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    NUCLEAR FUEL QUALITY MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK VOLUME I 2010

    Nuclear Fuel Quality Management

    Handbook

    Volume I: Fabrication, Operation,Disposal and Transport of Nuclear Fuel

    Authors

    Karl BaurStochastikon GmbH, Wrzburg, Germany

    Elart von CollaniStochastikon GmbH, Wrzburg, Germany

    Technical Editor

    Peter RudlingANT International, Skultuna, Sweden

    cMarch 2010Advanced Nuclear Technology International

    Krongjutarvgen 2C, SE-730 50 SkultunaSweden

    info@antinternational.comwww.antinternational.com

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    NUCLEAR FUEL QUALITY MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK VOLUME I 2010

    Disclaimer

    The information presented in this report has been compiled and analysed by Advanced

    Nuclear Technology International Europe AB ANT International c and its subcontractors.

    ANT International has exercised due diligence in this work, but does not warrant the

    accuracy or completeness of the information. ANT International does not assume any

    responsibility for any consequences as a result of the use of the information for any party,

    except a warranty for reasonable technical skill, which is limited to the amount paid for this

    assignment by each FQMH customer.

    Copyright cAdvanced Nuclear Technology International Europe AB, ANT International, 2010

    II

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    NUCLEAR FUEL QUALITY MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK VOLUME I 2010

    Contents

    Preface XI

    Acknowledgements XV

    I A Birds-Eye View on Nuclear Technology 1

    1 The Dawn of Nuclear Energy 3

    1.1 From Nuclear Threat to Nuclear Opportunity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.2 Quality Management of Nuclear Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.3 The Nuclear Fuel Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

    1.3.1 Mining and Milling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101.3.2 Conversion and Enrichment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101.3.3 Producing Electric Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121.3.4 Fuel Fabrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121.3.5 Waste Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

    2 Energy Source 15

    2.1 The Significance of Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152.2 Generations of Nuclear Reactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

    2.2.1 First Generation Reactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162.2.2 Second Generation Reactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172.2.3 Third Generation Reactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182.2.4 Fourth Generation Reactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

    3 International Networking 21

    3.1 The Role of International Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213.2 Comprehensive Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

    3.2.1 State Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213.2.2 Industrial Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233.2.3 Public Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243.2.4 Scientific Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243.2.5 Individual Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

    3.3 Selected Organisations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263.3.1 The International Atomic Energy Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263.3.2 EURATOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283.3.3 The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293.3.4 The International Commission on Radiological Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293.3.5 The Nuclear Energy Institute (USA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303.3.6 The Electric Power Research Institute (USA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303.3.7 The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (USA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

    II Technical and Physical Fundamentals 33

    4 Materials 354.1 Introduction to Material Science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

    4.1.1 The International Systems of Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

    Copyright cAdvanced Nuclear Technology International Europe AB, ANT International, 2010.

    III

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    4.1.2 Measurement Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384.1.3 Key Values in Material Science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

    4.2 Properties of Solid Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404.2.1 Crystallographic Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404.2.2 Ceramic Crystallographic Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444.2.3 Microstructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454.2.4 Crystallographic Defects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454.2.5 Alloying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464.2.6 Elasticity, Plasticity and Fracture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474.2.7 Phase Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534.2.8 Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

    4.3 Fissile Materials as Energy Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614.3.1 Uranium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 624.3.2 Plutonium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

    4.4 Materials for Nuclear Fuel Assemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 684.4.1 Zirconium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 684.4.2 Zirconium Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 724.4.3 Iron and Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

    4.4.4 Superalloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 794.4.5 Crystal Structures of Superalloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

    4.5 Nuclear Fuel Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 834.5.1 Material Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 834.5.2 Uranium Dioxide UO2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 834.5.3 Plutonium DioxidePuO2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 864.5.4 Other Types of Nuclear Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

    4.6 Coolants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 884.6.1 Water as Coolant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 894.6.2 Gas as Coolant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 894.6.3 Sodium as Coolant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

    4.7 Materials for Neutron Absorber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

    4.7.1 GadolinumGd