four noble truths & 8fold path

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Transcript of four noble truths & 8fold path

  • 1. Class 6

2. ompare with the Triratna in Jainism1.he Buddha2.he Dharma or his Teaching3.he Sagha or Community 3. 66-486 BCE traditional date) . 480-c. 400 BCE 3 4. on of a kingatriya, son of a kingaw sickness, old age, death, then an asceticeft home at 29, leaving wife and newborn sonought liberation for 6 years (2 meditation teachers then extreme asceticism like Mahvra) 5. Buddha Examples: The Historical Buddha, Siddhrtha Gautama, later kyamuni Dipakara Achieve Awakening through own efforts (caveats), teach Fully and Completely Awakened One (samyak-sambuddha / samm-sambuddha)Arhat (arahant) / rvaka-buddha / svaka-buddha Accomplished One (or Hearer) One Who Awakened as a Disciple; need the Dharma of a Buddha Ex. The Buddhas immediate disciples, Sariputra, Maudgalyana, Anandapratyeka-buddha/ pacceka-buddha Solitary Buddha Achieves Enlightenment through own efforts but do not teach Possibly an attempt to integrate other religious figures or traditions into Buddhism5 6. Turning the Wheel of the Teaching' First Sermon No narrative in the version in EB ther versions such as the Turning the Wheel of Dharma from Lalitavistara Narratively rich Assumption texts become more detailed 7. ho to teach the Dharma to? wo previous teachers are dead eets another mendicant Remarks on the appearance of the Buddha Questions the Buddha then dismissively leaves him 8. ive ascetics Deer Park at Sarnath Dismiss him at first b/c he abandoned austerities Kauinya does not agree; he becomes an Arhat first Involuntarily prepare a seat for him based on his majesty Automatically they become monks instantaneously Prepare a bath for himives the Dharmacakrapravartana Stra Miraculous signs manifest earthquakes, devas attend 9. t Sarnath (Benares) with the five ascetics that the Buddha previously practiced extreme austerities with hree Topics: The Middle Way The Four Noble Truths 10. esult: One of the five ascetics, (Skt. Kauinya, Pali Kondaa), achieved Awakening and becomes a Worthy One or One Who Has Awakened As a Disciple (Skt. arhat, Pali arahant) 11. WORLDLY SENSUAL PLEASURESPAINFUL SELF-MORTIFICATION 12. Four Noble Truths 1.The Nature of Suffering (Dukkha)2.Suffering's Origin (Samudaya)3.Suffering's Cessation (Nirodha)4.The Way (Marga) Leading to the Cessation of Suffering 13. Now, monks, what is the Noble Truth of suffering? Just this: Birth is suffering, old age is suffering, sickness is suffering, death is suffering. Involvement with what is unpleasant is suffering. Also, not getting what one wants and strives for is suffering. And form feeling perception karmic constituents are suffering 14. . The suffering of suffering (dukkha-dukkha) the obvioussufferings of pain, illness, old age, death, bereavement . The suffering of alternation or change (viparinamadukkha) - the less obvious suffering caused by change (things are impermanent (Skt. anitya, Pali anicca)): hy is this painful? . violated expectations . the failure of happy moments to last 15. And what is the [second] Noble Truth of the origination of suffering? It is the thirst for further existence, which comes along with pleasure and passion and brings passing enjoyment here and there.raving Skt. t, Pali tah; literally thirst 16. 1. Sensual pleasures impermanent, fleetingI. Tendency to increase II. Never satisfied or content with what it has III. Always looking for new objects to satisfy itself 2. Craving for becoming for fame or even immortality; belief in an eternal soul 3.Craving for extermination become depressed and long not to exist, wishing I had never been born or that death will be the final end 17. elusion or ignorance (moha, avidy/avijj) boar islike or hatred (dvea/dosa) snake esire or greed (rga, lobha) roosterDDD 18. Sufferingis caused by karma and the kleas (fire or poisons but better mental afflications or negative mental states) Karma is actually intention (cetan) and its imprints Ignorance lies at the root of desire and dislike Ignorance is without beginning and the cause of the other two mental afflictions 19. esire, hatred, and delusion: these combine and interact and manifest in different ways and result in dukkha ath to nirvana is by Cultivating their opposites: Desire or greed --- Generosity Dislike or hatred --- Friendliness or Lovingkindness Delusion or ignorance --- Wisdom 20. nd what is the [third] Noble Truth of the cessation of suffering? It is this: the destruction without remainder of this very thirst for further existence, which comes along with pleasure and passion, bringing enjoyment here and there. It is without passion. It is cessation, forsaking, abandoning, renunciation. 21. And what is the Noble Truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering? Just this: the Eightfold Noble Path, consisting of right views, right intention, right effort, right action, right livelihood, right speech, right mindfulness, right meditation. 22. ased on the Maha-satipatthana Sutta The Great Frames of Referenceisdom (Skt: praj, Pli: pa) . Right view . Right intention thical Conduct (Skt: la, Pli: sla) . Right speech . Right action 23. eeing the Four Noble Truths oral law of karma he three characteristics or marks (lakshanas) of existence or of all phenomena 1. Impermanent (anitya) 2. Suffering (duhkha) 3. No-Self (anatman) 24. And what is right resolve? Being resolved on renunciation, on freedom from ill will, on harmlessness: This is called right resolve. 25. efraining from false speech efraining from divisive speech efraining from hurtful speech efraining from idle chatter or gossip 26. efraining from harming living beings efraining from taking what is not given efraining from sexual misconduct 27. ot based on wrong speech and action usiness in weapons usiness in human beings (slavery and prostitution) 28. . To refrain from destroying living beings. . To refrain from stealing. . To refrain from sexual misconduct (adultery, rape, etc.). 29. acrifice redefined by Buddhistsniversalist ethics ones worth and character is determined by ones actions, not ones vara (compare with The Place of the Brahmin in Tradition 41-43)uddhism doesnt reject the class system for lay people, but monks and nuns have the same status (classless, 30. Bloodless Sacrifice he Buddha displays knowledge of one of his previous births were he advised a king to attend to his kingdom and offer aid to his subjects to reduce crime bloodless sacrifice was conducted with ghee (clarified butter), oil, butter, curds, honey, and molasses, instead of bulls, goats, sheep, chickens, pigs 31. Wherever regular family gifts are given to virtuous ascetics, these constitute a sacrifice more fruitful and profitable than that.If anyone provides shelter for the Sanghaif anyone with a pure heart goes for refuge to the Buddha, the Dhamma and Sanghaif anyone with a pure heart undertakes the precepts (five)A disciple goes forth and practices the moralities and becomes an arahant 32. he Buddha redefines what an outcaste or untouchable is based on behavior ote the following verses: (emphasizes nonviolence) 5 (generosity to religious mendicants) 33. ne does not become an outcaste by birth, one does not become a brahmin by birth. It is by deed that one becomes and outcaste, it is by deed that one becomes a brahmin.Oesult: the Brahmin Aggika-Brradvja becomes a layperson, taking refuge in the Buddha, his Dhamma, and his Sangha 34. accna (Katyyana, the foremost in explaining Dharma among the Buddhas monks)It is just a saying in the world noble = katriya, brahmin = brahmin, merchant = vaiya, worker = draeputation depends on behavior 35. edefines what a brhmaa (brahmin) is by behavior, not birth (verse 396) scetics come under criticism as well (see verse 393-394) 36. undertake to abstain from eating at the wrong time (the right time is eating once, after sunrise, before noon). undertake to abstain from singing, dancing, playing music, attending entertainment performances, wearing perfume, and using cosmetics and garlands (decorative accessories). 37. efrain from taking food at inappropriate times (after noon). efrain from singing, dancing, playing music or attending entertainment programs (performances). efrain from wearing perfume, cosmetics and garland (decorative accessories). efrain from sitting on high chairs and sleeping on 38. onsists of effort to prevent the arising of unwholesome mental states (greed, hatred, delusion) To prevent unarisen unwholesome states To abandon arisen unwholesome states ffort to arouse non-attachment, loving kindness, and wisdom To arouse unarisen wholesome states To develop arisen wholesome states 39. ontemplation of the body ontemplation of feeling ontemplation of mind ontemplation of dharmas 40. ractice of the four dhyanas/jhanas Meditations . One-pointedness . Beyond thought 41. he Four Noble Truths can be compared to a medical diagnosis ruth of dukkha is like a disease ruth of the origin of the cause is like its cause he truth of the cession of dukkha is like the disease being cured