Fostering autonomy

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EDU 146, CCC, fa2014, Chapter 7, Child Guidance, Katz, cdb

Transcript of Fostering autonomy

  • 1. Fostering Autonomy: Wonder,Confidence, and MotivationChapter 7 in Guiding Childrens Social and Emotional Development: AReflective Approach; Katz, Janice Englander; 2014

2. Autonomy Autonomy = independence; ability to think for herself and governher own decisions and direction (Katz, 2014) Remember: not all cultures value independence in the same ways. 3 main components of autonomy Wonder Confidence Motivation 3. Theory in Practice Consider Eriksons Psychosocial Stages on p. 122 in your text Note the Outcomes. Thats what we want to happen if each stage isresolved well. If the stages are not resolved in healthy , respectful,supportive, and challenging ways a child is more likely to have socialand emotional problems along the way and even into adulthood,according to Eriksons theory. 4. 3 Components of Autonomy Wonder curiosity mixed with amazement! Confidence ones belief in his/her abilities and influence Does a child believe he is capable of accomplishing a task? Does he recognize that effort contributes to his success? Or, is he fatalistic? In other words, does he believe stuff happens and there islittle in his control that can change it?Im a Great Believer in Luck. The Harder I Work, the More Luck I Have(While this is often attributed to Thomas Jefferson, there is no evidence thatthis quote is from him. Good quote, nonetheless) 5. 3 Components of Autonomy (cont.) Remember Not in Praise of Praise and similar articles and video clipsfrom an earlier module? Look carefully at the bottom of p. 124 in yourtext. Consider the research! Rather than telling a child You are so smart!,encourage the child and his efforts. Help him build that intrinsicmotivation! Be specific in offering praise: How did you manage to balanceall of those pieces to build that awesome tower? Caveat: Children with challenging behaviors (often your children withspecial needs) may need extrinsic motivation as they learn new behaviorskills. The challenge is to know when to wean children off of extrinsicmotivators. People are rarely satisfied over the long term with extrinsicmotivators. 6. Trophies for Everyone Carefully read the bottom of p. 125 to the next section on p. 126. Youwill have a Discussion Board on that section Were All The Best Allof the time!!!! 7. What Happens to Wonder, Confidence, andMotivation? Do we encourage curiosity and wonder or do we hamper childrensinterests? Are we still full of wonder, too, or do we squash childrens excitementand wonder? Do we encourage kids to complete exciting projects or are we alwaystelling them its time to clean up and, no, they cant keep it out tofinish it tomorrow? Do we encourage creativity or expect everyone to completeworksheets and get the right answers? 8. Bruce Perrys PathExplorationandDiscoveryMastery ofNew SkillsConfidenceMoreCuriosityMoreExplorationCuriosityIncreased Autonomy 9. Contributions to Good Self-Concept and Self-Esteem New skills and increased confidence Ability to self-direct and self govern Confidence to work hard, take healthy risks and tackle challenges Confidence to try, fail, rethink, and try again while problem solving and striving to reachgoals All of these are indicators of self-confidence and a positive self-esteem Note: those suggestions do not include meaningless praise, extrinsic motivators, orgetting all the answers right! We must allow our children to face and accept challenges.We do them no favors if we work too hard to make life easier for them or expect them tofollow our carefully orchestrated script! Of course, all of this needs to be done based onour knowledge of child development. A healthy dose of the familiar with new challengeshelp our children grow and learn in healthy, respectful, and supportive environments(NAEYC Key Element 1c) 10. Other Benefits Cognitive flexibility Success in the workplace begins in the early childhood years Positive relationships Even today, employers tell us at CCC that they want employees whocan problem solve and are team oriented. They say they can trainemployees to do needed tasks, but it is the soft skills associated withautonomy make the best employees. 11. Causes of Variations in Skill Levels Temperament set by nature, influenced by experiences Reactions to new situations who is uninhibited and who needs prompting? Ability to adapt Who adjusts to change easily and who lacks flexibility? Ability to persist Who can follow through to achieve results and who fails to finish? Attachment and relationships Secure attachments or failure to bond? may be the result of family dynamicsand/or exceptionalities Social referencing a typical behavior in young children with healthy and secureattachments. As they wander away to explore new experiences, they will look backor come back for approval before continuing on. Responding to a babys cry helps develop secure attachments and does not spoil ababy! As a baby gets older, she is developmentally ready to begin comforting herselfand should be given the opportunity to do so. 12. Safety and Security or Crushing AutonomySkills? Childproofing or Ill teach them what they cant touch A safe area for gross motor development or Dont climb (jump, run)because you might get hurt Multiple items and/or lessons in taking turns or If you cant share, we willjust put the toy away Places for long-term projects to continue or We have to put everythingaway because center time is over What an interesting idea for ____. What made you think of that? orStay in your center and do not get items from one center and take them toanother. Read the vignettes on pp. 130 and 131 in your text. Tilly certainly is a goodlittle girl, huh? 13. Reflections Consider the paragraph that begins on p. 132 in your text with Whatare you passionate about? (Katz, 2014) Unfortunately, many of us have had our curiosity and wonderdiscouraged and squashed. Consider the Looking in the Mirror. . .questions on pp. 132 and 133. How can we regain some of ourwonder, confidence, and motivation so we can model and share withthe children in our care? How do we balance Developmentally Appropriate Practice with thecurrent academic school climate that focuses on math and readingand testing? If a child cant learn the way we teach, maybe we should teach theway they learn. Michael J. Fox 14. What to Do! Know each and every child as individuals. Provide interesting, creative (not cookie cutter!) activities andopportunities based on their interests Find ways to understand childrens behaviors to help them learn to findfulfillment in more appropriate ways (rather than always reacting withpunishment) Know child development so that materials and activities that are providedare safe and developmentally appropriate for the age and development Allow children to get messy in positive ways but utilize naturalconsequences Provide choices on developmentally appropriate levels 15. More Vignettes! Read the vignettes on pp. 136 and 137 in your text How often do we limit the number of children in a center? According to ECERS (Harms, Clifford, and Cryer, 2005) and Item 35. FreePlay, children should have free play that occurs for a substantial portion ofthe day both indoors and outdoors in 5.1. In Notes for Clarification forItem 35 in general, it says Child is permitted to select materials andcompanions, and as far as possible manage play independently. . .Situations in which children are assigned to centers by staff or staff selectthe materials that individual children may use do not count as free play. And, in Notes for Clarification 3.1 . . .The number of centers may belimited as long as the children may choose where, with what, and withwhom they play. . . 16. What to Do! (cont.) Notice how the opportunities provided in the vignettes allowedchildren to work through the following process:ChoiceResultingProblemsProblem-solving Provide long-term projects that require multiple steps to complete. Mental model your own thought processes related to skills ofautonomy Provide child-centered experiences rather than teacher-centeredclasses Practice, practice, practice! This does not happen automatically!!! 17. References Harms, T. (2005). Early childhood environment rating scale: Revisededition (Rev. ed.). New York: Teachers College Press. Katz, J. (2014). Guiding children's social and emotional development:A reflective approach. Boston: Pearson. Perry, Bruce D (2001, March 1). Curiosity: The Fuel of Development.Retrieved October 15, 2014, from Scholastic:http://teacher.scholastic.com/professional/bruceperry/curiosity.htm