Formative Phase Report

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FORMATIVE PHASECultural Developments ca. 50,000-500 B.C.

>2 major industries were involved: a. Stone-Tool Making b. Ceramic Manufacturing

pebble/cobble tools >flake tools B. Polished Stone-Tools (ca. 8,000-500 B.C.) >early polished tools >late polished tools

PRIMITIVE CULTURE>They use stone in hunting animals like pygmy elephant (gadya) and rhinoceros.

A. Early Stone-Tools >Cagayan Valley, Northern Philippines (200,000 years ago) but no human fossils. >pebble/cobble tools These are made from rolled river stones, they are crudely shaped into pointed instruments, and used to obtain the marrow of large bones or breaking up the skull of an elephant for its brain.

>flake tools - They are smaller stones with sharp edges, used to skin bagged animals or to scrape wooden objects to form digging sticks or spears.

B. Polished Stone-Tools >early polished tools - Tools during the early phase of this development included roughly flaked tools, with ground blades or cutting edges. At this time, only the cutting edges were polished. Our ancestors found this innovation efficient and effective in harnessing the environment for survival.

>late polished tools The next to appear were the oval-shaped, cross-section tools with bodies and blades that were ground and polished.

II. CERAMICS INDUSTRY(ca. 1,500 B.C.) A. Method of Manufacturing B. Pottery Types C. Jar Coffins

A. Method of Manufacturing >The process of pottery making involved kneading, molding, drying, and firing. >Fine sand was plastered around the pots before drying as additional material. >The whole process was initially done by hand. >Later paddles made of wood were used to achieve the desired shape.

B. Pottery Types >Some pots are plain, others were decorated, others were varnished probably with almaciga. >Simple flat-bottom bowls were common. >Different forms were known, these included numerous chalice and goblet-like wares.

C. Jar Coffins>Early ceramics, particularly jars, were associated with burial practices before they were used for other purposes. >Archeological materials recovered in many parts of the country reveal two types of burials practices; primary and secondary.

Manunggul JarLife after Death >that soul was immortal

III. OTHER ECONOMIC ACTIVITIESA. Foraging and Gathering B. Hunting and Fishing >use of fire C. Horticulture

A. Foraging and Gathering

B. Hunting and Fishing

> Our ancestors were also >They roamed around great hunters. the nearby forests, >The most common streams, rivers, and technique was stalking seashores looking for and ambush. food. >They were also >It was a simple type fishermen. Their technique of existence. was simple, they caught >They were part of fish either by hand or by their surrounding world, spearing with pointed the original nature sticks. lovers.

Use of Fire >A piece of charcoal was found 30,000 years ago in the archipelago. >How fire was discovered is not known. But many archeological sites, dated as early as 5,000 BC, have yielded empty edible shells mixed with charcoal, indicating the use of fire in preparing food. In fact, it is apparently due to the use of fire that other complexities in group life were formed.

C. Horticulture >Archeologists argue that agriculture developedabout the later part of the Formative Phase. It was during this time that other plants (like tubers) and animals (like pigs and chickens) were domesticated for carbohydrates and protein respectively. >Agriculture was horticultural. Small patches of soil close to the campsites were planted with edible crops thereby assuring early men of food, lessening their long tiring travels >As this took place, the people became semisedentary. They moves about hunting and gathering only during certain seasons of the year.