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Transcript of Francisco Goya - learning.hccs.edu

Nyshjae Morton, Ihsan Orgun, Tina To, and Patricia Torres
Portrait of Goya by
The Upbringing Childhood: Francisco Goya was born on March 30th, 1746 in Fuendetodos to Jose Benito De
Goya Y Franque and Gracia De Lucientes Y Salvador. They had a large family, and Francisco had
two sisters and 3 brothers.
Goya worked as an apprentice under the painter Jose Luzan at the age of 14, after he and his
family had moved to Zaragoza. He started off imitating major artists for the first tender years then
started working on more challenging skills like the German painter Anton Rapheal Mengs.
Francisco Goya in his teen
years
Geography of Fuendetodos Fuendetodos was located in the Aragonese Comara of Campo de Belchite 44 km to the south of
Zaragoza. The town has always had a small population; as recently as 2011 it was 178, and
decreased to 144 in 2015. You can infer that everyone knew everyone in such a small town. The
town also has deep gorges that are covered into hard limestone of the Jurassic era which harbors a
flora given a dry environment including forests of hackberry, Montpellier maple, and Turpentine
trees.
Intimate Life In 1773 Goya married the sister of his art teacher Bayeu, Josefa Bayeu Y Subias, who he
nicknamed “Pepa”. Sadly she passed away in 1812. They had seven children together, but only one
survived to adulthood, Francisco Javier de Goya y Bayeu, who was born on December 2, 1984.
The son Francisco
The wife
Josefa Bayeu
Y Subias
Personal Life- Children During their marriage, Francisco Goya and Josefa Bayeu had
seven children including, Antonio Juan Ramon, Eusebio
Ramon, Vicente Anastasio, Maria Pilar Dionisia, Francisco de
Paula, Hermenegilda and Francisco Javier. Unfortunately, all
of his children, except for one, died either at birth or at a
young age. Javier was the only one of the seven children to
survive until adulthood, becoming the heir to Goya. Francisco
was said to have been a very proud father as he has once
stated that many people would stop in the streets of Madrid
to admire his son. When Javier fell ill, Goya wrote that he had
“stopped living for that whole period”.
Francisco Javier Goya y
Bayeu -1805
Education: Francisco studied in Zaragoza, Spain with Jose Luzan y Martinez, and in Madrid with the court
painter Francisco Bayeu.
His biggest influences were Giovanni Battista Tiepolo and Diego Velazquez.
He also acknowledged three masters: Velazquez, Rembrandt van Rijn and nature.
Spanish artist Diego
Velazquez and Dutch
artist Rembrandt van
three masters.
Personal Life- Early Career In 1771, Goya returned to Zaragoza to work
with brothers and painters, Francisco and
Ramon Bayeu y Subias, after winning the
second prize at an art competition in Rome.
While studying under the brothers in the
earlier years of his career, he became close
friends with them along with their sister,
Josefa Bayeu y Subias, who he later married in
1773.
1792
Personal Life- Court Painter Around 1765, Goya gained the attention of spanish monarchs
while working as a painter of designs for the Royal Tapestry
Factory. This attraction to his talents soon led him to the
doors of the royal court. Goya continued to grow his
connections with important people in the kingdom, including
the Count of Floridablanca, the Duke and Duchess of Osuna,
and the Crown Prince Don Luis. By 1789, he became court
painter to Charles IV and at the peak of his popularity within
the spanish court, he became friends with more influential
people including the Prime Minister, Manuel de Godoy, who
he was commissioned by several times.
“The Nude Maja” (1797-1800)
and notorious paintings was a personal
commision for Manuel de Godoy.
Francisco Goya’s Career: Pre-1793 Royal Court Painter
At the height of his life, Francisco de Goya
was a royal painter for the Spanish court
and royalty.
nobles to paint both family portraits and
single portraits.
became sought after by King Charles III.
Francisco Goya’s Career: Falling Ill & Deafness
Goya became very ill in 1793 and, as a
result, completely lost his sense of hearing.
This had a huge impact on his art; from
this point onwards, Goya’s artwork had
darker connotations.
in 1801, in which he greatly embellished
unflattering features of some of the family
members.
As Goya grew older, his art drastically
changed. His discontent with Europe’s
handling of Napoleon made him a vocal
critic of Spanish royalty.
Some of his most popular works were
politically charged.
Francisco Goya made several paintings
with dark and horrifying themes.
He painted many of these pieces in
private, never intending on revealing them
publicly.
artist ahead of his time.
The Royal Tapestry Factory Early in his career, after initially losing competitions at the Royal
Academy in Madrid, Goya found his first loyal audience at The Royal
Tapestry Factory in Santa Barbara where he designed their principal
tapestry series beginning in 1775.
The factory was founded in 1720 and still operates today as a living
museum where fans today can take a guided tour for 5 euro and see
some of the textiles created by Goya on premises during his tenure
there.
http://www.realfabricadetapices.com/
Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando
Today, along with several other great artists, 13 of Goya’s paintings are
housed in the Academy’s permanent collection, including two self-portraits,
the ‘Corrida de Toros’ (Bullfight), the portraits of ‘Moratin Juan de
Villanueva’, the actress ‘La Tirana’, and a scene from Carnival referred to as
the ‘Entierro de la Sardina’ (Burial of the Sardine).
Fans today can tour the Museum of the Royal Academy for 8 euro.
http://www.realacademiabellasartessanfernando.com
The San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts was founded for painting, sculpture and architecture in
1726. Goya was as member from 1780 and his work was so well liked and respected here, he was appointed
as Deputy Director of Painting.
Followers, Supporters, & Fans cont’d...
Fernandez who commissioned Goya on more than one occasion. This
image of ‘La Tirana’, an oil on canvas in the romantic style, can be
viewed at aforementioned Royal Academy in Madrid. It is the first of
two portraits Goya made of the actress. The name stems from the
nickname of her actor husband which was “el Tirano”.
This particular portrait was originally dated as 1799, but has been
re-dated by Goya scholars as 1790-1792.
Followers, Supporters, & Fans cont’d... Throughout his career, Goya’s most loyal supporters were primarily
royalty, who appointed him as Court Painter and then Principal Court
Painter, and liberal aristocrats who commissioned his work for
portraits.
With a little digging, you will find stories of people who appreciated
Goya’s work so much, it was a little too much, and his works have
been taken by theft on multiple occasions. One story in particular is
about a commissioned portrait of the Duke of Wellington. This oil
painting passed from the Duke of Wellington on to the sister-in-law of
his older brother, Louisa Catherine Caton, before being passed on to
John Osborne, 11th Duke of Leeds. After Osborne it went to auction in
1961, an art collector bid 140k pounds, but was beat out by the
Wolfson Foundation who had to use a special government grant to
best the art collector. Afterward, the painting was displayed at the
National Gallery in London for only 19 days before being stolen! The
painting was returned 4 years later, but this particular theft was such
big news, it still became a part of pop culture when its image was
displayed in a villain’s lair in a 1962 James Bond film.
Followers, Supporters, & Fans cont’d...
His art and style: More quotes Summary of Francisco Goya Goya occupies a unique position within the history of Western art, and is often cited as
both an Old Master and the first truly modern artist. His art embodies Romanticism emphasis on subjectivity, imagination, and
emotion, characteristics reflected most notably in his prints and later private paintings. At the same time, Goya was an astute
observer of the world around him, and his art responded directly to the tumultuous events of his day, from the liberations of the
Enlightenment, to the suppressions of the Inquisition, to the horrors of war following the Napoleonic invasion. Both for its
inventiveness and its political engagement, Goya's art had an enormous impact on later modern artists. His unflinching scenes
from the Peninsular War presaged the works of Pablo Picasso in the 20th century, while his exploration of bizarre and dreamlike
subjects in the Caprichos laid the foundation for Surrealists like Salvador Dalí. Goya's influence extends to the 21st century, as
contemporary artists have also drawn inspiration from the artist's grotesque imagery and searing social commentary.
Bad Night 1799
Style: Romanticism Year:1975
Media: brush, paper
His art and style: From 1775 to 1792 Goya painted cartoons (designs) for the royal
tapestry factory in Madrid. This was the most important period in
his artistic development. As a tapestry designer, Goya did his first
genre paintings, or scenes from everyday life. The experience
helped him become a keen observer of human behavior. He was
also influenced by neoclassicism, which was gaining favor over the
rococo style. Finally, his study of the works of Velazquez in the
royal collection resulted in a looser, more spontaneous painting
technique. At the same time, Goya achieved his first popular
success. He became established as a portrait painter to the Spanish
aristocracy. He was elected to the Royal Academy of San Fernando
in 1780, named painter to the king in 1786, and made a court
painter in 1789.
Some of Goya’s Famous Artworks...
The Quail Shoot 1775 The Parasol 1777 Crucified Christ 1780
Style: Romanticism
Genre: Painting
Style: Romanticism
Style: Romanticism
Dimensions: 255 x 154 cm
Francisco Goya’s Style
Goya's stylistic development was not a conventional one. He excelled in the late Baroque and
Rococo styles in his youth, but he never fully incorporated the influence of Neo-Classicism which
was predominant in Spain and Europe in the final decades of the18th century and the beginning
of the 19th. Goya was an artist ahead of his time, who created works full of personality, both in
painting and in engraving without ever conforming to the conventional. In effect, he predicted the
predominant movements of the 19th and 20th century. Romanticism, Impressionism,
Expressionism and Surrealism were the principal movements to be influenced by his work.
Francisco Goya’s Style In His Art Works
The Annunciation Boys With Mastiff Don Manuel Osorio
1785 1786 1787
Style: Romanticism
Genre: portrait
Style: Romanticism
Genre: portrait
(Met),, NY
Dimensions: 127 x 101.6 cm
Francisco Goya- Is he a printmaker or painter? Beginning in about 1808 Goya painted a significant number of genre scenes, and dealt with
similar subjects in many drawings about the period 1810 to 1823. In 1814 Goya commemorated the
heroism of Spaniards who had fought against the French invaders in two large paintings.
Attempting to regain royal favor, he did six portraits of Ferdinand VII, between 1814 and 1815.
Ferdinand restored Goya's salary, which had been discontinued during the Napoleonic
occupation, but he did not give the artist any commissions. In 1816 Goya published Tauromaquia,
a series of thirty-three prints illustrating the historical development of bullfighting and the feats of
famous contemporary bullfighters. He created, from 1815 to 1824, the Disparates, a series of
etchings related in mood to the Caprichos but larger in scale and more difficult to interpret;
eighteen of the twenty-two plates in this series were published for the first time in 1864.
Francisco Goya’s Paintings
Goya y Lucientes (1808-1812).
The Clothed Maja, 1798-1805
75 in)
Location:Museo del Prado, Madrid
Personal Life- Last Years His career slowly came to a halt as he contracted an unknown illness
in 1792 and became completely deaf in 1794. Goya grew resentful and
melancholic due to his deafness and began to isolate himself more
and more from society. During his later years of life, he moved to a
farm on the outskirts of Madrid, where he began to live in isolation.
While living there, he completed a series of paintings plastered on the
walls of his home, that are now called the Black Paintings. In 1824,
Goya moved to Bordeaux to escape the oppressive ruling of
Ferdinand VII. He spent the last years of his life in exile with his maid
and companion, Leocadia Weiss, and her daughter, Rosario Weiss, in
France until his death in 1828.
“La Leocadia”
(1819-1823)
Legacy Today, Spain’s main national film award is called the Goya Award. They are commonly referred to
as Spain’s Oscars. Francisco Goya is also seen as an ‘Old Master’ and is believed by many to be the
first modern artist and earned the title, “the Father of Modern Art”. Some of Goya’s work can be
seen on display around the world in places like the Royal Academy of Arts in San Fernando
mentioned earlier in our presentation, at the Prado Museum in Madrid, the Royal Tapestry
Factory in Santa Barbara (also mentioned earlier) and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New
York.
brown bust of Francisco
Goya created by sculptor
Jose Luis Fernandez
Contributions As one of the greatest printmakers of all time, Goya’s four main contributions came from his
achievements in etching and aquatinting the print portfolios called the Caprichos, Disparates,
Tauromaquia, and The Disasters of War. Fourteen of Goya’s late paintings called the “Black
Paintings” could also be seen as a contributions of Goya to the art of the Expressionist and
Surrealist in the 20th century because of their images of violence, despair, evil, and suffering.
Los Caprichos
1797 - 1798
Los Disparates
1815 - 1823
La Tauromaquia
la guerra
1810 - 1820
Impacts on Art Goya had numerous impacts on other forms of art as well. The portrayal of his time in his
work marked the beginning of the 19th-century realism movement and he is said to be the
most successful artist to combine art with politics. His impact reaches to poetry with poet
Andrei Voznesensky’s Goya-inspired poem, ‘I Am Goya’. Included is a video that provides
context on the impact of some of his more disturbing paintings. Click here
Delacroix, Edouard Manet, Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dali, and Jake and Dinos Chapman. He was
also believed to influence the movement or ideas of realism, impressionism, expressionism,
surrealism, romanticism, and conceptual art to some extent. His influence extends to the 21st
century as artists have drawn inspiration from some of Goya’s more grotesque imagery.
Jake and Dinos Chapman, 21st century artists continuing to take inspiration from Goya
Eugene Delacroix
Pablo Picasso
Three Questions to be included in next test/Exam 1.What are Spain’s annual film awards, the Goya Awards, commonly referred as?
2.When was Francisco Goya elected to the San Fernando Royal Academy?