are usually added \ Taking the Skandhaka first, we can see at once that the agreement of the texts reaches deep into the partiIt is strikingly close with four schools above all: culars. Sarvastivadin, Dharmaguptaka, Mahisasaka and the Pali school. Of course we have to disregard the formal subdivisions appearing in the extant texts. These subdivisions are in contradiction with the inner structure and are palpably late, as is the case e.g. with the Mahdvagga and Cullavagga of the Pali school and the Saptadharmaka and Astadharmaka of the Sarvastivadin. Nor must we allowtions, to1 ) The following abbreviations will be employed for these schools: SarP, MuDh, Mahisasaka M, Pali school vastivadin == S, Dharmaguptaka
Mhs. Ms, Mahasamghika 2 ) Published in Gilgit Manuscripts, vol. Ill, Srinagar 1942. I quote the Pali Vinaya in the edition of H. Oldenberg, London 1879-1883; the first two volumes have appeared also in the series of the Pali Texts Society. TheChinese texts are quoted according to the Taisho edition of the Tripi$akaJ.
Takakusu and K. Watanabe, Tokyo 1924-1929.
The Tibetan bKa'-
'gyur was not accessible to me*3)
the details of the structure of these texts see the Appendix.
THE EARLIEST VINAYAourselves to be led astray
fact that the sequence
of the several sectionstions appear
partly uncertain, that some secin the various schools
sections are joined into one.
consider the contents
these external features, the result
a complete agreement.
shown by thesections
following table, in which the titles
given in Sanskrit according to the tradition of the Mulasarvastivadin, but are listed in the order which appearsto
to have most chances of being the original one;refer to the corresponding sections in the te