Foundation by Dhananjaya.s

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FOUNDATIONBy Dhananjaya.s CONTENTIntroduction.Types.Conclusion.Reference.

INTRODUCTIONIt is the main components of the building.It is the lowest part of the building.It is the structure ,that transmits the load of the building to the under laying soil.It is that part of the building which supports the super structure directly over it.

TYPES OF FOUNDATIONFoundation may be broadly classified under two categories:Shallow foundation.Deep foundation.Shallow foundationA foundation is said to shallow when depth of the foundation is equal to or less than its width

Types of shallow foundationSpread footing.Combined footing.Mat or raft footing.Grillage foundation.Strap footing or cantilever footing.Stepped foundation. 1. Spread footingThe spread footing is generally constructed to support an individual column. The spread footing may be circular, square or rectangular slab of uniform thickness

2. Combined footingA common footing provided for two or more columns

3.Mat or raft foundationIt is the foundation that covers the entire area under the structure

4. Grillage foundationIt is the foundation used in those places where the load of the structure is heavy and the bearing capacity of soil is comparatively poor

5. Strap footingIt is the footing consists of two or more individual footing connected by a beam

6. Stepped foundationA widening at the bottom of a wall consisting of a series of steps in the proportion of one horizontal to two vertical units.

Deep foundationIf the depth of foundation is greater than its width it is termed as deep foundation.

Types of deep foundationPile foundation.Caisson foundation.

Pile foundationPile foundation may defined as a column support type of foundation

Types of pilesBearing piles.Friction piles.Sheet piles.Fender piles.Anchor piles.

16Bearing pilesBearing piles are those which are driven into ground until the hard stratum is reached.

Friction pilesThese are the piles which bear the load of the structure by its skin friction developing by soil and the surrounding soil.

Sheet pilesThese piles are generally used for making deep coffer dam ,deep excavations.

Fender pilesThese are usually made from timber to protect the berthing ships from damage.

Anchor pilesThese are the piles which provide anchorage against horizontal pulls and thrusts.

Caisson foundationIt is the foundation used for the construction of bridge piers in very deep water.

Types of caisson foundation Open caisson.Box caisson.Pneumatic caisson.Open caisson It is the caisson where its top and bottom ends are open and the central space filled with sand

Pneumatic caisson In this type of caisson closed at the top and open at the bottom.

Box caisson These are used in constructing bridge foundation under water where little excavation is required.

CONCLUSIONSAfter discussing the above topic what we suggest is by considering a safe bearing capacity and condition of a site we have decide the type of foundation.More over the deep foundation is suitable for structures.REFERENCEConstruction technology.- H.S