Forgeinbody airway obstruction
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DefinitionChoking is defined as A foreign object that is stuck in the pharynx (back of the throat) or trachea (windpipe) that causes a blockage of or muscular spasm in the airway.
incidence Choking is a risk whenever food is consumed. A US study suggests an incidence of death due to FBAO of 0.66 per 100,000 population.An Australian study found incidence of foreign body asphyxia under-15 shows a rate of 15.1 per 100,000 per annum, peaking in those aged under one and then gradually declining to low levels by 3 yr old
Risk factorsOld agePoor dentitionAlcohol consumptionChronic /debilitatating diseaseSedation
A higher risk with soft/slick foods.Agomphiasis (absence of teeth).Neurological impairment
D/DAnaphylaxsisSyncopeMyocardial infractionseizureRecognition recognition is the key to successful outcome it is important to ask the conscious victim "Are you choking?" This at least gives the victim who is unable to speak the opportunity to respond by nodding!
Consider the diagnosis of choking particularly if:Episode occurs whilst eating, and onset was very sudden.Adult victim - may clutch his or her neck, or points to throat.Child victim - there may be clues, eg seen eating or playing with small items just before onset of symptoms
Assess severityMild obstruction:The patient is able to breathe, cough effectively and speak.Children are fully responsive, crying or verbally respond to questions, may have loud cough (and able to take a breath before coughing).
Severe obstructionunable to breathe or speak.Wheezy breath sounds.Attempts at coughing are quiet or silent.Cyanosisand diminishing conscious level (particularly in children).Victim unconscious.
10CHOKING MANAGEMENTThe treatment of the choking patient involves removing any visible foreign bodies from the mouth and pharynx.
Encourage the patient to cough if conscious. If they are unable to cough but remain conscious then sharp back blows should be given. These can be followed by abdominal thrusts if the foreign body has not been dislodged.
If the patient becomes unconscious, CPR should be started. This will not only provide circulatory support but the pressure generated within the chest by performing chest compressions may help to dislodge the foreign body.11mild obstruction :Adults encourage the patient to continue coughing, but do nothing else except monitor for deterioration.
severe obstruction: conscious patientStand to the side and slightly behind the victim, support the chest with one hand and lean the victim well forwards (so that the obstructing object comes out of the mouth rather than going further down the airway).Give up to five sharp back blows between the shoulder blades with the heel of other hand (checking after each if the obstruction has been relieved).
If unsuccessful, give up to five abdominal thrusts. Stand behind the victim (who is leaning forward) put both arms around the upper abdomen and clench one fist, grasp it with the other hand and pull sharply inwards and upwards.Continue alternating five back blows and five abdominal thrusts until successful or the patient become unconsciousness .
Severe obstruction : unconcious patientBegin CPR (even if a pulse is present in the unconscious choking victim).
CHOKING :CHILDREN (1 year old to puberty): Symptoms and Signs The patient may develop cough. They may complain of difficulty breathing. Breathing may become noisy with wheeze (usually aspiration) or stridor (usually upper airway obstruction). They may develop paradoxical chest or abdominal movements. They may become cyanosed and lose consciousness.16childrenIf coughing effectively, just encourage the child to cough, and monitor continuously.If coughing is, or is becoming, ineffective, assess the child's conscious level.If the child is conscious, give up to five back blows, followed by five chest thrusts to infants or five abdominal thrusts to children (repeat the sequence until the obstruction is relieved or the patient becomes unconscious)
For children back blows and abdominal thrusts:
Blows to the back are more effective if the child is positioned head down. A small child can be placed across the lap as with an infant. If this is not possible, support the child in a forward-leaning position.Deliver up to five sharp back blows with the heel of one hand in the middle of the back between the shoulder blades.
After five unsuccessful back blows, abdominal thrusts may be used in children over 1 year old:Stand or kneel behind the child, placing arms around torso. Placed clenched fist between the umbilicus and xiphisternum (ensuring no pressure is applied to either landmark).Grasp this hand with your other hand and pull sharply inwards and upwards, repeating up to 5 times.
If the child becomes unconscious, place him or her on a flat, firm surface . Open the mouth and look for any obvious object. If one is seen, make an attempt to remove it with a single finger sweep (don't do blind finger sweeps).If unsuccessful, begin CPR as for paediatricbasic life support,beginning with five rescue breaths, checking for rise and fall of the chest each time (reposition the head each time if a breath does not make the chest rise, before making the next attempt).
For infants (